‘Eternal Call of the Ganga’

Reconnecting with People of Indian Origin in Surinam
This paper reviews India’s interface with its diaspora from the early years of the
last century till September 2000 when the government adopted a new policy framework
seeking stronger ties between the Indian diaspora and India. The earlier policy of ‘studied
indifference’ has been gradually abandoned; instead the government has
encouraged the construction of an ‘Indian diaspora’ which attempts to reterrorialise
identities by consciously finding ‘India’ a place in the perception of People of
Indian Origin (PIO) and seeking to rebuild roots.

he Indian ministry of external affairs and the Federation NRIs and PIOs whose goal it was to ‘develop a global Indian
of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) family’ and who sought ‘to create a concept of unity among the
decided to celebrate New Year in a grand way. Between Indians wherever they are, a commonality and a sense of togeth-
January 9-11, 2003, they organised the first-ever Pravasi Bharatiya erness’ (Hindustan Times, July 28, 2002). Committee members
Diwas for the Indian diaspora, to ‘most of all provide non- in particular wanted ‘to show our diaspora that India means
Residential Indians (NRIs) and People of Indian Origin (PIOs)1 business in the matter of engaging it in long-term mutually
with a tremendous opportunity to ‘reconnect’ with Motherland’ beneficial interaction’ (press report on the outcome of the HLC).
2 The objectives of the gathering were, "to bring the Indian family People left India during different times and for various reasons.
from all over the world together. Also, to acquaint the Indian Their places of birth varied and they were equipped with different
people with the achievements of the Indian diaspora and to use and unequal types of capital. In this paper we focus on the relation
them as a bridge to strengthen relationships between India and between India and so-called Hindustanis7 in Surinam. On June
the host countries in this age of globalisation". With 2,000 NRIs 5, 1998, the Hindustanis in Surinam commemorated 125 years
and PIOs participating, the event was classed as ‘the largest ever of Indian immigration. On this occasion a book entitled East
gathering of the global Indian family’ (Hindustan Times, De- Indian Immigrants in Suriname: A Book of Names (1873-1916)
cember 8, 2002). Representatives of over 110 countries met in by Maurits Hassankhan (university of Paramaribo) and Sandew
New Delhi including Surinam.3 Hira (Amrit Consultancy in the Netherlands) was released. This
Though relatively late, the government of India has now joined publication contains the personal database of the ‘East Indians’
the list of nation-states trying to woo ‘their diaspora’.4 NRIs (Hindustanis) and gives an overview of the places from where
and PIOs are included in the new narrative of a deterritorialised the immigrants came (‘Thana’, ‘Zilla’ and ‘Gaon’). From this
Indian nation, represented as ‘a global Indian family’ (India and other historical sources [Grierson 1883] it is evident that
Today, May 20, 2002, p 58). They are also paraded as ‘Mother the ancestors of the present generations living in Surinam mi-
India’s Children’ [Motwani; Gosine and Barrot-Motwani 1993, grated mostly from the Bhojpuri area of British India, now
Kumar 2000]. After a prolonged period of conscious de-linking, covering the western part of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh.8
India once again evoked the ‘call of the Ganga’5 and insisting They generally boarded a ship departing from the port of Calcutta
on those who have left that they should ‘be good citizens of the somewhere between 1873 and 1916. On arrival in Surinam they
country of their adoption’. Simultaneously, however, they are started working as indentured labourers on a five-year contract.
told they should ‘be good Indians and strive to find support for After renewal of the contract and another five years of very
India’ (Hindustan Times, July 28, 2002). demanding work on plantations, they could make use of a ‘free
In September 2000 a new policy framework was proposed passage’ and return to Calcutta.9
aiming at ‘forging stronger ties between the Indian diaspora and Though these people shared some traditions and at times a
India’. Accordingly, a high level committee (HLC) on the Indian language,10 they were rather diffuse and had come with different
diaspora was set up with a mandate ‘to make a comprehensive ambitions, personal histories and were variously equipped. Besides,
study of the global Indian diaspora and to recommend measures family migration was rare. Some sort of affiliation was however
for a constructive relationship with them’ (The Times of India, developed during their stay in the depots,11 which was reinforced
January 14, 2002 and The Hindu, July 6, 2001). This step reflects during the months-long journey on the ship to Surinam.12
a mammoth and extremely interesting sea change in official Nevertheless, these Hindustanis underwent dissimilar migratory
Indian policy towards foreign citizens of Indian descent settled experience and encountered different problems while settling in
in various countries all over the world.6 The members of the the Dutch colony. A few might have considered themselves
committee seemed sensitive to the fast variety among the diaspora ‘transients’ and not ‘settlers’. Yet, subsequent generations seem
and were willing to consider differences in problems and ex- to have realised that they were in a ‘position of no return’ and
pectations from ‘their mother country’. The diaspora, they feel, abandoned the idea of going back to India. Surinam became
is like a ‘rainbow’ not unlike society within India itself. The their country of ‘permanent abode’. During the 1970s how-
government of India also appointed an ambassador-at-large for ever, when many supported an independent Surinam, about

4008 Economic and Political Weekly September 20, 2003

step in a new approach towards diaspora studies. think of themselves as being rooted afford any substantial relief to the congestion of population from in India and whether they derive their identity from that rootedness which some parts of India suffer. In 1910. It is better for India that they In short therefore.00. we firstly review India’s interface with its diaspora. and breed up a race of Indian labourers. Hindustanis still form a rela. 2003 4009 . sidered unfit for old social conditions or themselves lost any Consequently. taken by others who are in need of employment. Moreover. It is better for India that they should return to this country with her savings and their place in the colony should be the government of India attempted to construct an ‘Indian diaspora’. Our paper is divided in two parts. and Mohapatra 1995]. it is known Hindustanis developed along dissimilar lines and evolved distinct that some left against wishes of relatives who threatened they identities that might have marked them off. this paper asks critical questions about the should return to this country with their savings and that their place ways in which PIOs are constituted and the ways in which this in the colony should be taken by others who are in need of possibly is contested. In many of the It also tries to reterritorialise identities of those settled abroad colonies to which emigration from India is practised under the by putting ‘place’ (India) back in the perception these people. people embarking from one of the ships necessity for the repatriation of the large number of immigrants’ Economic and Political Weekly September 20. relatives and friends who stayed put groups.13 We then look at the response Protectorates 1910) wrote: from PIOs in Surinam and their attitudes towards India and From an Indian point of view.00. Apart from informal relationships which might or might not which started with a ‘Gandhian approach’ and developed in a have existed between those who stayed put and those who left. But the numbers emigrating or that are whether and how Hindustani people in Surinam. It is likely that different categories among these even with the intention never to return.000 to 1. the abolition of the colonies’. settled abroad. Though much more research has to be situations. argued that those who returned were ‘unsettled by the easier life they lead in the colonies’ and that they were ‘generally unable to settle down again to the harder conditions of life prevailing I in their native villages and to use their capital economically’.50.14 We conclude by highlighting some findings that should from these redundant regions into the tropical and sub-tropical be considered in efforts to ‘reconnect’ PIOs in Surinam with their dominions of Her Majesty. descendants from Indian indentured labourers in carried out in this field. who will in time in turn ‘disown its land of origin’? supply the local demand for labour. spend their savings had ‘disowned her children’15 did the diaspora in Surinam not there. it is not advantageous that [cf Malkki 1992:70]. This substantial benefit is reaped by individuals The paper however not only analyses the way in which India and we are anxious to encourage emigration to such colonies in tries to root its diaspora but also questions in the second part every legitimate manner. it is also possible however that those Surinam have evolved as a distinct entity with its own and varied who left at times did so without the knowledge of their kin and dynamics. seem to have left from the port of Calcutta with an idea they tively large group and are surrounded by other powerful ethnic would return. ‘these immigrants should settle in the colonies where they able to work on various plantations in the Dutch colony. In this paper. The first part subsistence in their own country may obtain more lucrative describes attitudes of those who stayed put towards those who employment and better lives.000 are living in the Netherlands India or preferred migration outside. not all supported the above mentioned arguments ad- of those who stayed put as an important category in the ‘diaspora vanced by the government of India that it was in India’s best space’ [Brah 1996:16]. it is desirable to afford an outlet Indians. Our paper therefore is an important first employment. Besides. ‘Nehruvian approach’ and cumulated in something that might there also was the formal stand of the government in British India be called the ‘Vajpayeean’ approach of the present government. These officials thought that it was therefore better slavery in 1863 in Surinam resulted in a demand for labourers that. while on the other hand. linkages between them and India will be varied feeling of home and felt strangers in India (Emmer 1986:196-98 and needs to be studied. Some among these migrants [Nandoe 2000:236]. They added that ‘even in Though reasons for emigration certainly differed over time and the event of abolition of the industry’ there ought not to be ‘any place [cf Singh 2001]. having regard solely to the interests of India. where people who hardly earn a decent ‘motherland’. We in particular describe and explain changes It was added that: in India’s formal policy towards its diaspora and concentrate on the latest shift during which the policy of ‘studied indifference’ From an imperial point of view it seems proper to encourage [Parekh 1993:38] towards the then so-called overseas Indians emigration from India to the colonies well fitted for Indian was gradually abandoned. In Surinam. Overseas Indians in Pre-independent Indian It was complained that. ‘with the assistance of their relations and Narratives: Gandhian View friends they dissipate their savings and then seek to return to Like elsewhere before [cf Emmer 1984]. both from Indians in India as well as from each other. There needy.80. who lost their likely to emigrate under any probable conditions are too small to bodily connection to India. Emigration Act the immigrants are well treated and amass con- now labelled PIOs.000 Hindustanis settled in the Netherlands in the port of Calcutta and heading for Surinam were normally [Baumann 2001:62] thereby becoming ‘twice migrants’. Having experienced a unique migration history and longed for their return and composed songs to express this having been subjected to different economic and political yearning [Tiwari 2001]. have about themselves. It is also asked that since India long back the coolies should settle down in the colonies. It will be described that progressively. populations. They as the latter are often studied in isolation. siderable savings. Many had been excluded from free access to land and now are about 3. Lord Salisbury (report of the ‘rolling out a red carpet for its expatriate to celebrate the success Committee on Emigration from India to the Crown Colonies and of the 20 million NRIs and PIOs’. The inclusion Yet. on this kind of migration.000 descendants of those initial immigrants some had found no alternatives in agriculture and industry within of which approximately 1.16 will set new light on those who left interests that the emigrants should return with their savings. though not necessarily would not take them back.17 have served their term of probation’. some of them were con- so. On return.

