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MARKETING TO CHILDREN:
AN ANALYSIS OF ITS IMPACT
AND APPLICATION TO SELLING
HEALTH BEHAVIORS

INTRODUCTION

Stated in the 1995 report of the Committee on Communications to the
American Academy of the Pediatrics is a queer fact: "In 1750 BC, the Code
of Hammurabi made it a crime, punishable by death, to sell anything to a
child without first obtaining a power of attorney. In the 1990s, selling
products to American children has become a standard business practice."

Throughout the years, marketing to children has become a trend.
Numerous giant corporations have taken over the young population as
consumers. They targeted a wide range of commercial commodities and
services to the children, including clothing lines, food products, school
supplies, gadgets, and toys, among others. These corporations in the United
States spend more than an accumulated amount of 12 billion dollars every
year for marketing strategies directed to children. Compared to expenditures
ten years ago, this amount has increased to more than twenty times. Why
shouldn't they want to focus their efforts to children? Various studies have
shown that altogether, children as consumers have the greatest market
potential than any other demographic group.

The vastness of the influence that the children have in the marketing
world can be described through grouping them into three types of consumer
markets: Firstly, they are a primary market, having their own money to
spend out of their own volition. In the United States, it was estimated that
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This case was written by Reulyssa A. Peralta under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Hartigan-Go, Asian
Institute of Management – Dr. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation. Special
acknowledgement also for the guidance of Mr. Harold Grande of the Asian Institute of Management and
Ms. Maya Estrada of . All case materials are prepared solely for the purpose of class discussion. They are
neither designed nor intended to illustrate the correct or incorrect management of problems or issues
contained in the case.

Copyright 2012, Asian Institute of Management – Dr. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business
Transformation, Makati City, Philippines, http://www.aim.edu. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a report or spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by
any means - electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise - without the consent of the
Asian Institute of Management - Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation. To order
copies, interested parties must secure a Site License Agreement from the Knowledge Resource Center -
Library Casebank, AIM, 123 Paseo de Roxas, Makati City 1260, Philippines, Tel. No. (632) 892-4011 local
164/214/212; Telefax: (632) 817-2663 or e-mail krc@aim.edu.

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Marketing to Children 2

23.4 billion dollars were spent directly by children, mostly through their
pocket money and allowances. This amount was quoted more than a decade
ago, and the rate was observed to be steadily increasing at an estimated 15-
20% every year, still excluding the independent purchases made by
teenagers, which may have their part-time jobs. Even in a study conducted
in the Philippines during the year 1995, it has been shown that Filipino
children represent a substantial segment of the consumer market in terms of
their individual needs, with a significant fraction also coming from the
children's personal money.

Secondarily and most significantly, they are an influence market.
Children were said to possess the 'pester power' or 'kidfluence' which are
modern terms referring to the child as an important role-player on the
decision-making process of the family, especially on the choice of consumer
goods and services. Studies have shown that the expenses incurred by the
family generally through this type of market are ten times bigger than that
incurred from the primary market. By 2010, Marketing Week estimated the
children’s global purchasing influence to be upwards of $1.88 trillion.

Lastly, they are viewed as the future market for all goods and services,
which will provide a steady stream of new customers when they reach the
market age for a particular commodity. Children were targeted and
bombarded with all sorts of brand names at the earliest ages, so as to
acquire brand loyalty or promised consumerism in the preceding years. Thus
is the importance and the coverage of potential consumers when marketing
strategies are targeted to children.

Moreover, numerous and seemingly simple circumstances during the
last decade were seen to be simple, yet very powerful forces which paved the
way for the increase in the rate of consumption of children's commodities
throughout the years. For the last decade, there has been an increase in the
number of households with both of the parents working and earning money
for the family. This, most commonly, equates to additional money for the
family than before, so luxuries such as entertainment and designer items can
now be afforded. With both parents away from home, children are usually left
on their own, and the responsibility for consumption decisions is ingrained
earlier in them than with other kids having more parental supervision. These
types of children are also the ones more vulnerable to succumb to peer
influences and commercial advertisements, and thus, become early primary
consumers. Another important implication usually observed is the perceived
'guilt factor' of the working parents. Since they rarely have time to spend
with their children, they try to compensate the lost time through provision to
the kids of more entertainment, gadgets, food, and pocket money for them
to freely spend. Such are termed the latch-key kids. It has also been a trend
that working parents, in response to being frequently out of the house, set
schedules for 'bonding' moments or time spent exclusively with their kids.
This is usually done through trips to the consumer havens: shopping malls

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Marketing to Children 3

and theme parks. The role of grandparents in the increase of consumerism of
children is also quite significant, especially if the parents are usually not
around. They indulge the children with whatever childhood pleasures they
can contribute to. All of the aforementioned situations are also applicable for
single parents.

For career-oriented individuals, of which number is highest in the
urban areas, the decision of having children come later than the others.
Therefore, when the child arrives, it would be given the utmost importance -
needs would be tended and wants would be graciously provided. Studies
have also shown that the increase in the divorce rates particularly in the
United States may be a contributing factor to the progress of the market,
since the resulting child would most probably be given combination of gifts
and pocket money from the two separate families, usually amounting to
more than what is received by a child from a non-splintered household.

The rise in the number and types of mass media technology being
developed and distributed worldwide has now grown to be the most
important and most frequently utilized in marketing strategies for children.
Approximately twenty-five percent of preschool-aged kids in the United
States have televisions in their own rooms, and the estimated watching time,
in average, is for two hours each day. Annually, an American child sees forty-
thousand television commercials. A study in Stanford University has
correlated the children's demands for specific consumer items with the time
they spent in front of the television. In China, it was also noted in a study
during the year 1998 that the television is a more influential source of
information than the parents. With the success of advertising schemes using
television, radio, and print ads, companies have also being exerting efforts to
expand to social networking sites and hand-held devices such as smart
phones, of which younger kids are now being able to utilize, and may have
already overtaken the television as their most valuable form of
entertainment.

As Walt Disney once stated, "The child's mind is like a blank book. The
quality of writing during its first years would affect its life profoundly." With
their limited cognitive abilities and capacity for abstract reasoning, coupled
with their very high degree of curiosity, children are said to take the greatest
impact from advertising schemes. There have been numerous studies
showing that children under the age of eight cannot distinguish commercial
ads from regular television programming, and also, unable to understand the
intent of advertisements. As a result, they easily accept the claims made by
the commercial advertisements as the valid truth.

Jean Piaget contributed much to the study of the development stages
of a child's cognitive abilities. Based on this foundation, later researches
discovered the points that would make a highly effective advertisement
based on the child’s level of cognitive ability: First, it must be simplified, and

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Marketing to Children 4

second, it must contain as much visual information as possible, because of
the child’s ability for simple analyses and comprehension. Lastly, it must be
repeated adequately for effective retention of the message. Intensive
research is an absolute necessity. These contributed much to the success of
television shows such as Blue’s Clues and Sesame Street. Consultations with
child psychologists, children, and the family should be done. Research and
development, and evaluation of the existing marketing strategies are
absolute necessities. While this is a great strategy, this could also expose all
of the child’s vulnerability, while the companies helplessly trap them into
buying the consumer products. Whatever strategy is used, it should not be
forgotten that advertisements have the primary aim of selling merchandise,
so even if advertising regulations and policies are in place to protect the well-
being of the child, the primary protection must be initiated by the family
through proper guidance of the child. The family should be the ones
responsible in instilling the proper consumer values to the child.

With all these in mind, the marketing strategies targeted to children,
together with the evolving life situations and technology at present, should
be further analyzed in order to fully understand the implications they have
for the child. These implications should be noted and manipulated so as to be
used to affect positive behavioral changes, rather than the bad.

Two companies have set trends in marketing to children, and their
marketing strategies would be thoroughly discussed in the preceding pages.
The first one is an international company that has mastered the art of kid’s
entertainment through various media. The second is a local company which
has successfully catered to the Filipino children’s palates. Knowledge of their
history, exemplary strategies, and the critics’ opinion of them, hopefully,
could provide lessons in marketing social behaviors to the children.

Marketing to children has its downsides, too, especially when marketed
through the media. Its implications are enumerated in the hopes that in the
future, definite ways of dealing with them would be crafted. With this, it is of
equal importance to present the existing policies and regulations of the
Advertising Board of the Philippines regarding the marketing strategies to the
children.

Social marketing is an important strategy that must be learned by
public health professionals. By taking examples and applying concepts of
commercial marketing to selling public health messages, the efficiency of
delivery of social commodities, especially for the children, is anticipated to
have greater impact.

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AIM Dr. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012

” and “Bambi” during the next few years. INC. and its never-ending quest for growth. and later on. which provides online games.” “Pinocchio. they also launched the Interactive Media Group. primarily. which produced “Oswald the Lucky Rabbit”. Its fame paved the way for the first Disney-branded consumer product released in 1927: a child’s writing tablet embedded with Mickey Mouse’s image. and he was extremely successful with the “Treasure Island” ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Walt Disney was born in Chicago. Disney planned to produce full-length animation films and produced the classic movies: “Snow White and the Seven Dwarves. In spite of having highly successful animation flicks. Walt Disney went to Hollywood. as the most influential man of the twentieth century. Recently. During the later years. Live action films are his next venture. Despite the immense creativity of the staff. In less than ten years in Hollywood. cruise lines. With Walt’s creativity. movies and animated films. the Walt Disney Corporation has in its assets a number of cable networks (ESPN. with the Mouse as a national symbol. Beginning in the late 1920s and accelerating through the decades. also the research and development strategies of the company. the Disney Brothers were a domestic name. Walt Disney has been known. their signature character: “Mickey Mouse. five Disneyland parks and resorts located all over the globe. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 5 DISNEY. His deep interest in art was noticed in a very early age. the Disney Music Groups and Theatrical Productions.” “Dumbo. Disney Channels Worldwide. and other services. and Roy’s business strategies. Illinois on 1901. arguably. tour packages. One of the strengths that the Disney Corporation has is its capacity to evolve. Mickey Mouse’s friends were also created by the same studio. In addition to this. He first established the “Laugh-O-Gram Films” which produced the highly successfully series “Alice Comedies”. the Disney Brothers established their own studio. distributed and consumed all over the world. Disney also has the Imagineering Department which takes care of the training and support services. it is not surprising that the Disney corporation is known as one of the largest in the world. the company has in its hands one of the widest variety of consumer items and services. six domestic television stations. and a huge line of branded Disney Consumer Products. all popularized Disney characters where branded into a huge line of Disney Consumer Products. the multifaceted company has produced. Such is also evident during its early years. Disney vacation clubs. information about their product and service offerings.” During the following years. stores. ABC Family. among others. Instead of accepting defeat. With all these possessions. As of 2011. and SOAPnet networks).” “Fantasia. the company declared bankruptcy after a short period of time.

