Qual Problems, Spring 2007

Spring 2007 Qual, Part I: 1,3,4; Part II: 4

I.1

1. Suppose that X and Y are Banach spaces, and An , n = 1, 2, 3, . . ., and A are
bounded linear operators from X to Y. Suppose also that An → A in the weak
operator topology, i.e. the weakest topology on bounded linear operators L( X, Y )
in which the maps

E`,x : L( X, Y ) 3 A 7→ `( Ax ), x ∈ X, ` ∈ Y ∗ ,

are continuous. Show that {k An k : n ∈ N} is bounded.

2. Let a j , j = 1, . . . , N be a sequence of real numbers with each a j > 0 and ∑ N
j=1 a j = A.
Prove that
N
1 N2
∑a ≥
A
.
j =1 j

When is equality achieved?

1. We start by regarding An x ∈ Y ⊂ Y ∗∗ . For each x ∈ X and ` ∈ Y ∗ , we have that
the sequence |`( An x )| converges and so is bounded. The uniform boundedness
principle then tells us that the norms k An x k are uniformly bounded (for each x ∈
X). We are in a situation where we may apply the uniform boundedness principle
again to conclude that the norms k An k are uniformly bounded.

2. This problem follows quickly from the observation that if x > 0 is a positive real
number, then
1
x + ≥ 2,
x
with equality holding if and only if x = 1. (This is equivalent to ( x − 1)2 ≥ 0.)
Now we have that
!
N N N aj N
1 a ai ai
A∑ =∑∑ i = ∑ + +∑
a
j =1 j
a
i =1 j =1 j 1≤ i < j ≤ N
aj ai a
i =1 i
 
N
≥2 + N = N2,
2
ai
with equality holding if and only if aj = 1 for all i, j, i.e. if all ai are equal.


1

We then have that {en : n > N } is a complete orthonormal basis for S⊥ . . . en i en . . This observation also shows that en ⊥ S⊥ for n ≤ N. . . f 2 . i. and suppose that e1 . e N are orthonormal. 2 . The sequence of Fourier coefficients an of any function f ∈ L1 (S1 ) lies in c0 . . 1. Denoting this map by F .4 Let c0 denote the closed subspace in `∞ (Z) consisting of all bilateral sequences x = ( x j ) such that x j → 0 when | j| → ∞.e. f n − en i|2 n =1 n =1 ∞ ≤ k v k2 ∑ k e n − f n k2 .) We then have ∞ ∞ k v k2 = ∑ |hv. Finally. Suppose that we have such a v. . n ≤ N. f n i|2 = ∑ |hv. and then one can just proceed by induction. f n i|2 = ∑ |hv. e N form an orthonormal basis of S. then { en } is also a complete orthonormal system. Prove that it is still true that { en } is a 2 complete orthonormal system. For n ≤ N. e2 . so en ∈ S for n ≤ N. . It is enough to show that if hv. vi = 0. we have ∞ ∞ k v k2 = ∑ |hv. Note that this implies that h f n .3 Let H be a separable infinite dimensional Hilbert space. such that the closure of the span of { f j } is all of H. Prove that if ∑∞ 2 n=1 k en − f n k < 1. We know already that S has dimension less than or equal to N. (It is easy to see that h f N . . 1. where S is the span of f˜n .  I. vi = 0 for all n > N. so that e1 . 2. 2. H = S ⊕ S⊥ . . n = N +1 which again allows us to conclude that v = 0. then v = 0. so the en must form a complete orthonormal basis for H. Start by choosing N such that ∑n> N ken − f n k2 < 1. . By the completeness of { f n }. and e1 . n =1 which is a contradiction unless v = 0 because ∑ ken − f n k2 < 1. Let f 1 .I. be another orthonormal system which is complete. v = 0 for all n ≤ N and hen . is an orthonormal system in H. prove that the image of F is not all of c0 . en i = 0 for all n. Suppose only that ∑∞ n=1 k en − f n k < ∞. . . f n − en i|2 n = N +1 n =1 ∞ ≤ k v k2 ∑ k f n − e n k2 . vi = 0 for all n ≤ N. let f˜n = f n − ∑ h f n . k = n +1 Suppose that f˜n . .

Consider the functions   1 N sin ( N + 2 ) x D N ( x ) = ∑ einx = . and so these do not form a bounded set in L1 . 0 |n| > N and so their Fourier coefficients form a bounded set in c0 . it would give us an isomorphism of the dual spaces. so the two spaces cannot be isomorphic. n=− N sin( 2x ) The Fourier coefficients of D N are ( 1 |n| ≤ N D N (n) = d . S is then a countable union of countable sets. Let xn ∈ X be such that k xn k = 1 and |`n ( xn )| ≥ k`n k /2. In particular. If it were surjective. and that we certainly have 2kπ N Z | sin( N + 12 ) x | ∑ 2N +1 k D N k L1 ≥ dx. so S is countable. 3 . This is in quite a few texts. Suppose that `n is a countable dense set in X ∗ . so we can write 2kπ Z 2kπ N Z | sin( N + 12 ) x | N 2N + 1 2N +1 1 ∑ dx ≥ ∑ 2N +1 | sin( N + ) x |dx k =1 2( k −1) π 2N +1 | sin x/2| k =1 2πk 2 ( k − 2N +1 1 ) π 2 1 N 1   2Nπ = ∑ 1 − cos ≥ c log N. We claim that S is dense in X.We know already that F is bounded and injective. Prove that X is separable. then the open mapping theorem would tell us that it has a bounded inverse. If it were surjective then the open mapping theorem would give us an isomorphism of the two spaces. that ( L1 (S1 ))∗ = L∞ (S1 ). This solution is taken from that source with notation changed only slightly. In particular. which is separable. which is not separable. π k =1 k 2N + 1 This tells us that k D N k L1 ≥ c log N as N → ∞. however. We will show that this is not the case. 2kπ Note that D N ( x ) has zeros at 2N +1 (except at k = 0). k =1 2( k −1) π 2N +1 | sin x/2| so we need only estimate each one of these terms. Another way of thinking about this problem is as follows: We already know that F is a continuous and injective map L1 (S1 ) → c0 . bounded sets in c0 would correpond to bounded sets in L1 . We know. as k dD N kc0 ≤ 1 for all N. including Reed and Simon.  II. Consider the set S of all finite linear combinations of the xn with rational coefficients. meaning that F cannot be surjective. We know that sin x/2 is increasing on [0. π ]. while c0∗ = `1 .4 Let X be a Banach space such that X ∗ is separable.

We then have. the closure of S. so there is some y ∈ X. y ∈ / S. by our choice of xn . Suppose that S is not dense. Let `n(k) be a subsequence of `n such that `n(k) → ` in X ∗ . that . Then there ∗ must be some linear functional ` ∈ X such that ` = 0 on S but `(y) 6= 0.

.

.

.

k` − `n(k) k X ∗ ≥ .

(` − `n(k) )( xn(k) ).

= .

`n(k) ( xn(k) ).

. ≥ k`n(k) k /2.

.

.

.

and so ` = 0. so we must have that k`n(k) k → 0 as k → ∞.  4 . The left hand side of the above inequality tends to 0. This contradicts that `(y) 6= 0.