also declared that India would ‘never [Kumar 2001:70. however that even if you take a person out of India. they expected. Subsequently. the ‘overseas Gandhi were abolished and there was a shift in the attitudes Indians’ as they were generally labelled. The general view of the Indian government was that Overseas Indians in the Narrative of Independent overseas migration should be encouraged. Gandhi actually never pleaded for a ‘pure to India. indenture started to figure as a significant anti. Place did therefore not matter much as there yet overseas. and that the expansion by moving abroad and did not need the support of their mother of the British Empire could be seen as a ‘direct gain’ to the masses country’. The South Africa at the time. M G Ranade a leading nationalist at the citizenship of Indians settled abroad. This resource is the large ideology in which overseas Indians had been made part of funds. i e. they nevertheless implored them impossibility: to identify with India’s cause. What he wanted was a mutually shared The advent of the Janata government in 1977 brought some and sharable socio-cultural space in the racist colonies like the change in policy towards the overseas Indians. Overseas Indians nationalist had a meeting with nationalist leader Gopal Krishna were advised to identify with the place in which they resided Gokhale and tried to interest him in the ‘cause of overseas and not with India. Unlike Gandhi. battles of freedom and self-respect in their new lands (‘pardes’) Atal Bihari Vajpayee. During the struggle for independence. the ‘country of their domicile’ and ‘Overseas Indians’ Empire’ [Gangulee 1946:8. Sentimentally they also would like to give first preference was no ‘free India’. In 1893. Yet. or treat make ‘little Indias’ abroad and it was thought that ‘only a free them as Indians minus franchise and ask them the most favourable India can hope to protect and safeguard the interests of Indians treatment given to an alien (Nehru in Lok Sabha March 8. This coalition one in which he had lived himself. though this policy remained dominant till at least 1990. some of the ideas of nationalists like Pakistan. This finally hap. He held the view that. there is also a bit of India with him’ (quoted in Gupta [Gangulee 1946:10]. Though nationalists did not request Clearly. See also Lohia 1938:3-6]. These nationalists tried to remove the 1994:1). As far as Indian citizens residing During the three decades that followed till India became an abroad are concerned. Yet in 1896 M K Gandhi another important within India’s boundaries were truly Indian. Nehru asked them on numerous occasions political. It would only be natural for us to turn to the one resource Nationalists in India had embraced a comprehensive Gandhian on which we have a national claim. 2003 . They rather fought for their accep. homeland for Indians’. 1979 (217) for instance believed that the ‘Indian diaspora was For these nationalists therefore. He reminded government introduced new entry laws to allow overseas overseas Indians of their own ‘imaginary homelands’ (‘des/ Indians to return to India even if foreign passport holders pardes’) only to enable and empower them to fight their [Dutt 1980:327]. Gandhi.(ibid:106). you can tance ‘in their adopted countries on equal terms’ and asked them not take India out of him/her: ‘Wherever in this world there goes ‘to identify with the exploited and not with the oppressors’ an Indian. Nevertheless. which should result. Subsequently.18 cultural contacts with them. fighting against the ‘ill-treatment of Indians when they leave According to Nehru. tried to convince other nationalists of official policy carved out by Nehru (quoted in Lall 2001:169) the necessity to abolish indenture. of the (future) Indian nation. Nehru thought that ‘expa- time still felt that ‘Indian foreign emigration’ afforded some triate Indians had forfeited their Indian citizenship and identity ‘relief’ to the growing population of India. Nehru did firmly believe not call them back however. which would ultimately also benefit them. territorial but as a deterritorialised state’ [cf Lall 2001:40]. The plight of the ‘coolies’ was: was greatly dramatised during Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha in It is the consistent policy of the government that persons of Indian South Africa. ships did not export labour any remains alive to their interests and general welfare and encourages longer. to ‘forget their separate identities’ [Ibid:15]. its ideology of anti-colonialism. did not include overseas Indians in the Indian nation and he also Increasingly. The minister for foreign affairs at the time. The new policy can best be characterised First as part of a struggle against the indenture system and later as one of ‘studied indifference’ [Parekh 1993:38] and Pandit as part of campaigns against the mistreatment and discrimination Jawaharlal Nehru was its main ideologist. people should identify with one place their homeland to visit or settle in other parts of the British only: i e. nationalists kept on quoted in Gupta 1994:18). They did were no longer part of the Indian nation. seas Indians. 76]. disown overseas Indians. India – Nehruvian View The first half on the 20th century witnessed the rise of a national movement in British India cumulating in the creation of two After 1947 when British India was partitioned and an inde- independent nation states in 1947: India and East and West pendent India established. the nation was more than just part of India’ and should not be ignored by the government of territory. life of the country of their domicile. or fail to appreciate their loyalty to the 4010 Economic and Political Weekly September 20. in the develop. One could argue that India was presented not as a India. Gandhi as well as other nationalists of his time origin who have taken foreign nationality should identify them- condemned the ‘laissez-faire attitude’ of the colonial government selves with and integrate in the mainstream of social and political [Emmer 1986:200] and demanded abolition. Nehru closed India’s borders and only those of the country. In short. ment of ‘a feeling of unity with the land of their adoption’ among opposition had made itself audible at times. they are the responsibility of the government independent nation state. played a crucial role. Bahadur Singh in them [Ibid:11]. The government naturally pened in 1916. overseas Indians did not become Indians’. who himself had left India and was living in part of India’s foreign policy formulation [Lall 2001:41]. which are at the command of people of Indian origin (future) nation. stopped the practice of nationalists who had fought for equal colonial issue. South Africa. Though. Nehru of Indians in overseas colonies. They were asked to Either they get franchise as nationals of the other country. overseas migrants were seen as part of India. in the Nehruvian view double nationality was an those who had left to return. social. 1948 abroad’ [Gangulee 1947:14]. and economic liabilities against so-called over. towards overseas Indians.