that the corporation’s activities reinforce ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. While it was inspired by the typical carnivals. Disney also expanded into this field. and everyone can have the chance to be a lovely princess. with its success. defines childhood innocence. These are his signature products. It provides hope. it gives them a feeling of nostalgia. During the latter years. and strengthens moral values and self-worth. WDIG launched ‘Toontown’. When Internet has finally been within the grasp of children. Moreover.” Television started to become popular and Disney penetrated this field as well. and immense talent. the Internet. The first one was constructed in Anaheim. Disneyland was designed to be a place for the whole family. In addition. His stories are also about protagonists seeking self-identity and self-worth. an enticing subject for all ages. and. Disney owns a vast quantity of businesses. from local and international television stations. Branded with the Disney logo are toys. As mentioned earlier. producing his own television shows. Around the year 2000. subsequent ones were built in different areas of the world. the Disney Consumer Products have a very extensive range of product lines. It entered into agreements with 22 global telecommunications companies around the world. and it is known as one of the biggest media moguls in the world. They have penetrated all types of mass media. an collaborative online game. These are what made his products pure and simply irresistible. During the 1990s. clothing. The Walt Disney Music Company and company’s own Art School were also established. Disney started its wireless initiatives. hard work. While carnivals were known to be a place enjoyed by kids while parents wait idly on the sidelines. Disney aimed to ‘bring dreams into life. Disney marketed dreams and childhood innocence. It is an escape from reality. namely: Florida. aside from its vastly successful entertainment value. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 6 and “Mary Poppins. Later on. California. especially for a child. Paris. even food. and Hongkong. For the adults. the Walt Disney Internet Group (WDIG) was created. domestic and international television channels were also acquired. it gives space for its imagination to run wild. It is now powerful enough to be a component of the culture we live in. It is known to provide ‘clean’ entertainment. and this launched several internet-based businesses and applications. which parents love and certainly endorse to the kids. genies and fairies can grant wishes. Tokyo. he was able to transform dreams into reality. Disney is everywhere. so subscribers would be able to receive a huge range of offerings for Disney items and services. Walt Disney conceived the plans and personally supervised the construction of the very first Disneyland Theme Park. All of these are what explains its unique charm. and of course. Disney also banked on the promotion of moral conduct in most of his movies. For the child. school supplies. etc. record media. Simply put. It was mentioned in the Advertising Age by the CEO of Disney himself in 1989. market viability. into a place where animals can talk. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 .’ With his painstaking obsession for details.

it comes as to no surprise that Disney has such a powerful consumer effect among the children and the family. Its film-making strategy involved the use of highly-innovative computer graphics. Walt and Roy Disney. films. and consumer products targeted to specific age groups. during the decades of 70’s and 80’s. Therefore. which are now globally implemented. while Disney was able to promote their films and Disney characters. McDonald’s was able to incorporate fun and play into their foods. The company’s research and development strategies paved way for creation of television shows. or the pre-teen population. school programs. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 7 each other. "The Disney Stores promote the consumer products which promote the [theme] parks which promote the television shows. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Brandweek. Partnerships and outsourcing is highly inevitable for the success of giant corporations such as Disney. During the late 80’s. while Disney was able to produce highly successful movies. as Pixar was provided with access to distribution and marketing. the knowledge and influence of the adult population is also very beneficial to their success.” which is further reinforced by its consumer products. Steve Jobs established the Pixar studio. With Disney’s animation division lagging behind that of Pixar. it was acquired in 2005 by Disney for ten billion dollars. Disney has made a commitment to promote good healthy eating habits for kids through a wide array of means. However. Its partnership with Pixar is not its only successful partnership strategy. Adjustments in leadership and shifts in goals caused confusion in the corporation. The death of the Disney brothers. respectively." Disney knows that in targeting children. not excluding those in which there are only adult participants. The television shows promote the company. from Toy Story movies to Finding Nemo. with shows and movies such as Hannah Montana. which consistently featured Disney’s creations for their Happy Meals. Lizzie Mcguire and the High School Musical. During the last decade. During the past decade. with its creativity and unique methods already starting to attract attention. the corporation has been using social advocacies to promote itself. Nutritional guidelines were set. it set the trend for marketing to the ‘tween’. Throughout the years.” Disney enjoys the privilege of taking part in such a “media oligopoly. It consists of a rather small group of artists. focusing on a small number of projects with meticulously-written script. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . The industry publication. they still do not have enough means to market and distribute its films. Recently. The company also has been especially active in hosting events such as tournaments. and a variety of other events. and certainly took a toll on their creative efforts and succeeding outputs. explains: "Disney has started hosting events to try to appeal to everyone from empty nesters and senior citizens to honeymooners and post- college singles. resulted to the alleged Dark Ages of Disney. Disney has been partnering up with fast food chains such as McDonald’s. Its collaboration with Disney was mutually beneficial.

as part of this campaign. But even so. through serving nutritious pre- bundled kids’ meals in the parks. Recently. Regulation of foods served in the theme parks aimed to serve healthier options to the children. and cognitive skills. television must be avoided for children less than two years of age. they specifically mentioned that: ‘Babies and toddlers need direct interactions with parents and other significant caregivers for healthy brain growth and development of appropriate social. it was proposed. THE BAD SIDE: The large number of protests and criticisms over the offerings of the Disney Corporation is a testament that all directives towards children must be thoroughly analyzed before offering them to public. Conspicuous labels were put in Disney food products in order to highlight nutritional facts for shoppers. Nothing seems to be wrong when the Baby Einstein videos were adopted by Disney as one of their consumer products. according to these critics. Imagination Farms were founded to serve and to engage farms in producing fruits and other organics under the Disney Garden brand. instead of personally teaching and spending time with them. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . language. It could even be detrimental to the learning process of very young children. and now implemented. that at least one episode of each series in Disney production has a healthy lifestyle theme. This is considered to be one of the first educational materials using video that is targeted to children under the age of two. through enhanced methods in the development of speech. In their program. do not teach anything significant to the children.’ and based on its name. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 8 Nutritional portfolios of foods were branded with Disney characters. as it was mentioned earlier. According to the recommendations set but the American Academy of Pediatrics. “The Disney Magic of Healthy Living. After the complaint.’ The videos could even provide means for some working parents to consort to having the babies to watch Baby Einstein. backlash must still be expected and appropriate responses should be made accordingly. the Baby Einstein videos. In addition. Thus. which are perceived to be the most vulnerable of all the population groups. they also launched programs in support not only to child’s nutrition but to healthy living. This is where the problem started. Another advocacy that the corporation made is its denouncement of cigarette-smoking. since the target population is composed of the children. despite the company’s claims. and math skills of the children. the company made ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. They announced that Disney will no longer feature smoking in any of its movies.” they focused on the benefits of physical activity and exercise for kids. Thus. Its product offerings include educational materials designed for infants and toddlers. They are said to be ‘created from a baby’s point-of-view. All Disney Parks and Resorts committed to offer only healthy options to the children. emotional. it initially promised to create geniuses out of the babies.

The effects of the subliminal messages are still unclear for psychologists. this could lead to damage to its reputation. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 .’ and ‘The Lion King’. They know that its innovativeness overpowered theirs. Another problem with Disney is its immense number of acquired assets. including television channels or shows not specifically directed to children. were allegedly placed purposefully by Disney into their movies. this is one of the reasons why Disney partnered with. Disney vehemently denied the allegations. Disney has stuck with its ‘clean. globalization. However. is now being gradually replaced into a motive full of schemes for pure money-making venture and conquest for more control and power.’ ‘Alladin. and capitalism are indeed very successful. Subliminal messages. has also been disintegrating instead of improving. such as ‘The Little Mermaid. ABC marketed itself as a family-centered network. according to him. consisting of obscene words and images. while the company was able to refute the attacks of their protestors. The Disney Consumer Products released dolls of the Disney Princesses during the early 2000s. and the use of alcohol and drugs have been used. Its acquisition of ABC. Throughout the years. The corresponding significance and influence to the audience’s behavior change of these subliminal messages must be given further studies. They say that these consumer items encourage materialism and luxurious fantasies to little girls. nephew of Walt Disney. Disney’s strategies for commodification. The messages relayed by these can be conflicting with children’s values. their products are still being distributed. but reportedly. According to them. also made considerable noise. the quality of Disney films. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 9 major modifications on its promotion and marketing strategies. They used their ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. However. homosexuality. too much effort for commercialization of the company during the past decade is killing the magic of Disney. or else. child-friendly looks’ for its decades of existence. Marketing these toys also pushed critics to sign their protests against Disney. Walt’s ulterior motive of providing pure entertainment for the children. themes related to violence. has earned them numerous criticisms. particularly in their claims. premarital sex. and the quality of shows the channel continues to air. disciplinary actions were filed against the creators of the cartoons with the questionable messages. with groups even filing lawsuits against Disney. according to the protesters. However. and that no studies have been proven that these types of toys do permanent damage to a child. pro-Disney counterparts say that their allegations are far-fetched. according to some critics. This is directly exposing the child to things and themes that are detrimental to its values. innocent. acquired Pixar. However. and also a past CEO. Initially. The issues of subliminal messages in several Disney films. A company for children should stay true to its goals and remain child-friendly in all of its ventures. according to Roy Disney. and later on.

this would be the pure. Stagnancy signifies the death of the company. strategies successfully done by Disney are within the following principle: (1) A successful company never fails to evolve. unadulterated type of entertainment it has since provided. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. That is now their vision: to continue ruling the world with their media. (4) Partnership strategy is important. As mentioned. (5) Social advocacy is a helpful way in refreshing a company’s image. if you can’t beat them. (2) A brand is necessary. products that satisfy multiple needs attract a greater number of consumers. However. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Also. There is strength and more market viability in numbers. It is one that should set it apart from its competitors. this must be in place while retaining the successful characteristic of the brand. They must be open to modify their strategies based on the changing needs of the target population and the existing technology available. Disney’s brand is innocent fun and pure entertainment value. For Disney. (3) Ubiquity of the consumer products is a necessity. join them. As it was said. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 10 supremacy to control and own whatever competition that may appear. No other company has beaten the quality and value of Disney movies. In summary.

