Some Map Projections

Sight-lines Converge in front of object-------------------------------------------------

Perspective

Vertical Perspective #4/8
used by Matthias Seutter, 1740 (observer at ~12,750km)
various “far-side” projection points used in 18th and 19th centuries
Also known as / [Equivalent to]
“Near-Side” Vertical Perspective
(Stereographic and Gnomonic being “far-side” projections)
listed as a “World” projection in ArcMap)
Distortion-free only at central point
Used by / [Applications]
Google Earth
US Weather Service (for satellite data)
[pictorial views]

Orthographic #3/8
used by Hipparchus, 2ndC BCE
renamed “orthographique” by François d'Aiguillon, 1613
Also known as / [Equivalent to]
Azimuthal Orthographic
(also listed as “The World From Space” in ArcMap)
Distortion-free only at central point
Used by / [Applications]
[pictorial views]

Sight-lines Converge behind object--------------------------------------------------------

Reverse Perspective
various “far-side” projection points used in 18th and 19th centuries

Stereographic #4/8

Polar Stereographic #5/8

Gnomonic #4/8

Sight-lines Converge at center of object-------------------------------------------------

Cylindrical

Mercator #5/8

Equidistant Cylindrical #2/8

Cylindrical Equal-Area #8/8

Used by / [Applications]

Conic

Equidistant Conic #2/8

Polar Stereographic results when both standard parallels are at one pole. 1772 Conformal: local angles are preserved. with the same scale as the standard parallels. no distortion along the standard parallels Special Case: Equidistant Cylindrical results when standard parallels are at or equidistant from the equator Lambert Conformal Conic #5/8 Johann Lambert. Used by / [Applications] The American Oxford Atlas Rand McNally National atlases of Canada and Japan USGS (since 1957) Lambert Equal-Area Conic #7/8 Johann Lambert.5°N. use Albers) No distortion along standard parallels Equal-Area. 1805 No distortion along standard parallels Equal-Area Used by / [Applications] USGS (standard parallels at 45. . based on Ptolemy’s 1st Projection. c.100 CE final form by Joseph Nicholas De l'Isle. Polar Azimuthal Equal-Area results when both standard parallels are at one pole.5°N. 29. central meridian at 96°W) US Census FactFinder Special Cases: Cylindrical Equal-Area results when both standard parallels are at or equidistant from the equator Lambert Equal-Area Conic results when one standard parallel is at a pole. Used by / [Applications] superceded by Albers Albers Equal-Area Conic #8/8 Heinrich Albers. and local circles are not deformed — at every point east/west scale is the same as north/south scale Distortion is constant along any parallel Map is infinite in extent Special Cases: Mercator results when standard parallels are at or equidistant from the equator. Azimuthal Azimuthal Equidistant #1/8 said to be used in ancient Egyptian star maps fully developed in 15th and 16th centuries Also known as / [Equivalent to] Postel (1581) . 1745 Also known as / [Equivalent to] Simple Conic Parallels are equally spaced: all meridians are standard. 1772 Also known as / [Equivalent to] Albers Equal-Area Conic with one standard parallel at a pole] (in ArcMap.

gov (with central point at 45°N.. all straight lines through the central point are standard lines) Distortion-free only at central point Used by / [Applications] the Cassinis' floor map at the Paris Observatory (1680s) United Nations Emblem Flat Earth Society [easily computing distances or missile ranges] Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area #6/8 Johann Lambert. 1772 Distortion-free only at central point Equal-Area Used by / [Applications] nationalatlas. Constant radial scale from central point (i. 100°W) [polar version: Albers Equal-Area Conic with both standard parallels at a pole] Polar Azimuthal Equal-Area #8/8 .e.