India’s status in international trade Gandhiji’s policy and thought that. visible and renewed efforts on the part of the state to fortify a Increasingly. subnationalism of all kind increased and the state Indians. the Bharatiya Janata climate in India in such a way that finally the Nehruvian view Party (BJP) had other plans with ‘Mother India’s Children Abroad’ on ‘Overseas Indians’ made place for a new view on ‘People than the previous governments. After 1990. during the early 1990s globalisation had changed the Indian diaspora in nation-building. Besides. the new narrative of the nation also by the people in India and outside.motherland’ (ibid). government department for overseas Indian affairs. i e. ‘India’s forgotten children’ once again ‘permanent migrants’. During a seminar in 1977 finance. whereas which the BJP would try to utilise to the fullest extent to foster others.19 cultural links with overseas Indians and India’ [Bahadur Singh Not surprisingly. the narrative of the Nevertheless. In this climate. (right wing) groups started opposing Nehruvian nationalist ideology were witnessed [cf Schiller 1997:159]. Besides. The people of Indian origin living abroad are an asset. Within the new nar- also sent to ‘support’ Indians who had left. India policies and called for sanctions against governments that was confronted with an increasing proliferation of subnational ‘squeeze’ Indians. coalition after two United Front coalitions. India faced a huge external affairs was also reviewed to better deal with overseas balance of payments crisis and the NRIs were looked upon as Indians. India clearly rative of the nation. Clearly. Yet. The BJP is fully alive to its respon- essarily of it’. ‘it will not be acceleration and intensification of global capital movements and enough if India only exhorts its kin overseas to identify them- the emergence of transnational corporations (TNCs) as major selves with the country of adoption’. nation definitely changed as well as the perceived role of the mate’. India’ and there was ‘no hope for economic relations with after more than 50-years. 2003 4011 . in the 1979:68]. The BJP will seriously examine the question of dual citizenship to NRIs. The important features of globalisation included the already. the nation was a group settled in nection of economic processes. With the take over by the BJP (1966):237]. Yet. could be defined as being ‘outside the nation’. India by a resurgence in the politics of differentiation’ [cf Pries 1999:77]. which demanded a separate the duty to rescue their mother country’ [Lall 2001:169]. The Indian nation state had to come to terms with the new India was a territory and only those who lived within its borders paradox that ‘the growth and intensification of global intercon- were truly Indian. needs to maintain contacts with Economic and Political Weekly September 20. Indeed. For Nehru. For long however the opposition in the nation state system as envisaged by Nehru and the Congress could not change the official narrative of the nation in which Party. though actually living outside the nation’s borders could relations of friendship and cooperation between the countries of be taken in [cf Brah 1996:4-5]. and transnational identities that could not be easily contained erratic and apathetic’ (ibid:326). The separate cell within the ministry of international trade [Lakha 1994:213]. It involved progressive integration of the Indians living abroad’ (Ibid: preface) and his willingness to economy into international networks of trade. people. from 1977 to 1979. there could be ‘only became part of India’s foreign policy. experiences are not repeated. investment and include some of them into the nation. government started sponsoring India was confronted with a balance of payments problem and seminars on ‘overseas Indians’ and declared that the Indian rising foreign debt. like other nation states ‘in danger’. At times religious-cultural missions or exclusive. ‘every Indian community had drastically declined during the post-independence period and overseas. they thought. In an outline of its Foreign Policy of Indian Origin’. They complained that India had ‘failed to create a faced ‘difficulties to govern its populations and was confronted climate’ in which overseas Indians ‘can bring in their funds and by a increasing inability to form and discipline its subjects’ repatriate them at will’ (ibid). such as religious sibility. Nehru’s policy was felt to be ‘confused. In 1991. some people were excluded and others rejected its ‘duty’ of looking after the politico-economic interests included as well as that identity was territorialised and tied to of Indians who had acquired foreign citizenship [Mahajani 1976 the ‘original place’. their residence and India. PIOs in Narratives of Nation Even before BJP came to power. unofficially it sponsored organisations and newspapers among Under processes of globalisation a dialectic between the promo- overseas Indian communities to build-up networks of support tion of identities and relations that span national borders was and informal liaison. the nation-state faced other than economic problems. bounded. India’s present prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. and ideas is accompanied a place and the opposition regretted that. Furthermore. the opposition lamented (Ibid:78). During his tenure he had continuously paving the way for a closer articulation of the Indian economy emphasised BJP’s different stance regarding the ‘position of with global capitalism. so that Uganda and Fiji recounted however that ‘groups settled in a place are not nec. though the opposition could not ‘create a cli. Congress maintained cultural ties through case of India too we can witness the simultaneous growth of semi-government organisations like the Indian Council for globalising processes on the one hand and the pre-eminence of Cultural Relations. whether rich or poor. minorities. In this way certain groups. The change of coinage in itself signified a shift and Agenda for the Future (1995:6-7) it was stated: back to the Gandhian view that had included the Indian diaspora A more meaningful support to Indians living abroad whenever in the concept of the nation while simultaneously tying identity their basic human rights are violated is experienced from the BJP with place. Vajpayee wanted to replay players in the global economy. had not been able ‘to cash in on the sentiment’ among overseas Within India. essentialised nationalism on the other hand language (read Hindi) teachers as well as cultural attaches were [cf Appadurai 1993 and Anderson 1992]. ‘unfortunately’. At best. was leader in the opposition in parliament Economic liberalisation in India since the early 1980s had and also minister for external affairs in the Janata government increasingly exposed the country to international economic forces. India could hardly afford to Council for Cultural Relations would get involved with overseas neglect its export performance and minimal participation in Indians more fully. Vajpayee rejected Nehru’s policy as. Consequently. Government also sponsored a meeting by the Friends a means to ‘bail India out of its economic crisis’ and they ‘had of India Society International. India. the state started welcoming transnational that among the overseas Indians ‘there was a disdain for identities in order to combat subnational identities and finally.