He refused to do so. Around the globe. By the end of 2011. they customized the menu and the flavor of the Western-influenced foods. Jollibee has grown to be the most dominant fast food restaurant in the country. Tony Tan founded his own franchise. Palabok. Despite having been modeled from American fast food chains and serving Western foods. it was operating an accumulated number of 2. Shanghai rice. so he named it Jollibee. Around this time. Their hamburgers and fried chickens were made tastier through the use of Filipino soy and spices. Jollibee imitated and made innovations on all the strong points of McDonald’s. Mang Inasal. Tan that it would be more practical to give up Jollibee and instead. It was said to be one of the only local fast food chains in the world that easily toppled the sales and popularity of the internationally-successful McDonald’s and KFC. earning tons of respect and accolades. Its trademark recipe for spaghetti is much sweeter than the traditional ones. the menu of Jollibee was seen to provide ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. They incorporated the Filipino taste. Jollibee still retained obvious evidences of its Filipino heritage. and excellent management and marketing strategies over the past three decades not only in the local scene.001 stores in the country consisting of Jollibee and its subsidiary stores: Greenwich. With its acquisition of various other businesses. More than 25 years later. McDonald’s. a Filipino noodle dish. children is primarily targeted by Jollibee. giving much consideration to the preferences of the Filipino children. including the Chicken Barbecue. Red Ribbon. Other Filipino meals were also included in their menu. the Jollibee Foods Corporation (JFC) group was established. yet never losing the perspective for good times and fun. the internationally-acclaimed fast food chain. and Burger King. It has been awarded numerous times as one of the highest achieving companies in Asia by the Far Eastern Economic Review and the Asian Wall Street Journal. It is easily the Philippines’ largest restaurant network. above all its counterparts and competitions. It was suggested to Mr. vision. This quality is what put Jollibee on its pedestal. This signature sweet flavor popularized by Jollibee is now known as the Filipino- style spaghetti. Through this. and Fried Bangus Belly. remains to be one of their most popular products. have just entered the Philippine market. however. among others. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . which is certainly a hit for children and adults alike. invest his money for a McDonald’s franchise. His vision is of a company of hard-working individuals. it has been highly praised as one of the top twenty leading fast food chains in the world. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 11 JOLLIBEE It was in 1975 that Mr. JFC has been awarded and commended for its financial soundness. but even outside the Philippines. and believed in the power of his brand. Like McDonald’s. it has over 400 stores. Recently.

Later on. with those of the foreigners? Another element that contributed much to the success of Jollibee is the fun ambience emanated for the children and the whole family. respect for authority. which was declared to be more child-friendly than Roger McDonald’s. when it started the nationwide toy drive “Ma-AGA ang Pasko sa Jollibee” (Christmas is early at Jollibee). another advocacy program was launced: “Sabi ng ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. The corporation realizes that a friendly set of staff would complement the corporation’s goal for a restaurant that could foster a cheerful atmosphere. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Jollibee is also a multi-awarded employer. Jollibee’s party packages were also a hit among kids. the famous Jollibee characters were also used for a television show for children entitled “Jollytown. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 12 options for the whole family. for examples. In 1997. JollySpaghetti. Product names were modified and branded into childish names for easy retention: Yum. Their meals were priced a little less than the cost for McDonald’s. alike. Jollibee created the other mascots. it has produced a number of television commercials. The corporation is also known to be one of the first businesses in the Philippines to realize the vast power of mass media advertising. and Jolly Twirl. At most occasions. the show typically teaches good moral conduct to the kids. However. All restaurants have been painted with bright colors and designed innovatively.” Besides promoting their products. but also. with the Filipino version of Western foods not faring well enough with foreigners. which was again. they need to improve on: How to incorporate the Filipino palates they are an expert on. A family-like atmosphere at work is what they aim for. Social advocacies have also been a powerful marketing strategy of Jollibee since 1995. in response to the highly successful television advertisements of McDonald’s and other brand names abroad. Starting with the big bee. its expansion to other countries was not so successful. ChickenJoy. for children and their parents. to maintain a happy disposition for everyone. there was a time when every Jollibee store has a children’s play area. Since then. to socialize with other children. Jollibee developed its own group of mascots. In addition. the program has been widely recognized and supported by DSWD and other organizations. All employees receive extensive training so that corporate values of humility. they dwelled on the theme of children and their relationship with the Filipino family. This. Twirlie for the ice cream. and Hetty for the Spaghetti. representing some of their famous food products on sale: Yum for the hamburger. and integrity would be instilled to them. Throughout the years. so children do not only go to Jollibee to eat. Popo for the fries. Good taste and better cost-efficiency made for a dashing winning strategy. Jollibee stores abroad still have Filipinos as their primary consumers. Branded toys and other commodities in response to the popularity of the mascots were released.

With their partners. There has also been a movie entitled “Supersized Me” which is a documentary that demonstrated how McDonald’s ‘evil’ foods can induce unhealthiness for people of all ages. With these social advocacies. an entrepreneurship program was developed. Social. French fries and hash browns. This is interesting. The Issues Regarding Food Advertising: The harshest criticisms being thrown to fast food restaurants are about the seemingly low nutritional values of the food products they serve. they partnered with Gawad-Kalinga in the nourishment of their villages. Kid!” This program particularly aims to inspire Filipino children by showing them examples of positive values and providing a platform to use their talents and express their creativity through drawing and painting contests. as well as the whole Filipino population has been branded by the bee. the Filipino children. and strong management of its financial resources. especially targeting the Filipino children. A mid-90s market study found that nearly 100% of respondents in the Philippines knew about the Jollibee brand. For agriculture. they advocated for tree-planting and nurturing programs. It also serves the deep-fried chicken. and salt content of the food products they sell. soft drinks. There were also a very visible help in calamities. is the Philippine’s Mickey Mouse. There have been books and news articles about the danger of fast food items. yet not surprisingly. and ice cream. Kaya Mo. McDonald’s has been attacked numerous times because of the high calorie. A study done by the Nippon Foundation in Japan on 2005 entitled “Globalization of Fatness: Cultural. school feeding and scholarships were given out. knowing that Jollibee has patterned most of its products on McDonald’s. the corporation has finally established the Jollibee Foundation. In the Philippines. however. Amazingly. burgers. trans fat. analyzing and comparing their consumer characteristics when it comes to fast foods and its corresponding relationship to some health factors. For housing and development. at any point of their life. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . which aims to provide community service. it was only in the Philippines that there was a 100% positive answer when they were asked if they have consumed. they are doing endeavors on several fields: For education. there have been no such demonstrations that have occurred against our favorite fast food restaurant. creative manipulation of its philosophies. indeed. a product from the country’s most popular fast food ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Jollibee. By the year 2005. and Economic Perception of Obesity in Southeast Asia”. Lastly. In the United States. included Philippines in its list of respondents. all of which can be rich and more than sufficient sources of sugar and calories. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 13 Jollibee.

so the implications of these to health and other aspects should be thoroughly inspected and evaluated. Studies have shown that food advertisements significantly affect the children’s preference of food products. children were said to typically view one food commercial every five minutes. or 20% of all the respondents were observed to be underweight. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . a value that has consistently increased during the past years. The largest quantity of obese children was seen in Metro Manila and the nearby provinces. However. the children choose sweets and junk foods over fruits. 5% was seen to be obese. or the lack thereof. During the 2011 National Nutrition Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute.5 million Filipinos are suffering from malnutrition. Most especially. which maybe. Through the promotional stints. the respondents from the Philippines also garnered the highest average Body Mass Index. generalizing food advertising as a direct proponent for the children’s poor eating habits is still an exaggeration and needs further studies. the nutritional value of the foods being distributed by Jollibee must be given further analysis since they are targeting their marketing efforts towards family and children. Various environmental factors. does not fit well into ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. no response was received. the Philippines also has a double burden of malnutrition. While some nutritionists argue that children need calories that are provided more than sufficiently by fast food restaurants. an intervention for the rising problem of obesity must also be formulated by authorities. and a reward for self. It is also a way of socialization and status symbol. while the same could not be said for Jollibee. can also be significant influences for this. Results also stated that Filipino respondents frequented fast food outlets more than any other respondents from other countries. but unfortunately. The writer personally sent an electronic message to Jollibee requesting for the nutritional value sheet. In a study done in the US. and Jollibee. The commercial value of fast food businesses in the Philippines is unquestionably high. compared with Malaysia and Thailand. thus provided a positive correlation between the rate and frequency of fast food consumption to the BMI. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 14 restaurant. Added to this is the fact that health and proper nutrition are being taught as early as in the elementary schools. It is disheartening that McDonald’s has the nutritional value sheet of all its products made available for public. 2 out of 10 children. which in the Philippine’s case. relieving from stress. Because of food advertisements. However. it was estimated that 3. Manila was regarded as having the most number of fast food outlets than any other city in Southeast Asia. Like in other developing countries. food is also presented as more than just a mean of satisfying hunger and staying healthy. and they are on the opposite sides of the scale. such as the family habits and physical activities. with the types of food they serve. The food products are also generally cheaper as compared to the other countries in study. can explain the high rate and frequency of consumption. is Jollibee.

also similar to Disney. Foods being served by Jollibee and the other fast food companies are usually belonging to the upper portion of the Food Pyramid. it evolves. but modifying the ingredients and preparation of the much-loved. As Jollibee is also posing itself as a Foundation committed to providing proper nutrition for the kids. Jollibee and the likes should be able to present more nutritionally-aesthetic meals to avoid any future backlash and widespread criticism on their products. Its customized flavor and their ability to provide options for different age demographic are very good marketing strategies. Flavorful food is their primary selling product. However. they should also be able to provide a healthier menu for the children. it focuses not only to the child but to the whole family. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Its flexibility and innovativeness is also accountable to its success. It caters a fun atmosphere. and meat. Minor modifications might be in place. the importance of ensuring the safety and the ability to satiate the daily nutritional needs of a child is also very important so that criticisms and future backlashes would be avoided that could possibly be detrimental to their business. or their other popular food products. deep-fried ChickenJoy. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . oil. improves. They promote the importance of the family relationship. This equates to requirement of smaller servings per day. to give way for meals comprised of more fruits and vegetables would mean a definite loss in their sales. as they are selling food products. while the larger ones should be reserved for fruits and vegetables. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 15 the ‘ideal food model’ as taught in schools. being rich in saturated sugar. and tries venturing into diverse fields in marketing their products. Lastly. Nevertheless. Like Disney. yet also. this is far from happening. which are usually lacking in fast food meals. Jollibee’s philosophical motives can be summed up in 5F’s: Friendliness of the staff and the place itself attracts customers.

commodities should have a degree of ‘kidness’ in them. Retailers or stores that handle products also play an important role in the success of the children’s commodities. For marketing products especially designed for children. Price. Publicity was said to be the most effective. more popularly known as the 4P’s of marketing. especially among a group of kids. may be through magazines and resource speakers signifying the products’ credibility. Methods usually for promoting child commodities come in all sorts of classes: (1) Promotions using mass media and print ads. is a set of interrelated variables by which a company set its strategies towards a particular target group. In the Philippines. Usually. one-to- five peso bite-sized snacks are very popular among elementary pupils. In analyzing marketing strategies for children. which are able to comprehend the usefulness of the services. and the use of vending machines for children’s sweets and other products have also been prevalent and likewise. It can also be something that would improve the child’s self-esteem and identity. successful. It is so strong that children. usually through athletic competitions and other school activities. the marketing mix should not be ignored. this is the ‘fun’ or entertainment factor of the commercial product. With children as the target group. Place. Retailing in child- prone areas like schools an shopping malls. among children and parents. sometimes. (3) Event developments. so incorporating this unique characteristic is a must. the following marketing mix is typically and especially used by the corporations. so that they would not only be inviting to the parents. a quality that distinguishes or makes it unique from adults’ items. Price. Promotions inform customers and persuade them to buy. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 16 THE MARKETING MIX: Marketing mix. storekeepers or service crew who are child-friendly. Health services do not usually tip high on the ‘kidness’ scale.’ and this strategy has been used widely by marketers to attract children customers. These 4P’s are composed of: Product. Another important price strategy is the introduction of products wherein the cost is usually within the child’s pocket allowances. Children were observed to be price-conscious around the age of eight or nine. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. and Promotion. or are mostly satisfied in. Their favorite price is ‘free. give satisfaction and identity with the kids. prices which are clearly visible. but also. Promotions. Place. especially those which were just discussed: Products. Successful ones are those that are positioned within the eye-level of the child. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . (2) Sales promotions through contests and free samples. These are not only true for commodities but also for services. These are items wherein kids are especially attracted to. and (4) Publicity. buy products just because of its promised freebies.