a new Pries 1999:78-79]. which could help conservative Hindu organisation the Rashtriya Swayamsevak India’s economic development’. has constructed itself as a ‘deterritorialised of the BJP includes a section on ‘strengthening our mooring in nation state’ by including its selection of the ‘Indian diaspora’ our basic beliefs’ and the following paragraph reflects the sea in the new narrative of the nation (and by excluding others). those itself as a ‘deterritorialised nation state’. 4012 Economic and Political Weekly September 20. India chased by some PIOs and will give holders certain privileges. in one way Dayal 2001:50-52]. India take India out of him. trying hard at nation-building in order to avoid 1993:27]. Certainly. on monality’ among all the PIOs and NRIs ‘wherever they are’ their part. a search for cultural sustenance’ less. the government wants exist wherever emigrants are incorporated [cf Schiller. should also open its doors to those PIOs who are ‘squeezed out’ In this way it is hoped that a ‘durable framework’ is formed by of other countries and have no other option than to return to which ‘the strength of India’ will be ‘the strength of Indian ‘Mother India’. hopes that there will India also has the technical and educational facilities to extend be some ‘unity and agreement on some issues’ and some ‘com- assistance to countries having Indian populations’. ‘everywhere a or given different status. contemporary Surinamese Hindustanis tries are more part of ‘Mother India’ than other categories [cf definitely have an India connection. certain countries are transgressed or the other. through the opening of supporting any concept of a ‘Greater India’ as this might ‘disturb government offices. 21. 2001 and distinctive Indian personality’ [Bahadur Singh 1979:13. the in 2002 newly appointed and somewhat controversial and he offered that. while Nehru held the opinion that populations and raise suspicions of India’s policy towards coun. now a sari at a wedding party? Is India in them if people burn incense they have to become transmigrants20 who will sustain simul. 23. the nation state increasingly Organisation for People of Indian Origin. of intellectual. August 24. This leads to the question as of how to therefore wants PIOs to think as members of two societies. 2003 . diaspora’. ‘Indians in the developed and some parts of the under. in some cases it is argued. Though not openly who left and those transient. managerial and entrepreneurial resources. ‘India could well fulfil this immense desire. New trade ‘to tap their potential’ (One India. ambassador-at-large Bhisham K Agnihotri. in the new environment. Is India in her if a woman wears Whereas Nehru wanted overseas Indians to be immigrants. August 24. investment of these resources for India’s all-round development (quoted in Lall 2001:98). in the lives of most Surinamese Hindustanis. the state nevertheless likes to imagine the Indian nation search centres and academic institutions. no policies are also designed and so-called PIO cards can be pur- 12. Pakistan Newswire. or ‘things’ of India. This veteran of the right wing developed world have capital and know-how. not all. might hope for some consensus on issues regarding expansion of Indian missions overseas to ‘help them realise their ‘Hindu nationalism’ (Hindustan Times. departments. PIOs are referred to as the ‘natural industrial policy is formulated in which FDI and augmentation reserve’ for India and government is devising special policies of foreign exchange reserves have become part. that they are only ‘truly capable of surviving in India’ [cf Gosine India therefore. July. Clearly. cultural. At the same Responses from Surinam27 time it is also realises that this policy can antagonise local As pointed out before. in to highlight and promote the ‘Indian diaspora’. Besides. Vajpayee had observed that there was. no 7). We should endeavour ‘reinscription of identity onto the territory of the homeland’ [cf to continually strengthen their social. Of late. than other groups. They are a rich reservoir and part of the global Indian family in order to support India.India’. Certain significance of India in terms of collective. 2002). PIOs will be liabilities rather than assets. Besides.23 Besides. If believed that you can take a person out of India but you cannot such is the case. economic and Gupta 1992]. The In return they are promised the benefits and protection an Indian government should devise innovative schemes to facilitate the joint family can provide them. PIOs are requested to ‘return’ to India as transmigrants emotional ties with their mother country. from everywhere and for everything. migrants should identify with their new homelands. India figures. Agnihotri tries to has started claiming its dispersed populations and has constructed construct a joint family consisting of those who stayed put. They would thence ‘complete the full circle’.21 Neverthe- search for roots. editorial). etc. vol 15. July 28. no The GoI on its part promises that instead of that nation state unequivocal answers to these questions. determine if India is in a person. ethnic and national groups among the Indian diaspora seem to be more ‘in demand’ identity formation for Hindustanis in Surinam. for identity. ever after BJP took over the ‘Sangh parivar’ its demise25 and caught in the dialectics of deterritorialisation has been ‘calling’ the NRIs and PIOs. Moreover. in order to woo its diaspora efforts at We believe that the vast community of NRIs and PIOs also deterritorialisation of the nation state are accompanied by the constitute a part of the Great Indian Family. it will do everything ‘to forge a global Christian religion originates from there? Here we will use the alliance’ (ibid). July. importance and privileges. Linking up with transnational organisations such as the Global Ever after.22 24 and 33].26 change: Paradoxically however. The GoI looks for PIOs to act as ‘Trojan Horses’ for India’s II economic and political interests’ [Dutt 1980:314]. funding to non-government the loyalty of individuals to the countries in which they are settled’ organisations in and outside India24 . in Pries 1999: 73]. 2001). he also tries in which large numbers of overseas Indians are living. etc. expression ‘India connection’ instead and try to establish the Yet. and ‘the strength of the Indian diaspora’ will be ‘the For them. is America building would delimit and constrain the allegiances and loyalties in a Dutch if he eats hamburgers? Is Israel in him because his of these transmigrants. One People 2002. The Chennai declaration and reterritorialisation. After all. the male ‘Hindu Diaspora’ [cf If ‘India connection’ is understood as the relation with India Rukhmani 2001] in particular those in the richer western coun. Vajpayee also supported an Sangh (RSS). the establishment of re- [Ibid:17]. evidently. Moreover. (Hindustan Times. during a prayer meeting? If they are Hindu? If they watch taneous multi-stranded relations that link together their societies Bollywood films? If they go searching for relatives in India? If of origin and settlement’ [cf Schiller. they now and then think of India? There are. vol 5. it would be ‘safest in India’ and PIOs might realise strength of India’ (ARSP Bulletin 2002.

However. who had. returnees would meet few dif- now and then students go to India for studies (languages. The question were trying for another contract [De Klerk 1953:156]. including the British Indians themselves. First we will discuss a matter proximately 35. It also was tough to practise designation for British Indians that when the first migrants from their religion as there were no holy places for worship.000 British Indians31 who migrated to Surinam closely related to the relationship with India and Surinam: the between 1873 and 1916. its people reason for second and third emigrations. – India connection in relation to identification. We come back to this later. tells them of their fatherland. a wide range of Indian goods are imported. fewer and fewer contract labourers Indian rainbow’ are inappropriate to describe contemporary returned to British India.Bollywood films and movie songs are tremendously popular. 2003 4013 . because Creoles used coolie in a derogatory way. ‘Hindustani’ became the common designation [De Klerk heimwee’]. returnees usually expressed their satisfaction about the way they First. affluent Hindustanis visit ‘outcastes’ could. will find the way These changes coincided with a change in the legal status of to their hearts” [Steinberg 1933:275]. arises as of what this India connection says about the emotional Banishment from the community was. the the enormous distance between the two countries was no im. Apparently people got so used to the word as a hardly had any kind of family life. with India. More British Indians were born in Surinamese Hindustani reflections on ‘the Indian diaspora’ and Surinam and had never seen the country of their forefathers. be found in Calcutta. A number of such music at the Indian Cultural Centre.28 where migration was common. According to a Dutch themselves as Hindustanis (in Dutch: ‘Hindoestanen’ or protestant missionary report about Surinam. What does India. beat the man on the head with his wooden sandal. at arrival in India the however. more important and products mean to these Hindustanis? How do they relate to motivation was the inability of return migrants to get used to the people of India. or ‘the In the course of time. ficulties in terms of community acceptance. their own cultural and national identity. Until 1927.30 Yet so. In the course of the first few decades of the 20th century them to leave” [De Klerk 1953:154]. the contract labourers. A brahman. return was their homesickness. one third (of the indentured labourers) issue of naming. They could not understand the languages. First we will discuss the early made him realise that he no longer wanted to live in such history of British Indian migration and settlement in Surinam. and had been treated in Surinam and explained that it was “only a secondly. few the Dutch Indies arrived (in 1894) coolie typically referred to spiritual leaders and priests and no holy streams to bathe [Steinberg the British Indians.33 It seems that this has not always been the case. Between 1878 and the end of 1926. Some needed to undergo ‘cleansing’ rituals. Of the ap. for example. as is suggested by Indian leadership? ‘charpoy’ (local style bed) in front of his house one day. all British Indians (including The reconnection between the people who had stayed put in those who were born in Surinam) were officially identified as British India and the ones who had left and now returned was ‘aliens’ [‘vreemdelingen’]. Since the high costs involved in such an expedition. they often faced meetings and lectures. family connections became non-existent as time Dutch Surinam and British India went by. Although we do For almost all of them.32 pediment to return to ‘Bharat Mata’. when British Indian made no sense any people of the great longing’ [‘de menschen van het groote longer. or a migrant. no problems with the name.000 British Indians returned to India [ibid:159]. yoga. everyone used 1933:275]. problems. life was hard for the ‘Hindostanen’). The incident Surinamese Hindustani community. who after return to his home village sat down on a children of Mother India. Hindustanis and their Indian relatives overseas. he returned Next we will demonstrate that. Surinam had been a temporary phase in not know any numbers. not the only bonds between Hindustanis and India. oppressing environment. From Coolies to Hindustanis over 11. ac- According to De Klerk (1953) the most important reason for cording to De Klerk. that there are no relations between only three decided to settle in Surinam [De Klerk 1953:162]. it seems that quite a lot of people have their lives. others people take courses in Hindi. where they India for holidays. coolie. British Indians. Free cultivators. does not mean. if they dance. After all. because it was intimately linked with unfree contract strong yearning for their relatives in British India had induced labour. however. history. Indian classical dance and were barred from the community all together. They also must have found it very difficult. in some cases successfully in touch with their relatives during their contract period. search for relatives has only been possible for well-off people. however. made use of their right of free passage to British India after termination of their contract. With India’s homesickness was so strong that British Indians were called ‘the independence in 1947. De Klerk illustrates this with a story of consider themselves colours of the same Indian rainbow.29 Indian pandits are invited to Surinam for religious were from areas where migration was unusual. Members of and the politics of space from the viewpoint of members of the the man’s caste were supposed to sit on the floor. During the first decades. and to India as a national state? Do they the Indian life again. identity formation. some Initially the British Indian contract labourers were simply known food items – vegetables and fruits – were not available and they as ‘coolies’. Apparently the longing and the term Hindustani became more popular. Another. metaphors such as ‘children of Mother India’. developed a preference for the name British Indian. If migrants originated from regions that all people born from parents residing in Surinam (and other Economic and Political Weekly September 20. As soon as he was able. Mother India. to stay searched for their relatives in India. In 1927 the Dutch decided by law by no means unambiguous. Since contacts with relatives in British India were so difficult to maintain. music). 1953:43-44]. “The one who speaks to them in their own language. etc. The wish to return to British India was particularly strong Present-day PIOs in Surinam and The Netherlands refer to among the first batches of migrants. as he Hereafter we will examine different aspects of the Surinam used to do in Surinam. This Of the first 537 immigrants who had the right to return in 1880. no matter how intricately linked to Surinam for good [ibid:157].34 sings their songs. who saw him sitting there. pilgrimage or roots tourism. To our knowledge there are no Hindustani families today who have maintained family relations since their migration.

[ibid:204]. A number of Hindustanis did not quite agree with that for settlers (earlier they would lose that right with acceptance British decision. British colonies to inspect the circumstances of indentured political and economic affinities with India. at the time the way to Surinam. living Hindustanis cultivators shared those sentiments. Surinam had become the country of Official Hindustani viewpoints on their relationship with British permanent abode for the Hindustani community. the newly founded Hindustani Javanese At the time of India’s independence. ideology concerning the overseas Indians was communicated all No matter how strongly one identified with India. In 1920. 1910) collected and sense of belonging. This does not mean that ‘ordinary’ In 1947. and how the process labourers. when he was around the age of twelve.) connected from) India in different ways and for different reasons. This. for free. the number of labourers who stayed in A second example that indicates a general shift of focus are Surinam was not quite as high as the Dutch desired. It was. This idea that the contract labourers. for who one has to be on the alert’ ambitions to return to India. This became particularly important when the British contract labour. They even met several British Indian opponents of gration. still rights as Dutch citizens [ibid:185]. a loosening of the India connection. a group of Hindustanis from 548 in 1895 to 5093 in 1913. Slowly. others still to Bharat Mata. Hereafter we will discuss what India thousands of signatures to encourage inclusion of Surinam in has come to mean for present day Hindustanis. the Surinaamsche of rooting in Surinam affected ethnic and national identification Britisch-Indiërs-Bond (established on April 3. the Nehruvian view on the Indian diaspora 20th century. to no avail [ibid:178-79]. Surinam in 1913 to investigate the labour circumstances wrote They asked the inspection team “to send to the whole British in its final report that they were convinced that the majority of Indian population our best wishes and carriers of the news that migrants were better off in Surinam than in India [De Klerk their country men in Dutch Guyana are taken good care off and 1953:175-76]. Such differences in perspective clearly show migrants from the Dutch Indies (commonly known as ‘Javanese’) from the following event. ‘everyone cried loudly’. this same informant (a 59 years-old teacher. their ability to the welfare of the entire Surinamese society’. They succeeded and the British Indian delegation was invited to come to Surinam. ‘Better Off in Surinam’ another. someone South African. 2003 . Hindustanis increasingly looked upon Surinam as and the socio-cultural and political elite of the Hindustani their country of permanent abode.. however. They tried some Hindustani reactions to the abolishment of indenture in to increase the number by securing the right of free passage 1916. 1948. In 1913. British Indians had become central assembly (formed in 1945 as a committee of represen- legal citizens of Surinam and Hindustanis by name. of the land) and by improving living conditions in Surinam or because they feared that the end of indenture would lead to [ibid:162]. Nehru’s feel first and foremost Surinamese [ibid:205n80]. The first Hindustani organisation. Slowly the number of free settlers did increase. for some their yearning remained. while many felt primarily Indian. Surinam. One informant told us that even after Surinam’s independence Each example shows clearly that. cherish a love for their native country. despite all 4014 Economic and Political Weekly September 20. different Hindustanis feel connected with (or dis. more progressive Hindustani organisation. The man he stated that he was first and foremost Indian. which meant the end however. He also recalls how people used to refer While some people clearly identified with Surinam. including Mahatma Gandhi himself. a number of Hindustanis still did not identify with the pendence. although they are separated by thousands of miles. they have accepted as their new fatherland” [quoted by De Klerk In order to encourage them to stay. government abolished indenture in 1916. they offered them land 1953:174-75]. Nevertheless. their new motherland. Others however replied returned from India with a hand written message from Jawaharlal that the situation was different in Surinam. either because they did not oppose to the system. All without exception are It seems likely that such legal change also had to do with the happy and satisfied and many are well-off in the country which Dutch wanting the contract labourers to settle in Surinam. (. while speaking of (British) India. Hindustanis Durai Swami Patthiappan held a lecture in Paramaribo. the Hindustanis had officially accepted Surinam as Surinamese nation. some other PIOs agreed. all influential community members shared that independence and how they mourned Mahatma Gandhi’s death: point of view. a two-headed delegation was visiting a number of The question remains what this says about their socio-cultural. What does tatives from various Hindustani and Javanese socio-cultural and this tell us about their cultural and national identification? How religious organisations) wrote in its first motion that ‘in did they relate to India? Do these changes indicate a slow process correspondence with their constitutional position of rights of detachment from ‘Bharat Mata’? There seems to be no and duties. De Klerk attributes the went all the way to India where they tried to influence public change to these policy measures. and secondly remembers that. of British Indian. ‘They strongly reject the personal viewpoint of some that they While an increasing number of (former) British Indians had no would be strange intruders. the Surinaamse Immigranten-Vereeniging (established one year later) who used The two-person delegation from British India that came to the opportunity to make themselves known to a larger world. or that. their inspection tour. for in Paramaribo) remembers how Hindustanis celebrated India’s that matter. Thirty years later. who want to contribute to the best of Even today. ‘the Hindustanis wish to be fully considered as unambiguous answer to these questions. of India’s independence. Hereafter three examples to community itself. On April 18. Surinamese citizens. as we will see hereafter. Yet. where Hindustanis Nehru stating that ‘you have to create Bharat Mata there’. the South African returned home after Indonesia’s independence in 1949. at the time of India’s inde- in 1975.Dutch colonies) became Dutch subjects and received the same that they. Surinam became the new motherland of the illustrate these viewpoints: former British Indian contract labourers. Encouraged by India and with Surinam show that already in the first half of the the Dutch government. When stayed put in Surinam after India’s independence. the emphasis of the opinion in order to allow a continuation of free migration to Dutch had come to lie on settlement issues rather than immi.