The marketer’s relentless use of mass media. it also requires careful product planning. especially the television. social marketing can be used for profit. the risks are also aplenty for this particular field. the media is the consumer haven. though it has the capability to reach the largest audience. It aims to promote ideas. thus. They try to win customers through giving their products a value and an identity unique from its competitors. Again. companies try to cultivate and ensure brand loyalty among children and their corresponding families as early as possible. advertisements. A brand name is now a very important deciding factor for a consumer’s buying preference. they would continue buying the product. while the use of mass media i. giving themselves a greater market of consumers. These corporations commit to certain social causes for them to ‘look good by doing good. Like commercial marketing. The first is the brand-based strategy.e. pricing. they say. The partnership strategy has also been a very effective technique. research and development. it is safe to assume that there is really a lot more to the effects of marketing to children than what it really aims to do. much more than the product itself. has been widely criticized to have the greatest effect on a child’s development and behavior. is the vehicle of modern marketing. THE EFFECTS OF MEDIA USE FOR CHILDREN’S MARKETING With all the discussions. Similar to Jollibee and Disney. This is done by having two corporations come together to use each other’s brands or products. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 17 alike. market and promote it. Too much consumerism ingrained in the child. Three other marketing strategies are seen to be very effective and have been utilized extensively. not only for the children’s commodities but also for adults’ consumer items. Social marketing is also a highly effective strategy in marketing. The two aforementioned corporations have extensively utilized social marketing as a valuable marketing strategy. In targeting to children. especially through uncontrolled and ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Through this. Companies cultivate the brand names. television commercial was stated to be the least credible promotional scheme. Social marketing is defined as the marketing of social behaviors to a certain target group. Brand. and to influence the acceptability of the target group to these ideas. When the target customers have identified with the product and have perceived its value as marketed by companies. Although the media has been proven to be a very successful mean to promote items for it is able to target the largest audience. which is to promote and sell products. they are able to promote each other. ensuring what they call the brand loyalty. rather than products. communication. and most importantly. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . sometimes.

life dissatisfaction. While children are able to watch television shows and advertisements generally targeted to them. through the television. but also for the whole family. like those of cigarettes. whether with the parents or sibling rivalry. Older children. Therefore. a strain on the relationship of the children to their parents or siblings can be expected in a materialistic child. the influence and implication of food advertising must not be underestimated. all of which are definitely unsuitable for children. sex-related messages. Thus. It must be minded that unhealthy eating habits acquired from childhood has the greatest probability to persist throughout life. children would have direct and unlimited access to all of these liberal values. may implant on him a materialistic attitude. This might give the child the perception that owning the best and most expensive products available on the market is the way of gaining the most self-worth. as well. advertisements of products that are inherently detrimental for the children are also aired. Also in the television are aired various shows which portray violence. and later on. especially those with self-esteem and self-identity crises. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 18 unguided media use. and therefore. which is the early morning and later afternoon hours. succumb easily to these advertisements. alcohol. they are also being shown during the children’s hours on local and international television networks. has been seen to have numerous negative effects not only for the child. can also be targeted by these products. with just suggestions of parental guidance posted before the shows start. The advertisements portray it to be an indication of ‘coolness’ or masculinity. Some children’s cartoons nowadays have been depicting violence and illicit behaviors. Disturbingly. or not all products can be provided equally to all of the children in the family. It has also been shown that advertising can cause various conflicts on the child’s relations to the family. A study in Netherlands has reported that there is a significant relationship with the child’s purchase requests to family conflicts. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Without adequate supervision from the parents. First. if not thoroughly guided. Children. and other immoral principles. early exposure of the child to consumerism. It could also cause disappointments for the child. have the most serious implications on a child’s health and well-being. Studies have shown that the airing of the cigarette advertisements have generally contributed to the rise in the rate of early cigarette consumption among the younger population. and others. though unintentionally. The relationship of the child’s exposure to food advertisements to the development of unhealthy eating habits has already been mentioned earlier. Since not everything a child wants can be bought by its parents. the media is not just an ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Regulation policies regarding these are seen to be insufficient. especially with the television.

A very significant factor in counteracting the effects of media consumption of the children is still the immediate family or guardians of the children. the manual for the Code of Ethics in was formalized. nor encouraged to be taken without the supervision of an adult. and the like. No child should be used in advertisements of games of gambling. On January. Guiding the children on which television networks or shows they should watch. As a result. 4. corresponding violations and penalties would be recommended by the Adboard to the DTI. Such is also similar for commercial advertisements. discipline. but still. or any devices or services related to medical treatment should NEVER be directed towards children.’ For the Code of Ethics in Advertising in the Philippines. This aims to screen all advertising that falls under the jurisdiction of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). It should not promote any improper behavior. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 19 excellent conveyor of information. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. more commonly termed nowadays as the Adboard or the Advertising Board of the Philippines. Their guidance. and their ability to set a good model for the children are highly important in delimiting the messages they absorb. It was with this need that during the presidency of the late Ferdinand E. All advertisements with regards to drugs. and their presence to answer all their concerns is vital to the development of the children into well-rounded individuals and responsible consumers. Alcohol and cigarette brands should never be used in promoting children’s consumer items. articles for solely for the standards for protection of the child can be found on the manual. One of their stated missions is to ‘safeguard the interest of the consumers through truthful and responsible advertising. Having close and constant communication with the children. medicines. including: 1. 2. and carefully explaining the good from bad should be the very first consideration. The role of the government in protecting the welfare of the audience or consumer through adequate screening of advertisements is also significant. the first Mass Media Council was formed. The media should not be the child’s primary source of information and influence. Several policies were drafted. but is also very powerful influence. 5. Preceding this is the establishment of the Philippine Board of Advertising. 3. the issue of children with regards to the effects of advertising was most probably raised during its formulation. Marco. 1973. With this. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . the parents. Children should never be exploited in all types of advertisements.

modify a current behavior. commercial marketing are generally short-term. while in social marketing. Commercial marketing frequently entails just money for its customers. therefore. However. The messages. Also. Social marketing is done specifically for individual and societal gains. would benefit the children and the whole community. social marketing has limited funds. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 20 The support of the state is also very important in influencing children. The principles surrounding the use of social marketing is generally similar with commercial marketing. SOCIAL MARKETING What is social marketing? In 1971. the competitors are not similar for commercial and social marketing. In addition. attitudes. and their extensive and strict implementation. Kotler and Zaltman coined the term to describe the ‘use of marketing principles and techniques to advance a social cause. of commercial marketing are more superficial. every after a few months. marketers compete with the current or preferred ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. and may stretch to years or decades. Thus. The formulation of policies such as these. it markets behavior.’ Basically. a group. It also primarily aims to influence a target audience to do either or all of these things: accept a new behavior. Commercial marketing exists primarily for financial gains. idea or behavior. reject a potential one. Social marketing strategies require a higher degree of involvement among the program managers and stakeholders. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . and this would be further explained in the preceding pages. since commercial marketing generates funds. They usually entail more of physical efforts. or abandon an old one. but to a lesser degree. and time expenditures. or the society as a whole. It may cost all of the abovementioned costs for commercial marketing. for it is far more difficult to make an effect with concern to attitudes than influence people to buy goods and services. on the minimum. and behavior. it also has more money to spend for its strategies. Social marketing leads to a voluntary change and may be intended to affect individuals. social and commercial marketing are also very different because of the varying elements composing them: The primary difference would be the types of product sold: commercial marketing involves the marketing of goods and services. as well. which are ideas. the success of a marketing strategy can be evaluated in just a matter of weeks. the cost of buying social products or behavioral change goes beyond the financial concerns. Another point is that. social marketing strategies are generally long-term projects. depending on the project or the product being sold. In the latter. The effect of a social marketing effort is evaluated. social and lifestyle sacrifices. the non-tangible products are sold. In consequence to this.

As it was pointed out earlier. children have the highest degree of curiosity. Promotion of healthy consumer habits. Since the 1970s. the principles of social marketing have been used to affect behavioral changes with regards to public health. As a primary market. which are similar to commercial marketing strategies. The success of a social marketing strategy can be based on the preceding principles. and thus. First. The children’s value for marketing social messages is the greatest when they are viewed as a future market. Behavior change is also the easiest within their age group. the most likely to oblige in social activities. children have a significant amount of money to spend. but instilling these ideas at the earliest time would make the strongest foundation for a child’s adequate and proper behaviors. It is aimed by social organizations that this money is utilized on more socially desirable products and services. Children may be used as a primary target for social messages. like values for pre- marital sex or the use of drugs and cigarettes. and junk foods have been some of the goals of a social marketing project. and they are able to absorb the greatest possible amount of information. injury prevention. Schooled children are the easiest to organize and also. Successfully marketing health ideas for a child would not only greatly impact its development into a healthy adult. Thus. The reasons for targeting children for social marketing strategies can also be quite similar to those of commercial marketing. commercial marketers compete with different products which provide the same goods and services. The World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention used social marketing for public health programs since the 1980s. and from that time onwards. children can also contribute to having the largest potential market of consumers. but would be ingrained deep enough that he could also be an advocate of the idea to his family and friends throughout his lifetime. children can be targeted for behavioral changes for various explanations: They are seen to have the greatest time to spend for leisure and other activities. and simple events like tree-planting and peer counseling activities. Lastly. workshops of all types. As an influence market. in a process called as ‘reverse consumer socialization’. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 21 behavior. social organizations try to recruit them into joining their causes. it is imperative that the needs of the consumer be adequately ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. and various projects that require community involvement. in forms of summer camps. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . alcohols. upon which it is aimed that these messages be diffused to their family members. to other adults. Similar to commercial marketing. children may also be utilized as reformers of social behaviors. has managed to launch several successful projects. environmental protection. sports activities. Some messages may not be immediately needed by a child. Social marketing strategies aim that the children absorb the information that would be healthy and socially relevant to them. while demarketing unhealthy commercial products like cigarettes.