was shared by all of our informants. let them religious or spiritual leadership is concerned. poverty. His channel is entirely devoted to Hin- [translation by Ellen Bal]35 duism and Indian culture. Narain uses a religious metaphor to describe the The well-known Hindustani poet Jit Narain also unambigu. they are Indians. as a territory. He makes it a point to promote a Here. cur- Hindustanis include themselves in the nation of Surinam. for not going there. had exchanged a life of dire poverty for a life ancestry turned out to be the central ingredient of the India of relative wealth. circumstances of the Indians. And thus are you Indians.’ While this informant is eager to ‘experience the real India’ is One day we were invited for a small get-together of Hindustanis he also anxious to go. One and guide. If there is an India connection. why he tries both to promote gratefully Hinduism and to create a positive image of India with his Hindu not compelled broadcasting network. It therefore has to be a tore folded hands open and clenched fists in the struggle holy land. does not figure in their religious belief as it does for While India has different meanings for different people. overpopulation. Apart from religion. or about reasons however. grandmother. In happened during thousands of years but we can prove what other words. We were not has no special place in their faith. Thus while the government of India includes Hindustanis products also considered more valuable? Do they need to be in the Indian nation (as pointed out in the first part of our paper). of their ancestors. He answered: One member of the Arya Samaj explained us that the central Culturally I am Hindustani. ‘Indian religious products cannot be Economic and Political Weekly September 20. Indian rently posted in Surinam. This is not to say The idea. The principles of the ‘Arya Samaj’ are universal. that their cultural identity is Hindustani and their that Arya Samajis are not interested in visiting India. Here it interesting to note that this perception of religious The Indian woman reasoned that since Hindustanis are origi. the and one Indian. After all. or soil. and unhygienic circumstances generally figure in their stories. This does not mean past experiences in India. ‘spiritual food comes I kneel down from there’. Hindustanis feel there is a link Hindustani perceptions of India. problem is that they claim that we are one of them. Their religion is not territorially told that we were Indians. when it comes to matters of Hindu religious faith happened within the last 150 years. it is by no means based on a shared national identity Culture and Authenticity with the Indians. authenticity is particularly important for members of the ‘Sanatan nally from India. The Hindustani saw this very Dharm’ denomination. still resting on the Indian According to a successful businessman. While the Indian believes Do notions of superiority and authenticity of Indian soil that Hindustanis are also Indians. When the Hindustani to Surinam. The religious and spiritual significance of India also showed Our question about the identity of Hindustanis led to a heated from frequent visits of Indian pandits and other spiritual leaders debate between him and the Indian woman. whose migration saved them from poverty. Some informants Land of Ram and Sita explicitly expressed their gratefulness to their forefathers. still films or dramatic documentaries on his television network. Narain is very critical of India. Indians are gen- first prove that. differently. For the man himself it is also particularly religion that for justice brings about the India connection. the only link with India is Hinduism: thanks for staying India is the land of Ram and Sita. It seems different for the ‘Arya Samaj’. are idols and other religious Indian. future trips to India. much later. For that there will be a camera man. he feels connected through at your feet. the cradle You must prove that you are not Indians! We cannot prove what of Hinduism and true knowledge of Hindu faith is in India. He told us how he plans to spend the nights in Paramaribo. who is working for the Indian cultural centre dirt and the poverty. He knows the stories of the crowds. in five star hotels and travel around in a hired car with chauffeur frontation about the issue of the Hindustani identity. When Hindustanis talk about because their forefathers came from there. And he is not going to climb the thousand steps to Hindustani made it very clear that while India is the native land see a temple. For example. she thinks. the Hindustani clearly dis. Indian ancestry does not make a person products of India? In other words. it certainly is not the land of the Hindustanis. adji culture. violent his grandmother has saved him from the ‘curse of the gods. Religion is another important element ously expresses gratefulness. The lecturer believes that for at least untied that reason – because their religion comes from there – the am I majority of Hindu Hindustanis would like to visit India. everyone members of the Sanatan Dharm. To his mind. nationally I am Surinamese. positive picture of the country. national identity Surinamese. India. 2003 4015 . Hindustanis think of your initiative India as the land of Ram and Krishna.their suffering. also feature in Hindustani appreciation of religious or cultural agrees. Also striking is the statement that ‘the problem is that they claim we are one of them’. That morning we witnessed an interesting con. In the following poem he thanks that connects many Hindustanis with India.36 agreed that Surinam is their motherland. By staying put in Surinam. In his poem. according to a lecturer at the Adji university of Paramaribo. but land. rooted. authentically Indian? According to a high Indian official. This is. resting on the Indian. We were taught in school. for example. from the curse of the gods Otherwise India is of no concern to Hindustanis. that Hindustanis are also Indians. They have no birthplace of Ram and Sita or holy battle Also that we were British Indians. often in a much more his adji. for staying in Surinam: positive manner. No wild music shows.’ the Indian replied emotionally that: erally considered superior and more knowledgeable. has continued to be an important theme in connection in all our interviews. and erudition ‘authenticity’ is important. People explained how it is often felt that where argued that ‘India may think that Hindustanis are Indians. grounds of the Mahabharath and Ramayan.

as a con- is whether such products are so important because they are of sequence of ‘the eternal soul’. in which he combines both Indian and had met outside of India (in other countries or Surinam itself). ‘even their peons feel superior’. he did explain celebrations. all based on ‘traditional Indian’ culture. Narain stated that ‘India may qawali singer. because they represent Indian culture. the sculptor was wearing Dutch wooden clogs. Indian products are obviously popular in Surinam. Here. Hindi pop. the cultural ties with India would India. in identification. During both cultural and religious consuming. One informant. he tries. he said of Hindustani culture or even tried to prove Hindustani supe- that many of those are produced in Surinam itself. On the one hand Manoredh is an important sculptor of such idols in Surinam. world the other way around. the other hand they distance themselves from Indians by stressing His work is a way to make contact with god. or because they have always remain. such trips While the owner of the Hindu network told us about India’s are far too expensive. many women wear Indian garments and for reli. formants. Others complain that they provide jobs into Hindustani jewellery. They are being taken 4016 Economic and Political Weekly September 20. tied to India. ‘Here. had small ohm symbols affixed and turned them Surinamese environment. ideas of the the end. and Hindustanis are by no means uncomplicated. which However.37 He scored his first hit in 1975. The question is closely linked with the Netherlands economically. there is really only one god. I am more Hindustani than those gawks Netherlands. etc. We have no caste by fax. All such information would first need goods. made ‘equalising’ remarks about the status of nothing more.’ for his ‘chutney music’. During an informal visit to the Indian embassy in Paramaribo. as if by themselves. in fact. For example. to encourage local Hindustanis. During the same brief encounter. While his father used to go to India for also know more than Hindustanis. One of us riority. he for a vacation. He said that while Surinam gious festivities one Indian product to perform pujas. There is no need for (lummels). and yoga. It has been unable to affect the went there for music purposes. On in Surinam. they pass their time together with Indian mega stars. 2003 . In other words. After all. The owner of a Amrish store. This generally applied to Indians who they own compositions. It was interesting to note that at the time of the Another informant explained why the Hindustani Surinamese visit. a successful business man. They have to come from Uneasy Connections India. for the embassy also runs a small Indian cultural meanings from localised practices. Hindustanis visit the ICC also a well known singer. One that is not particularly Hindustanis about Indians were never entirely positive. India has performed in various countries in the world. which evidently was much too time are part of Hindustani culture.duplicated by other countries. cally connected him with the three central countries in his life: Narain was very outspoken about the Indians in Surinam: Surinam. too. a Hindustani that ‘when they are outside India. Here. Indians are only having holidays. India’s importance for the Hindustanis. but never permanently. and how loads of Indian products are shipped to the system. Ramkhelawan is well known Surinamese with classical culture. and so on. Bollywood movies. Roy Manoredh. where they organise language courses (Hindi). they are arrogant. occasionally is not truly interested in languages. He Hindustani Surinamese set themselves apart from other Surinamese produces the religious figures – in the absence of marble – of ethnic communities by identity markers which are based on their cement and plaster. Ramkhelawan was trained in Surinam and al. as we pointed out before. Netherlands and India. ‘those people added that India’s religious magnitude does not mean that Indians do live differently’. It soon became clear that the relations between Indians went to visit the maker of a number of the statues. and other earthenware that he sells. but is particularly popular in and are being arrogant in ways that we do not like. India is important for its pop though he visited India once. He explained has never accepted the Indian embassy. Despite their India connection. Manoredh beliefs that.’ To this he salesman of Indian products explained how he places his orders added that ‘I feel a better Indian than them. And according to Jit Narain. he recently bought a cheap stack of stick to an Indian-oriented traditional culture. Many other Hindustani in- business. Moreover. these attempts do not always meet approval of the local he partly obtains from India. In this sense his their distinct cultural development and national Surinamese work is a religious activity in itself. They explicitly referred to the worth About the Hindu idols he is also selling in his stall. religious and spiritual importance. ‘But what do they expect? that these reminded him both of Holland and of India. He learned the art of sculpting by himself. These products formal approval of Delhi. India’s attempts to link up with Ramkhelawan is also famous as a chutney. Most often for Hindus but sometimes for Indian descent or on contemporary cultural attributes such as Christians as well. sells a variety of ‘Indian’ cultural and religious products. Caribbean styles. Indian dressing styles. Kries Ramkhelawan – who is These activities seem quite popular. and from there to Surinam.’ him to go to India for business purposes. Several people complained that the ICC wants to production. The clogs symboli. India is our the Caribbean. but for us India is not interesting. a creolised music style based on Indian Much of the Hindustani critique of Indians had to do with and Caribbean influences. not adapted to the Chinese bangles. told us about Indians During a visit to the central market of Paramaribo. Hindustanis and Indians. Surinam is not India. Together we for Indians only and do not train Hindustanis to become inde- visited a lady who owns a local pottery and produces the ‘dias’ pendent teachers. are Hindustanis centre. where They focus on Hindus’ (while there are so many Muslims) and people used to walk on wooden sandals too. Apparently these cultural ties are not left to soul become elements of local Hindustani culture and derive their matters only. he never culture and movie culture.38 He makes it a point to create his ‘Indian arrogance’. for business purposes. does not seem to think so. The man would not mind visiting India. They sold like hot cakes. classical in need of ‘authentic’ Indian products? music and dance. The statues form in his hands. these days the ties with India are through faxes. Ramkhelawan have good intentions. While he to attend various courses. Stalls in the second man of the embassy explained why he could not grant the central market and shops around the city sell various Indian us a formal interview.’ Various Hindustani responses seem to indicate a different opinion. ranging from incense to idols to saris. baithak gana and Surinam have been rather pointless.

that it was so poor. Trivandrum. Varanasi. He also went searching for his relatives and has and he got the opportunity to see so many places. ‘You have preserved our language so well. Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas because India’s most famous NRI. he has been returning to India. of stay in South Africa. the fact that he goes there on a very regular basis. in India.’ Apparently. that there was no Hindustanis who went to India. they never enough. but he refused to believe them and called them The travel agent went to India for the first time in 1967. First. And everywhere a guru in India. Chennai. Not because India is his own country. Indian. His interests are entirely cultural. never in my life. has searched sions. ‘It was an amazing experience. They cannot even clean their own its religious significance. Other informants also criticised the Indian attempts to spread his India tours sell less goods than – they sell 50 per cent less – Indian culture. despite the long depended). Both men are very clear about their identity: Hindustani These journeys include visits to Delhi. on which Hindi teachers is too expensive for many Hindustanis. He told us that ‘strangely to take them to his village. Rishikesh is another popular tourist destination. The travel agent spent four nights Surinamese. their experiences in India have been very positive. their India connection does not make them The organised tours to India of his travel agency last 13 days. This. Others complained that India does not invest sufficiently for his relatives and has an Indian guru. Surinam is his country. One day. Yet. the people fulfil their religious duty. since in Surinam. poverty was enormous and people 15 years. Apart from not interested in Hindustani art forms or other cultural expres. Nowadays he goes there to teach Surinamese people about the good things he witnessed four times a year. this Unfortunately. To the question whether he is an Indian he answers: ‘No. I met an honest Indian straight away. the teacher shared a flat with some Dutch Hindustanis. on the other hand. January 9 was selected as the opening date of the forthcoming Patna meant nothing to these tourists. explained they came from South America the old man started His comments about one of his first acquaintances with an India crying. They replied that they were Indian nation. The money that comes from India only goes to Indians. not political. Calcutta. who he visits on a yearly basis. His ties with India and his Indian Hindustanis feel drawn to India and have the wish to visit the relatives are based on his sense of responsibility towards the country. and secondly. Nevertheless. interested in propagating traditional classical Indian culture and The travel agent feels strongly connected with India. Once a year he visits his guru. Everyone wanted to leave the very same day.’ He was particularly mean that we are Indian.’ He wanted reveal some general thoughts of Indians. he would not knew about the five-year contracts. They did not like it at all. The food. roots tourism. but that does not in the village. the teacher still misses India very much. grandfather’s village. He sympathises with the aims of GOPIO to own people. many of the PIOs who will be participating Economic and Political Weekly September 20. map the Indian diaspora and to connect the different commu- nities. While after At the time of their migration. but instead sponsors their GOPIO. Once they also included Bihar’s capital Patna in a tour. for the same life span. The travel agent told us that he always kitchens. honesty is not a common Indian characteristic. was Conclusion no success at all. went. ‘We are return back home afterwards. Chennai. Because of their exams. With this visit It never reaches the Surinamese. Since The second case is of a 59-year old Hindi and Sarnami teacher. They had warned him that so many villagers would met a family of namesakes.’ to Rishikesh. Hereafter we will shortly discuss the cases of two things about the country. and about the possibility to like to settle there for good. went to India for studies. for two different reasons. the wish to visit his grandfather’s village one day. had returned to India on this day after 21 years industries. he decided to apply for an Indian scholarship. The villagers were acquainted with claim to be a relative. a Hindi and Sarnami teacher. He then decided not to go but still cherishes the stories of a couple of young men setting off for South America. When they then traced some relatives down in Nagpur region. Hindustani Surinamese do find their In 1985 this man went to India for one year. He was so sure they were from his village. their stories also reveal that their India an old man overheard their conversation and asked them why connection does not lead to a national identification with the they had come from his homeland. Rishikesh. positive experiences. from Surinam. whereas Gandhiji returned within because it features in most Bollywood movies. many was born and raised in Surinam. Despite the fact that many contract labourers came from Bihar. notices changes in the group when they are there. elderly men are generally most They feel connected with the country and they feel a desire to influential. 2003 4017 . Surinamese. however. He had heard awful ways to India. Our ancestors come from there. both men feel closely connected to India and have had many They used to communicate with each other in Sarnami. pilgrimage. Interestingly. The travel agent explicitly said that he feels a respon- ‘everyone has to accept one another and live together. Nevertheless. education. distance and costs involved. The teacher told us that he wants that visit. Uttar Pradesh. He also noticed the important role of the community: go back. the man not to go. People come and go for various reasons: business country of his ancestors. for its movie Mahatma Gandhi. he could not fulfil his wish to visit his person was very supportive with the search for his ancestors. extended family.care of by rich Hindustanis.’ Ever since sibility for the people of India. India and Surinam are separated by thousands of miles – and Because of his interests in Hindi and his desire to write Surinamese the fastest connection is via the Netherlands – a visit to India textbooks (instead of the Indian ones. purposes. Some told us that the Indian embassy is only than those which include countries such as Indonesia or Thailand. leaving Hindustanis dependent on Indians. Surinam. holidays. people received him well. Nevertheless. he is also member of in the training of local art teachers. People from the university had advised him In the local shoe shop of his grandfather’s village. But when he got there he liked it so much that he did not first person is the owner of a travel agency that also organises really want to return. I do not want to be one!’ He In spite of their uneasy relation with Indians and India.’ surprised by the dominant position of the elderly women in the For both men. The second person. His national Indian Experiences identification is evident. Goa and Bombay. While In Delhi. The people were so beautiful and friendly trips to India. He liars. is very popular.