Education is partnered with entertainment. there are also similarities in the marketing mix used for children in both social and commercial marketing: For advertisements directly for kids. they are genuinely impressed with its benefits. Social marketing sometimes require demarketing of some commercial products. Especially for social marketing strategies. like in commercial marketing. the satisfying qualities of the behavior or social idea being sold must be sought. It should be leveled into the child’s culture and life issues. but marketing strategies should not use that as the focal point of their messages. while the consumers realize and fulfill the goals of the organization. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . and also. the most adequate message and design would be purposely formulated for the subgroup of choice. They must ensure that the kids would identify with it. not out of fear of the danger in not using it. This is to be used to persuade the consumer to voluntarily accept and peruse the social product. They should adopt the ideas they want to market in a way that the kids would easily comprehend. so while they retain their audience because of their antics. The challenge in this is the balance. and local television shows like Batibot and Sineskwela. the behavior or idea should be marketable for the target audience by knowing the wants and needs of the consumers. Social marketing products can be sold by showing them ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Second. as well. the most efficient distribution and communication channel. While the entertainment value is vital for the children’s physical and mental presence. as was already mentioned. and should definitely be able to contain the ‘kiddie’ factor also possessed by successful commercial products targeting children. they must be able to make the children comprehend the price or inherent value of the behavioral change that they are selling. Thus. it should be made fun and entertaining. it gives its products an edge by giving more value for their costs. this should not be overdone to prevent obscuring the real message. Lastly. but because. the best marketing strategies are those that put emphasis on the voluntary exchanges of goods and services between the providers and consumers. to the great deal of success enjoyed by children’s shows such as Sesame Street and Blue’s Clues. they also manage to promote their products. The cost for changing old attitudes or creating new ones must come forth as being insubstantial compared to the benefits of adapting the social behavior being sold. and it must be ensured that they meet the needs of the consumers. The teaching of moral values in some Disney movies and signifying the importance of family togetherness in Jollibee’s advertisements are effectively done through this first principle of inserting fun into the picture. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 22 assessed. they won the competition amongst other fast food chains through customizing its flavor and making its prices more affordable. Second. they also manage to teach them. Through research. While doing this. For commercial products like Jollibee. The ‘kiddiness’ principle contributed. research is very important for social marketing. Instead. Third.

Other strategies or elements must be taken into consideration when marketing social products. for any inconsistencies would cause confusion for the target audience. however. Sesame Street. which may also be commercial in nature like Disney. Partnership or co-branding with other tried and tested brands. or demarketing a particular brand. Lastly. they are competing for the children’s attention against commercial marketers. and ingenuous creativity and commitment. Thirdly. safe. They should be able to present something new to the target audience. or like Disney. Jollibee. or the likes. cooperate with some of its competitors. there should be adequate promotion for the social product. they are competing against past behavior or lifestyle. In social marketing. the element of competition is the hardest to acquire and conquer. that messages be repeated multiple times. must be seen or reinforced in multiple aspects of their lives. Another thing to consider with this is the child’s environment. The Internet also provides a vast avenue for promoting behavioral change. Free social networking sites can also be used. amidst all the inherent sacrifices or cost of accepting it. Modes of mass media technology must be explored and utilized. Like in commercial marketing. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 23 how convenient. First. Through efficient research and development strategies. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. similar rules in marketing commercial product still apply for social marketing: that messages be simplified as much as possible and abstract messages be avoided. the social marketers should ensure that they would be partnering with companies who have goals consistent to theirs. a brand-based strategy is also necessary. This again. Lastly. Second. can also be done. The compliance or opinion of the immediate family toward the social messages targeted to the child can make or break the chances of successfully teaching a new behavior to a child. too. they are directly competing against. This is very difficult to do. and that messages must contain as much imageries as possible. realizing how saturated the media already is with advertisements for commercial products. it is highly anticipated that the social marketers win all these competitions. the social idea being marketed should be ubiquitous and relatable everywhere a child goes. In doing this. It should be marketed in all the elements also being utilized for commercial marketing. In spite of this. The targeted individuals should be able to associate an improvement in their life status or well-being to the marketed social message. social or health messages. Creativity and resourcefulness is necessitated of social marketers because of their limited manpower and funding as compared to the commercial marketers. or healthy it would be to accept the new behavior. points to the inherent importance of the family in affecting the child’s behavior. While Disney products and Jollibee stores are everywhere. which was already mentioned earlier. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 .

Incorporating the element of fun must not conceal the real message and cause of the message or marketing strategy. the importance of other institutions in promoting social causes should not be taken for granted. Jollibee’s 5F’s can also be applied to social marketing in the same manner. must be done also for social marketing causes. the family should be given utmost consideration. since a child’s primary and most important influence. to the whole family. or. The stakeholders must always be up to date with what the consumers demand and what the competitors bring to their plates. The ubiquity of products sold is also very important. Examples of these are the family. keeping the knowledge pool continuously flowing and open to new ideas. It should be able to represent. and the inherent fun factor of the social marketing strategy are very important in attracting potential customers. The importance of flexibility or innovativeness was already mentioned. Strategies should be open to innovations especially in response to technology. is still its immediate family. whatever strategy used must maintain its flavor. partnership with tried and tested brands can help in reaching out to a larger market of consumers. However. and churches. For social marketing. in almost all marketing strategies for children. schools. The message should not only cater to the child but also. such are the most important lessons drawn from the strategies put forth towards children of the aforementioned companies: The evolution of strategies. in addition to infiltrating mass media technology. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . The utilization of these units of the community is crucial to the success of strategies. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 24 The principles of marketing strategies of Jollibee and Disney which were previously presented and their subsequent application to marketing social causes or behavioral changes have been ubiquitously discussed in this section. Branding is not only for commercial products: social marketing causes should also adopt this principle by making a powerful name or motto that would be highly suggestive or symbolic of its vision and cause. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. and also the screener and protector. The child friendliness of the promotional materials and the advocates themselves. Lastly. To summarize. most especially the ones involving social causes. Its application can be specifically linked to social marketing strategies for children. In addition. This is the particular selling point of marketing strategies targeted to children.

there is an inherently insufficient number of training programs for the public health practitioners in relation to health education and advocacy programs. was submitted. is the gain of support of various legislators that proposed several tobacco control policies in the Congress. Republic Act 9211 or the Tobacco Control Act was passed and implemented. Lastly. By 2001. It negated the selling strategy of cigarette companies which is giving a ‘hip and cool’ image to the smokers. a great success for a few years especially among the children and young adults. which contained a blueprint for tobacco control strategies. Despite the aforementioned limitations. as its central pillar. (3) To affect changes to health policies. the program gradually lost its appearance over the years because of lack of funds to continue the mass campaign. and lastly. there are three goals when marketing public health ideas: (1) To promote lifestyle change. or issues of equity or equality among the different societal groups. (2) To affect changes to the social and economic conditions of the society. By 2003. the emphasis of their role in advocacy is inadequate. the importance of social marketing public health principles and ideas must be related and ingrained most especially to the different levels of health units. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . by the insufficient capacity of the public health practitioners brought about by some factors. Recently. Vast media involvement. some Public Health programs especially designed and marketed to children have been widely successful in their own ways: In the year 1992. the significance of social marketing strategies in attracting attention from the policy-makers cannot be undermined. The marketing of positive health behavioral changes is usually made difficult. with the philosophy of social justice. Truly. not only among the third-world countries but also in the most modernized countries. Thus. Public health focuses on prevention as the most important intervention strategy. the Sin Tax Bill for tobacco products was passed. the STOP (Stop Tobacco and Other Products) for Health bill. then-Health Secretary Juan Flavier launched the “Yosi Kadiri” (youth slang for ‘disgusting cigarettes) campaign. The most significant effect of this campaign. coupled with nationwide community programs. and definitely. Public health practitioners also lack the skills or the expertise in social advocacies. so application of concepts learned in commercial and social marketing should be duly applied to market health concepts. Usually. made the campaign a nationwide sensation. the advocacy went on through other means and forms: There were the Youth Congress and nationwide advocacy celebrations such as the Celebration of Lung Month and the No Smoking Day. however. However. However. It is also linked with government and public policy. First. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 25 SOCIAL MARKETING OF PUBLIC HEALTH Health is man’s most important commodity.

the CDC launched this campaign. Schools were also penetrated with their efforts. they are an excellent target for various marketing programs. towards healthier options. and other major public places. as they are also important influences for the children. or children between the ages of nine and thirteen. such as Disney. the healthy products from vending machines were priced less than those sold in snack bars. the awareness and the physical activity of the kids have significantly increased. yogurts. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 26 The VERB campaign of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention can also be cited as an example of a social marketing campaign on the field of public health that has experienced great success. They also teamed up with companies. The machines also contain educational and promotional posters on them to reinforce the health message. sandwiches. offices. through advertisements on the streets and establishment of recreational centers in the communities. This project aims to prevent obesity and promote Healthy Lifestyle through the massive availability of vending machines which offer more nutritional choices for the consumers. Instead of candies. rather than the don’ts (in example. Diverse methods were used: First and most importantly is the advertising done using mass media. Through evaluation of the efforts in a study. the vending machines offer fruit snacks. With the public health problems caused by the sedentary lifestyle suffered by a large percentage of American children. FINAL THOUGHTS: Because of inherent characteristics of children. Their messages were much more on “Kids do exercise!”. Through the in- depth analysis and application of these marketing strategies. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . The Choose Health Project in Italy provides another good example of a social marketing strategy. the insufficient funds and support also caused the program to stop its activities. They marketed physical activity as cool and fun especially if done with friends and family. junk foods. As usual. in hospitals. water. alike. as it caused a significant change in the preference and attitude of students and workers. and other low-calorie beverages. This was done through the partnership of the Local Health Unit and the Buonristoro Vending Group. These were made available primarily in schools. public health ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. and soda. Community-based strategies were also implemented. it is bad to watch television or play video games all day) or other modes of perceptibly demarketing other values. the parents and schoolteachers are the secondary audiences for the kids. through introduction of sports and other recreational activities. whether on the field of commercial marketing or with social marketing. The project was deemed successful. Research and development has paved the way for formulating vastly successful marketing strategies of commercial companies. especially with public health advocacies. It aims for an increase in physical activity among the tweens. As part of their strategy. However. and later on.

A number of social marketing projects primarily targeted to children and public health have been launched. However. Consumer backlash could result to the fall of their product sales. on advocacy and health promotion is now needed and should be prioritized. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Taking care that they develop to be responsible and socially- relevant consumers should be the primary goal. The people and the government must also be wary of the marketing strategies done and their effects on the children beyond the consumer context. as it is also for their own good. The children as a market have the largest potential – for the market of commercial products and social advocacies. The government should have a systematic procedure for the screening of advertisements. The parents’ contribution to the effects of these is paramount: their presence and active participation to the child’s daily activities and development is an absolute necessity. so modification of these strategies based on the differences should be analyzed and done accordingly. brand-based. This should not just be a responsibility of just the marketers – this is a concerted effort of all the stakeholders and members of the community. could be similarly used by the social marketers. like the marketing mix. especially those shown in the television. The marketers should practice responsible marketing. there are also differences. They are also the most vulnerable. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 27 advocacy campaigns could be carried out more efficiently. Some marketing strategies. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . since social marketing sells behavior. Their effects have been enjoyed by its consumers around the world. and partnership methods. The development of training programs for health professionals especially those on the public sector.

The Extent. Mike and Max H. Print. Adolescents and Television. Kisch. 295-7. “Children. 423-26. American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Public Education.p. World Health Organization: Dec 2009. Daniel and Robert Reiher. AdBoard Advertising Code of Ethics & Manual. Advertising Board of the Philippines. What Kids Buy: The Psychology of Marketing to Kids. Web. Budd. Acuff. 2: 1 Feb. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. 180-3. Kathryn Angus and Gerard Hastings. 1 Feb 2001. Rethinking Disney: Private Control. American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Communications. n. 26 May 2012. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Web. 27 May 2012. Mar 2000. “Children. 27 May 2012.go. Public Dimensions. 95 No. and Advertising.com. Print. Nature and Effects of Food Promotion to Children: A Review of the Evidence to December 2008. Adolescents. Print.” D23 Disney. Georgina.” Pediatrics Vol. Web. Douglas and Vera de Costa e Silva. Print. World Health Organization:2004. Web. Cairns. Pediatrics 107:2. 1995. D. Blanke. Simon and Schuster: 1 May 1999. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 28 Works Cited: “A History of the Walt Disney Company. Wesleyan University Press: 14 Nov 2005. Tobacco Control Legislation: An Introductory Guide.

Web. NY:Springer Publishing: 2010. Ammon Salter. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 29 Cheng. Gann. 27 May 2012.commercialfreechildhood. Evans. Pathogenesis.htm Web. LLC: 2011. 7 Feb 2008. and Douglas Gomery. “Brand Loyalty Starts From a Very Early Age. David M.” Marketing Week. Compaine. Michelle and Gary Gereffi.p. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. 10 June 2010.com/wp-content/uploads/a- pluss. Print. Lou. Philip Kotler and Nancy Lee. Douglas. Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood. http://blog.” Pediatric Obesity: Etiology. 274. 27 May 2012 Dodgson. Web. Who Owns the Media?: Competition and Concentration in the Mass Media Industry. Routledge: 1 June 2000.” Future Child.Hong. “FTC Complaint Against Baby Einstein. Print. Web. and Treatment. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Mark. “Global Marketing and Distribution of Fast-Food. Christian. W. 575. The Management of Technological Innovation: Strategy and Practice.a-pluss.org/babyvideos/ftccomplaint. Benjamin M.” n. “Disney Consumer Products: Marketing Nutrition to Children. 439-49. & BabyFirstTV. Print. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . 2008. Oxford University Press. Cooper. http://www.pdf. Brainy Baby. Social Marketing Public Health: Global Trends and Success Stories. 27 May 2011. Web. “Social Marketing Campaigns and Children’s Media Use.com/2011/02/disney-consumer-products.

n. Kleinfelder. Print. Jean Pierre Jeannet and H.” Information Management and Business Review. Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Kiess. IBS Center for Management Research: 2003.” Advertising Board of the Philippines. Teens. Sep 2011. 27 May 2012. “Kids’ Health and Nutrition.com. Taylor & Francis. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 30 Gillespie. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. American Influence on Filipino Food Culture – A Case Study. Jollibee Foods Corporation. the Filipino Way. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Renato.d. Print. Print. n. Wieland. Cengage Learning: 1 Feb 2010. “History of Adboard. Web. 27 May 2012. David Hennessey. GRIN Verlag: 28 Nov 2005. Families.” ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Giroux. “Jollibee: Fast-Food. N. Adboard. and Grace Pollock. 1999. Web. 3 No. Vol. Kate.p. Philipp.” 2008 Corporate Responsibility Report. Inc. “Need for Parental Control and Mediation in Food Advertising to Children: A Review of Previous Research.ph. Jollibee Foods Corporation: 2012. Kundanis. 27 May 2012. Print.” Case Studies Collection. 86-7. Kaur.d. Web. Karger Publishers: 2004. Global Marketing. and Mass Media: The Millenial Generation. 93-9. Web. Jollibee. Children. 27 May 2012. Lee.ph. n. Rose M.com. History of Jollibee.p. “A Psychographic Study on Filipino Children’s Behavior as Consumers and as an Emerging Primary Market. 1 Jul 2003. The Mouse That Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence. Pavleen and Raghbir Singh. Henry A. 3: 171- 7. The Walt Disney Company. Web.

Web. “What’s Wrong With Cinderella?” The New York Times Magazine. Inc: 2001. n. The Gospel According to Disney: Faith. Orenstein.. 22 No.pag. Understanding Children as Consumers. Web. Print. 179-83. 111-22. Martine Stead and Gerard Hastings. Helena Kraemer.” Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. McDermott. Ann Varady. Web. “A Marketing Strategy to Review the Effects of Food Promotion to Children. Web. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 31 Marshall. Cengage Learning: 26 Dec 2008. Mittal. Robinson. Thomas N. Mark I. Laura. 3. 30 Apr 2010. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Trust. Melissa Nichols Saphir. Children and Media. 1 Jan 2005.” Social Marketing:Why Should the Devil Have All the Best Tunes? Butterworth- Heinemann: 2007. Print. Farish Haydel. Peggy. Pinksky. Gyan Books. Print. Sujata. Advertising. “Children as Consumers of Commercial and Social Products” Pan American Health Organization: Oct 1998. Terence A. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. “Effects of Reducing Television Viewing of Children’s Requests for Toys: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 27 May 2012. Shimp.” 2010 Corporate Citizenship Report. SEC Form 17-C Press Release. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins. “Promoting Healthy Lifestyles. and Pixie Dust. Print. The Walt Disney Company. Web. Print. 16 Feb 2012. 27 May 2012. SAGE Publications Ltd. McNeal. 24 Dec 2006. Jollibee Foods Corporation. Vol. and K. Westminster John Knox Press: 2004. Promotion. David. James U.

27 Jul 2007. George.pdf. Foreign Operation Methods: Theory. Print. Wilcox. Gabriel R. n..” American Psychological Association. and Economic Perception of Obesity in Southeast Asia. and Edward Palmer. Brian L. Web.. Dale Kunkel. Edward Elgar Publishing: 2007. Abcnews. 27 May 2012. 27 May 2012. Babyeinstein.d. The Work of the 2004/2005 API Fellows. Welch. Web.” ABC Good Morning America. Web.com. (2007): 161-74 Web. “The Baby Einstein Story. Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda. Marketing Public Health: Strategies to Promote Social Change. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 32 Siegel. Joanne Cantor. “Globalization of Fatness: Cultural. Analysis.” Jollibee Foundation Annual Report 2011. Tan. 84-5.com.org/images/jf_docs/2011-jf- annual-report. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. The Nippon Foundation. 74-5 Print. Strategy.” Reflections on the Human Condition: Change. Bent Petersen. LLC. Success Secrets: Real-Life Stories to Inspire and Motivate.go. Feb. 27 May 2012. “Stepping Up for a Brighter Future. Benito. n. 27 May 2012. Michael and Lynne Doner Lotenberg.G. Susan Linn. Social. Web.p. “Up in Smoke: Disney Bans Cigarettes. Conflict and Modernity. World Scientific.com. 22 Apr 2007. 2004. 30 June 2008.” Jones & Bartlett Learning: 2007.go. Abcnews. “Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children. http://www. “What’s Wrong With Being a Princess?” ABC Good Morning America. Peter Dowrick.jollibeefoundation. Web. Lawrence S.” The Baby Einstein Company.

27 May 2012. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 33 Wilkins. and Carrie Heitzler.” Branding.p. Web. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Web. April 2003. Web. Nina. Susan McCarthy. “VERB – A Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth. n. N. Yu. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 45 Issue 1: 1 Mar 2011. “Digital and Wireless Innovation at the Walt Disney Company. Faye. Wong. Christians. Hyunjae. Rosemary Bretthauer-Mueller. 27 May 2012. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 .p. Marian Huhman. April 2007.” Polytechnic University: Institute for Technology & Enterprise. Vol. Lori Asbury. Taylor & Francis: 21 Jul 2008. Web. Wong. The Handbook of Mass Media Ethics. 328-31. Ziv. Dave. Print. 1(3): A10. “Parental Communication Style’s Impact on Children’s Attitudes Toward Obesity and Food Advertising. Paula Londe.” Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2004. “Battling Against a Brand: Local Talent Versus Big Name Brands. Lee and Clifford G.

focus group discussion. fresh pastries. picture drawing technique and survey among parents and children to specifically determine the latter’s concept of the marketplace.e.e. during board games. a marketing psychologist. and sweet stuff which include candies. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Another interesting finding is that a larger portion of the children’s personal money are spent on toys. and their influence on their parents’ purchases. influence on parental decision to purchase a product. representing a substantial segment of the consumer market. The proponent likewise attempted to establish the different personalities of these children including their economic behavior.. appears to suggest a value change – that children are more conscious now about fitness since they now spend on fruits. the factors affecting their choice of products. Parents likewise provide valuable and more reliable information for estimating product usage. according to Lee. This development somehow ushered in a phenomenon referred by to Gerald Schoenfeld. and not necessarily on their thinking processes. and media habits (i. their responses to new products and services. the socialization agents that influence their buying behavior. His study indicates that parents are surrogate for children in marketing research. Lee employed a combination of research techniques: Observation (i. have been found to buy products based on their sensory judgments on their experiences with people and other social institutions. of taste tests). fresh fruit. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . and read magazines and billboards). their media habits and reactions to advertising promotion and packaging. as “kidfluence. of shopping center behavior. their buying patterns. cookies.” And Filipino children today. listen to the radio. money-wielding consumers. This particular finding. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 34 Annex 1 Kids a Big Chunk of Consumer market – De La Salle Study Children all over the world have been observed to have become powerful. The study was done to determine the factors that influence the buying habits of Filipino children in selected sites in Metro Manila. frozen desserts. nad carbonated juice and flavored drinks. These are the highlights of the findings of the study entitled “A Psychographic Study on Filipino Children’s Behavior as Consumers and as an Emerging Primary Market” conducted by Renato Lee former Assistant Professor of the Marketing Management Department of DLSU. This means that parents are the best source of information regarding their children’s economic behavior. when and to what extent children watch television. gum.

Family members. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 35 The researcher also noted a difference between where the children actually spend their money. Thus. and competitive products are present). A major recommendation is that extensive marketing research be done by companies to determine children’s responses to new products and services considering a more realistic environment (eg where the role of parents. “children like and prefer stores that (a) are children friendly. and school supplies. Manila Standard: Saturday. 20 Jan 1996. or endorsed by a celebrity or a cartoon character are the ones that children find attractive. relatives). other adults (eg teachers. Also evident from the findings is that Filipino children “love conspicuous products that meet their need to be identified (with certain others) and dissociated (from certain others). Thus. a store that greets children provides gifts (eg balloons. clothes. products requiring lower cash outlay such as junk foods. as to their willingness to buy products endorsed by these commercials. broadcast and print media nad movies were perceived by children to be the factors that influence their buying habits. In general. Children were also found to recall advertising messages better than adults. and the candies appear to be the most popular among the kids.” Children also tend to like what their parents like – partly to please their parents. musical. peers. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. toys. eye-level displays) are most likely to attract children and make “good impressions on them… that may last a lifetime. and (c) stock their desired products in large quantities. Lee offers several recommendations. their responses to marketing communications. the brands or companies that are retained in their memories. the store setting. and where they want it spent. fast-paced. it was found that they will buy only those items which they can afford.” Thus. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . including shoes. says Lee. Such an extensive research is expected to likewise help measure the children’s economic behavior. cookies) for them. In the light of his findings. and has shopping facilitators (eg scaled down shopping carts. chocolates. Page 8. and the extent to which children influence their parents’ purchases. (b) their parents prefer. This may be due to the observation that children watch television more and pay more attention to ads (especially the catchy one) than adults. Listing down the children’s choice of products is in the order of priority Lee came up with food. yaya/maid. and partly because it appears to provide them with a sound criterion. TV commercials that are humorous. This need appears to be satisfied by clothing items. noted Lee. parents who in the past made most of the purchases for their kids in this category are now too busy working and are increasingly relinquishing the responsibility to their children. However .

Filipino children are ahead of their peers in more developed countries in Asia-Pacific. vice president for research and market development for Turner International Asia Pacific Ltd. say. Olchondra Filipino children have taken control—of their digital lives. among others) about as much as virtual ones—at least according to the survey.” Morris says. which is a 66-percent jump since the last time the study was conducted three years ago. More than half of the children surveyed from urban centers across the Philippines now live in Internet-enabled homes. which is more than their counterparts in Australia and Taiwan. This positions the next generation of Filipinos as one of the most connected in the whole of Asia-Pacific. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. as shown in the survey results. In terms of access to gadgets. the Internet and related technology. Filipino children are also adept at switching between screens and devices. according to the New Generations 2012 survey of Cartoon Network. “We found that Filipino children are clear about what they want and don’t want. but increasingly have the tools to consume and experience media across multiple platforms—from TV to PC. current ownership levels are at 65 percent. mobile phones and tablet computers in the next 12 months. Guardians may also find it assuring that the survey shows Filipino children crave physical activities (going to theme parks. and 20 percent have a smartphone within reach. Those that do not have Internet at home gain access outside. at least—and can influence the purchasing patterns of their guardians. sports and dancing. There also has been a 71-percent leap in Philippine ownership levels since 2009. they love using gadgets. according to the survey. By: Riza T. Morris says. and what activities they want to do. The Turner group’s portfolio includes Cartoon Network. In short. Poll Says. 54 percent have access to a digital camera. Over a third (38 percent) watch TV on a flat-panel screen. from their tablet to phone. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 36 Annex 2 Children Influence Buying Pattern.” says Duncan Morris. hand-me-down or their own. The survey shows that two-thirds of children (aged 7 to 14) in the Philippines own a mobile phone. whether they are borrowed. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . “The findings show young Pinoys not only have the know-how in the digital space. No wonder parents are considering buying computers. what TV shows they like to watch. Morris says Filipino children have firm preferences on what gadgets they like to use. According to the study. says a recent study by Cartoon Network on children’s lifestyles. in Internet cafes.

already. with 82 percent of those living in homes with a computer going online every week.000 randomly selected children from Metro Manila. 99 percent of kids claimed to have watched TV. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 37 The latest gadget to break into the market since the last study is the tablet and. 16 percent of homes have one. across socio-economic classes A. C and D. 10 percent. television continues to claim top spot as the favorite medium among young Filipinos. Metro Cebu and Metro Davao. Catching up quickly in popularity are social networking sites. The Internet is an increasingly large virtual playground for Filipino kids. In an average week. 40 percent listened to the radio. The New Generations 2012 study was based on face-to-face. in-home interviews with 1. Metro Manila respondents made up 80 percent of the sample. 76 percent accessed the Internet. Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer. and 9 percent read magazines. and Metro Davao. B. Even as mobile and device ownership surges. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Gaming continues to be the top Internet pastime with 58 percent of Internet users playing games daily. 24 May 2012 ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Metro Cebu. with 52 percent of kids surveyed logging on every day. 10 percent. 13 percent read newspapers.

First None Supermarket commercial impressions of (78%) source of marketplace Mass merchant satisfying goods through colors. First purchase of 5. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 38 Annex 3: Stages of Consumer Behavior Development STAGE SUMMARY MEDIAN SIGNIFICANT PRODUCTS STORES AGE OUTCOMES INVOLVED INVOLVED (%) (%) Observing First visit to a 2 mos.5 yrs First Toys (54%) Mass merchant purchasing a desired experience with Sweet and (43%) product with the exchange salty snacks Toy store parental process in (24%) (20%) assistance which money is Gift items Supermarket given for (8%) (19%) products. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . (9%) and services shapes. smells. source through salty snacks Toy store own physical (30%) (11%) efforts. words. source. (30%) Toy store Toys (21%) (7%) Mall (3%) Selecting Independently 3. Books (6%) Mall (7%) Clothing (5%) Co. a commercial snacks (11%) pointing.” Pan American Health Organization: Oct 1998 p. Table food Mall (12%) (12%) Mass merchant Clothing (11%) (7%) Toy store (8%) Source: McNeal. Clothing Convenience (5%) store (10%) Cereal (5%) Mall (6%) Solo Performing 8 yrs Completed the Sweet and Convenience purchasing entire purchase first purchase salty snacks store (50%) act of a desired (53%) Supermarket independently product without Toys (19%) (14%) any assistance. textures Requesting Asking for a 2 yrs First receipt of Cereal Supermarket product when in satisfying (47%) (76%) its presence by products from Sweet Mass merchant gesturing.16 ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. James U. sounds. “Children as Consumers of Commercial and Social Products.5 yrs First receipt of Cereal Supermarket retrieving satisfying (35%) (56%) products from objects from a Toys (28%) Mass merchant shelves. commercial Sweet and (23%) fixtures.

and treatments should not be directed to children. logos. D. n. B. Advertisements directed primarily at the children should not exploit their natural credulity. Alcoholic brand names. violent or reprehensible acts/practices in a manner that may lead children to interpret or adopt them as normal or acceptable social behavior. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . PRESENTATION A. directly or indirectly. Advertising materials depicting or describing acts that would likely tend to harm children is prohibited. Mar 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. in advertisements of gambling. Advertisements shall not encourage children to purchase products or services to support the television. recognized as potentially dangerous to them. The use of children in advertisements must conform to the requirements of the Department of Labor and Employment. C. improper. B. Exploitation of children is prohibited. Advertisements should not encourage reckless. Section 3. AdBoard Advertising Code of Ethics & Manual. or trademarks must not be used on children’s clothing. Advertisements shoud not undermine children’s enjoyment of present possessions. gaming institutions or games of chance. Children shall not be presented as being in contact with. No child shall be used. ADVERTISEMENTS DIRECTED AT CHILDREN A. C. or antisocial behavior and should no show children in activities that would normally not be allowed by responsible adults for reasons of safety or propriety. Advertisements and promotional activities for proprietary drugs. or demonstrating product. C. games or other materials intended ofr use primarily by persons under the legal purchase age. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 39 Annex 4 ARTICLE III STANDARDS FOR THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN Section 1. or cable television program. In general. E. Section 2. advertisements for children should not show irresponsible. radio. toys. Advertisements directed at children shall in no way mislead children as to the product’s performance and usefulness. USE OF CHILDREN IN ADVERTISEMENTS A. B. devices. F. medicines. D.p. Advertisements meant for children should not contain indelicate references to infirmities or scenes depicting physical and mental cruelty. Source: Advertising Board of the Philippines. Advertisements should not encourage children to take drugs and medicines without the supervision of a responsible adult.

United States Adolescents countermarketing experimental of America and young adults VERB: It’s Physical activity Quasi. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. and Families 5-4-3-2-1 Go! Nutrition and Experimental Chicago Parents and physical activity families promotion 5-A Day for Fruit and Observational United States Adults. Better Health vegetable of America parents. W. Massachusetts Adolescents anti-tobacco countermarketing experimental (prevention) campaign and adults (cessations) Parents Speak Reproductive Experimental United States Parents and Up Health of America families Salama HIV/AIDS Observational Tanzania Adolescents awareness and and young prevention adults stand Tobacco Quasi. and consumption families Florida TRUTH Tobacco Quasi.” Future Child. Florida Adolescents countermarketing experimental and young adults Jalan Sesama Educational None Indonesia Youth entertainment KNOW HIV / HIV / AIDS Observational United States Young adults AIDS awareness and of America prevention loveLife HIV / AIDS Observational South Africa Adolescents awareness and and young prevention adults Massachusetts Tobacco Quasi. Douglas. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Consumption Parents. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 40 Annex 5: Major Recent Social Marketing Campaigns Campaign Topic Area Research Location Target Design Audience 1% Or Less 1% Milk Observational California Adults. “Social Marketing Campaigns and Children’s Media Use. United States Pre- What You Do promotion experimental of America adolescent children Source: Evans. 2008. Ohio Adolescents countermarketing experimental and young adults The TV Boss Children’s media Observational United States Parents use of America Trust HIV / AIDS Observational Kenya Adolescents awareness and and young prevention adults truth Tobacco Quasi.

and the new breed of trendsetters are non-smokers. Valuable advantages conveyed by the strategy revolve on the following: 1. magazines. http://ww2. Its audience includes non-smoking male and female children and teenagers with emphasis on the 12 to 16 age group. The Program Yosi Kadiri Campaign aims to reduce the prevalence of smoking among the youth in the 7 to 19 age bracket from 22. Florendo Public Relations Organization of the Philippines Rationale The prevalence of smoking and its detrimental effect on the health of smokers and non-smokers have alarmed government authorities. Being a non-smoker is being “in” 3. certain public areas and even office buildings have been declared No Smoking areas by their respective authorities. newspapers. television. commercial center signages. the new culture. The young generation of clean. It is in this context that Yosi Kadiri Information and Education Anti-Smoking Campaign has been conceptualized and implemented.aijc. school organs.7% in 1987 to at least 12% by the end of 1997. Source: Public Relations Organization of the The Philippines: Best Practices. happy and active young people. call/home radio.htm ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. comic books. Being a non-smoker is not being ostracized by society or being rejected by peers. The Strategy A mascot called Yosi Kadiri is the Campaign’s spokesman together with a media network composed of outdoor signs. and premium items. Not smoking is the fashion. Results The campaign has created a consciousness on non-smoking. Schools.com.ph/PCCF/knowldege/best/bestpractices-archive-prop. The campaign hopes to change the predisposition and predecision to go into the habit of smoking at a certain age at a certain time. Generally the campaign appeals to everyone across the strata of society from the rich enclave of Ayala Alabang to the depressed area of Smokey Mountain down to Butuan and Basilan City. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 41 ANNEX 6: DOH-Yosi Kadiri Grand Gawad for Outstanding Public information Program 1994 Gawad Oscar M. 2. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 .

While ashen Yosi prompted yucks." said PBSP. All options harnessed "Smoking programs that we've seen in workplaces are limited to advocacy. a workplace-based project batting for a holistic approach to kicking the habit among employees. Philippine Recyclers' Inc. The program will take "participatory. AMKOR Technologies.." he told the Philippine Daily Inquirer (parent company of INQUIRER. said Camacho. smiling inside his giant red Q of a body topped with a white cap and brandishing a cracked cigarette stick. Yosi Kadiri has puffed his last. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 42 Annex 7: 'Yosi Kadiri' smoked out. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Participating companies are Philippine Batteries Inc. the three-year engagement between its creator.net). the corporate foundation Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP).. Hayakawa Electronics. in-office doctors and nurses will undergo training to serve as the program's frontline implementers." said QuitsS program manager Eric Camacho. evidence-based approaches that lead to desired behavioral change among smokers. Blue-eyed QuitsS jump-started on Tuesday evening. Meet QuitsS. when they aim to see full-fledged quitters on their payroll. Philippines. QuitsS image is expected to grace companies where the program will be implemented until December 2010. we would like to harness all options available for employees to succeed in quitting smoking. A core group that includes a company's human resource officers. for instance? Then we will help companies form a support system based on the needs of their employees. and nine companies for a customized anti-smoking program. NANOX Philippines. "This is not about imposing but rather of choice. will they go cold turkey or need the aid of acupuncture. QuitsS is the flip side of the tarred monster known as Yosi Kadiri that puffed its way into public consciousness in the '90s. QuitsS in MANILA. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . but this time. If they choose to quit. the dancing and bouncing mascot that debuted this week as the clean-cut symbol of the new Quit Smoking Support (QuitsS) program. QuitsS prided itself as the nicotine-free mascot next door.

" Jingle coming soon Camacho said PBSP. once an employee gets sick. And it causes a lot of diseases . higher life insurance premiums. PBSP also launched the QuitsS jingle. Alfonso Villaroman of the Philippine College of Addiction Medicine. Source: Quismond. 25 April 2008. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Where freedom ends Citing cases of lung cancer among nonsmokers because of second-hand smoke. explosions and other accidents related to smoking. is pegged on proven counterproductive effects of smoking in the workplace and its ill effects on health and the environment." said Central Azucarera's Rafael Francisco. Tarra. and higher costs of fire damage. "Our company believes that our human resources is our most important resource and we are responsible for their wellness. Philippine Daily Inquirer. This innovative program is another opportunity for us to contribute to the wellness of our employees. he or she goes absent." PBSP said that smoking could cause "increased early retirement due to ill health. would provide technical assistance to the pilot companies in formulating programs suited to the needs of their employees. PCAM's Dr. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 43 Hayakawa Component Technology. whose membership does not include any tobacco company. ON Semiconductor. imagine how much time a smoker loses." said Dr. Contribution to wellness The program is supported by the Department of Labor and Employment's Occupational Safety and Health Center.. Jildma Balotro also said: "The freedom to smoke ends when the right of the nonsmoker begins. "If an average smoker smokes 10 to 15 sticks a day and it takes three to five minutes to finish one stick. higher [office] maintenance and cleaning costs. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . and the University of Santo Tomas. Launched on Earth Day. higher annual health-care costs for smokers and higher health insurance costs.. the program. Central Azucarera Don Pedro Inc. a Tagalog danceable tune written by renowned singer-songwriter Noel Cabangon set to be aired in the coming weeks. funded in support of the Pfizer Foundation.

"If you did that with a vaccine. as in "VERB -. former CDC director and now vice president for global health at Emory University. created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Verb campaign. Its message and look were clever. "We very much worked at understanding kids from kids' point of view. Verb used paid advertising. late-night public- service announcements. No preachy or facts-heavy delivery. with substantial numbers choosing to be much more active.It's what you do. pro quarterback Donovan McNabb and singer-actress Miley Cyrus) to brand its cool. evaluations showed that the program was making a marked difference.to 13-year-olds stuck between young children and true teenagers." said Jeffrey P. the 9. with $125 million in start-up funds in 2001. Koplan. Supporters expected Verb's impact to grow exponentially. can-do message. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 44 Annex 8: Without Funds. Except Congress cut the funding and summarily ended the program. 2008. The last ads aired in late 2006. even edgy -. Lawmakers invested heavily. Susan. community promotions and megastar role models (rapper Bow Wow. Millions of children were aware of the campaign. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . http://www. 19 May. not just because of too many french fries but because of too many couch potatoes. that would be public health malpractice." was supposed to get them up and moving. The national program. VERB Program Became Past Tense. no random. "It's a piece of history now. was ordered up by Congress as a social marketing campaign to increase physical activity. hyper. highly focused marketing.html ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. Yes.washingtonpost. Washington Post." Source: Levine. A group whose rate of overweight and obesity has almost quadrupled since 1974. because everyone said this had to be different to succeed." said Faye Wong. By the second year. Instead.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2008/05/09/AR2008050900526. who directed the program.the perfect appeal to the tweeners who were its target. A few passionate proponents simply could not get their colleagues to pay enough attention. tweeners.

followed by fast-food restaurants and producers of breakfast cereals. The companies determine all these things. She said that joining the coalition would be “a useful first step” for companies. at a news conference in Washington. and a coalition of food companies responded with its own report arguing they had made progress on the issue by self-policing. detailed the progress made by a coalition of 14 major food companies. said Lydia Parnes. seemed to applaud the progress that the coalition had made. including Coca-Cola and Kellogg. that was formed in 2006 to fend off government regulation. Members of the coalition. The F. But critics of the self-regulatory approach said they were troubled by the lack of industrywide definitions on what advertising to children entailed and on what “better” food meant. And the major advertising platform was television. the companies themselves determine what is children’s advertising. It found that food companies had spent $1. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 .T.C. The F. “In the Better Business Bureau program. The food companies’ report. there’s not even a real uniformity in what these decisions are. Makers of carbonated beverages spent the most on marketing to children and teenagers. pledge either to stop aiming ads at children or to promote only what the council calls “better-for-you products” in ads directed at children.” said Robert Kesten. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 45 Annex 9: Tug of War in Food Marketing to Children THE Federal Trade Commission issued a report Tuesday detailing the pervasiveness of food marketing to children.T.6 billion to market their products to children and teenagers in 2006. a Washington- based group that aims to limit media influence. called the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative and run by the Council of Better Business Bureaus. also released Tuesday. the companies themselves determine what is better food. the executive director of the Center for Screen-Time Awareness. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr.C.’s report was conducted as part of a Congressional inquiry into rising childhood obesity rates. director of the agency’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “The committee’s primary recommendation is all food and beverage companies adopt and adhere to” nutritional standards for products marketed to children.

ConAgra Foods and Nestlé only recently joined the coalition. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . while Burger King. including the cold cereals Apple Jacks. while $1 billion was directed at teenagers (those figures include $300 million worth of marketing that was aimed at both groups). Chicken and Stars. Coca-Cola. like coupons. has stopped featuring Chicken Noodle Soup on its Web sites directed at children. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 46 The business bureau’s report showed that companies’ pledges had resulted in slight modifications to the products they sell to children and how they sell those products. a Kellogg’s spokeswoman said. (Its children’s menu continues to feature a double hamburger. And Burger King started offering a new Kids Meal. with 420 calories and 22 grams of fat. featuring macaroni and cheese. report was based on internal data from 2006 that 44 food and drink companies and fast-food restaurants were ordered to provide. The Campbell Soup Company. for example. can be featured. said it excluded nonfood marketing and advertising that it did not see as aimed at children.6 billion being spent on marketing to children and teenagers was far below where other estimates had been.) The business bureau’s report covered changes made in the last half of 2007. and PepsiCo will only start adopting their programs in that period.T. Mars and Unilever were to put their programs fully into effect by the last half of 2007. Campbell Soup. Healthy Request Chicken Noodle and reduced-sodium Chicken Noodle. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr.) Because the companies’ efforts did not get under way until 2007. The timeline for meeting the pledges varied. Among the findings: About $870 million in marketing spending was directed at children under 12.C. Kellogg’s has reformulated several products. (The F. however. Kraft Foods. Cadbury Adams has stopped marketing Bubblicious gum to children. General Mills.T.C. notably the $10 billion figure that the Institute of Medicine has been using. the agency’s estimate of $1. Kellogg. The F. Hershey. Froot Loops and Corn Pops. Cadbury Adams. McDonald’s. none of the shifts the report detailed were reflected in the agency’s numbers. that meets its nutritional criteria. said a spokeswoman. so that they meet the company’s declared nutrition requirements for children. all of which meet Campbell’s nutritional standards for children. Still. Luisa Girotto. however.

even if companies do cut down on their marketing to children. Elaine D. but more than two million children regularly watch “American Idol. whether it’s ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr. said in an e-mail message. the director of the companies’ effort. “This way. The companies were also able to define for themselves what advertising directed at children meant. Kolish. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . said the different standards were reasonable. The bureau gave some examples of companies faltering. but has not succeeded in creating a better-for-you version. It is not programming primarily directed at children under 12. companies’ commitments vary widely. Campbell and Unilever.” a Coca-Cola spokeswoman. Each company defined for itself what “better for you” meant. Diana Garza Ciarlante. Coca-Cola and Cadbury Adams. (“ ‘American Idol’ is family entertainment. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 47 In the report issued by the business bureau.” for example. while ConAgra said its canned pasta had to have fewer than 350 calories and 750 milligrams of sodium. competition-driven approach actually is really good for consumers and for children under 12. “if we can’t do it. for example.” Of course. Kellogg’s has been trying to reformulate its Pop-Tarts. more companies can participate because they have some flexibility in setting the standards that takes into account what kind of foods they sell. But both had neglected to remove products on Web sites aimed at children that did not meet their nutrition guidelines. Kraft has decided its crackers have to have fewer than 100 calories and 290 milligrams of sodium in a serving.) And one easy solution for companies is to take products that have been marketed to children and start marketing them to mothers. consider a commercial whose audience is composed 50 percent or more of children under 12 to be marketing to children. for example. it does not mean that children will stop seeing the advertisements or eating the products. the bureau said. we will shift the target for that product to adults. had promised to advertise only better-for-you products to children. By the end of the year. Both companies have since fixed the problem. “This is self-regulation to begin with and we think that this marketplace. Mars’s definition is stricter: a children’s audience is one that is composed 25 percent or more of children under 12. where Coca-Cola is a major sponsor. for example. Prime-time programming generally does not meet any of the companies’ criteria for child-focused programming.” she said.

Stephanie. The New York Times. that’s problematic. AIM-X-XX-XXXX-XX Marketing to Children 48 moms or whomever makes sense. “It’s the marketing industry policing itself. Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation Copyright 2012 . Source: Clifford. director of the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood. 30 July 2008. Kris Charles.” said a Kellogg’s spokeswoman. That is unlikely to satisfy critics.” said Susan Linn. and as is shown over and over and over again. ___________________________________________________________________________ AIM Dr.