with what Ron Ramdin (2000:152) wrote: “There was little Tropical Countries (WOTRO) entitled ‘A Diaspora Coming Home? Overseas doubt that apart from the introduction in 1895 of the payment of a Indians Reestablishing Links with India’. Ranchi) and concentrates on PIOs in Mauritius. 2002). in the nation of Surinam. The latter enabled Sinha. south Asian people living outside Pakistan. Amsterdam). (2001-2005) sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for Research in however.cgi?formname= Maithili.6 million”. Magahi. New Delhi). More extensive research among other ‘ordinary’ put it. Yet. (cf ibid). Bangladesh. It is bordered by Guyana to the west. to be able.] in three had decided to return [Ramdin 2000:152]. The Hindustan Times of June 11.in the largest ever gathering of the global Indian family in January Netherlands in 1975 and lies on the north-central coast of South America 2003. India. they wanted to lay their bones on India’s sacred soil”. in Surinam known as a response to globalisation that stimulated an Indian ideology as Hindustanis. however. Haiti. We have tried to demonstrate therefore that actual ethnic there was an Indian diaspora of 20 million in 180 countries (Hindustan encounters that occurred in Surinam did not trigger off ethnic Times. do not always comply with notions of the ‘self’ and years back. India followed in the footsteps of other countries such as Greece. torical and economic differences between the two groups and a core of them are foreign citizens)”. constitute 34. 6 In Indian newspapers and magazines it is often argued that Indians are community of Surinam. [See also Samaroo 1994:8]. or PIOs and on which countries are included (and excluded). because as they themselves elite of Surinam. Interestingly. which losing relations. Yet. This project is carried out by premium linked to commutation of the claim of a free passage. Surinam is spelled and pronounced as ‘Suriname’. which during the 1970s became 3 In Dutch. prefer the spelling ‘Surinam’. Italy. and slowly developed a new language.com/cgi-bin/gold/folder. Yet. and of the the nation [cf Huang. Hungary and China. Certainly. (See also the study by Mohapatra Institute of Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam. “Only two rainbow. the two will meet on Indian soil. Very soon. Hindi or Hindustani (Urdu).rediff. Besides.com 8 Indentured labour was also recruited from other regions such as Maharashtra. or part of the same a book published by the All India Congress Committee in 1951 and refers to a passage in which the following story was reiterated that. 2001) writes: “There are around 15 million people of beneficial basis. we and Sri Lanka totalled 8. in Surinam and works in close collaboration with Sinha-Kerkhoff.000 in 1998 and PIOs. they tried to save money as much as possible and remitted received a travel grant from WOTRO to carry out fieldwork in Surinam.38 crore in 1993 (according to this government statistics. At times there was regular communication between The researchers extend their thanks to WOTRO and to the International India and Surinam [Gautam 1995]. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Avadh Notes and Bihar [McNeill 1915]. some among the first generation of They are guided by Willem van Schendel (IISH. but these PIOs are also successfully rooted. as well as their offspring. R K Jain (1993:2) writes that. “people of Indian origin are spread over nearly 100 countries latter group reacted negatively to perceived socio-cultural. She Accordingly. these aggregates seem much bigger now larities. Avadhi. 2000 transnationalism among the Hindustanis in Surinam. members are not clearly defined and charitably interpreted. Instead. Ellen Bal (Free indentured labourers thought their tenure was a ‘temporary sojourn’ and University Amsterdam) carries out research among PIOs in Netherlands and that after completion ‘they would go back to their mother country’. Guotu and Kyoko 1998. 2001). Braj. kathinka@inranchi. will be ‘returning’ after several generations. Obviously. identified and are labelled as Hindustanis and Address for correspondence: not as Indians or East Indians like those who settled in other colonies. however. Prevelakis 1998 and Pries contemporary Indian attempts to bring back the PIOs to their 1999]. numbers depend on definitions of the Indian/ recrimination. Pahari. an estimated one Kerkhoff to attend the conference in Heidelberg. “In 1987. Once in Surinam they also learned Dutch and some English read_msg&folder=Inbox&file (27 December 2002). the variety is also caused by the into a veritable hell if the patterns of interaction between its politics of numbers. The Indian and is the smallest nation on the continent. French Guyana to the east. The government’s decision to woo these PIOs has been explained population is estimated at 420. culturally. the joint family can turn Asian diaspora. the total sum of Indian connection. 2003 . 2002). Surinam achieved independence from the 11 Known as ‘depot brotherhood’ (‘dipua bhai’) [Gautam 1995:3]. however. 300 aged Indians from British Guyana returned to India on with the national identification of many members of the Hindustani the expiry of their employment contracts there. Our experiences in Surinam show. and cultural and linguistic simi. [This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper presented during the 17th 9 The issue of ‘return migration’ after expiry of contract or indeed after European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies in Heidelberg the abolition of the system of indenture is an important one and highlighted (September 9-14. Muslims and women is needed. economically. So far. his. Scholars quote very different and lower figures such as 11 million for the ‘South Asian diaspora’ in ‘70 this strengthened their separate national identity as Surinamese countries’ [Paranjape 2001:1-2]. it seems that there indeed is an found in almost all nations of the world. the mentioned. concluded that this was “the eternal call of the Ganga! This elusive tie to draw definite conclusions for the contemporary Hindustani will remain so long as Indians are what they are” [Rajkumar 1951:37]. 28 July. etc. and totalling 1. Bhojpuri. It is the first outcome of an ongoing research project in the bigger study of which this paper is a part. overseas Indians. million and 22 million. 1 While government documents speak of People of Indian Origin. 5 November. turned towards the dynamic elements of the diaspora to ‘save’ both their admiration for and disapproval of Indians. members of a global Indian family. religious connec. based on historical roots.) By 1915. The writer Hindustanis. R R Ramchandani of the Mumbai should keep Parekh (1993:39) in mind who remarked: University in an unpublished paper presented in a National Workshop in Hyderabad on India and the Indian diaspora: Linkages and Expectations Unless they clarify and put their relations on a healthy and mutually (September 8-9. somewhere between eight tions (in particular for Hindus). We find the number of 20 million in May 2002 (India Today. immigrants Kathinka Sinha-Kerkhoff and her research assistant Alok Deo Singh (ADRI. seldom wished to return”. others 10 Among Hindustanis different regional languages were used such as at times name them Persons of Indian Origin. who were either born in the colony or who had arrived in childhood. We here known as ‘Sarnami’ [Gautam 2001). savings regularly. Nepal and hopes for mutual ethnic transnationalism are high. 2002:58) and 22 million in July 2002 (Hindustan Times. most of the migrants who landed up in Surinam were from the north-western provinces. and Brazil to the south. politically and nationally. than two decades ago. EPW 7 Immigrants who were born in British India and settled in Surinam.2 per cent of the total population (Information of transnational ethnic commonality among PIOs the world over and statistics available at the embassy of the Republic of Suriname in [cf Tsuda 2001:56]. 4018 Economic and Political Weekly September 20. PIOs (including NRIs) quoted. In 2001. Authors profess to quote official (Indian) figures. The Indian perceptions of PIOs as children of mother 5 The title of this paper ‘The Eternal Call of the Ganga’ is taken from India. 2 http://f3mail. (1995) on those who returned to Calcutta. As Indians should know. motherland. the Netherlands and Surinam. that mutual criticism has already infested the India-Hindustani 4 Albeit in different ways. Our Hindustani informants were rather explicit about ground. there is a grave danger that the long awaited reunion Indian origin (PIO) and non-resident Indians (NRIs) in some 130 countries of the globally extended Indian family could break up in much outside India”. varies widely. Here we can sustain. NRIs. Portugal.

business meetings and conventions. Sadanand A Shetty for instance (Schiller in Pries 1999:73). 2002. no 3. “the provision in the report that only those also excludes citizens of Sri Lanka from the definition of PIO and the from US. 2003 4019 . Iran. In: GOPIO in Surinam had sent a delegation to India to see whether emigration could Souvenir. people. Most interviews were with leading figures in the and Dutch speaking diaspora” (Report of the HLC on Indian Diaspora:412). It is concluded that “now there is a government in 16 “Diaspora space (as distinct from the concept of diaspora) is ‘inhabited’ India which is expected to show more concern about Hindus and overseas not only by diasporic subjects. in matters carried out several interviews and had informal conversations with of ‘culture’ for instance they are considered to be ‘real’ PIOs. It does. in particular like to thank Kries Ramkhelawan for the tremendous 1991:90-92). Australia and New Zealand are to be favoured FEM (Acquisition and Transfer of Immovable Property in India) seems to be discriminatory”. editorial). They should be prompted to that East Indians born in Surinam would be considered Dutch subjects innovate. C J M de Klerk (1953). 1999. January 6-7. They should be related conditions and criteria laid down in the legislation to be enacted to amend to ‘cultural and political contacts as well’. comments on some of the recommendations made by the high level 21 Definitions of PIOs are dissimilar in different contexts. interests and well-being of the Surinamese people as a whole and the 18 It is interesting to mention that in 1921 the British Indian community people of Indian origin (PIO) in particular’ (Nandoe. We also visited the districts of regard. Children Abroad Series on Surinam’ (vol V. He agrees that concerned for instance PIOs are defined as ‘citizens of any country other “there is no doubt that Indians settled abroad need to be drawn into a than Bangladesh or Pakistan.cgi?formname= is frequently highlighted [Malik 1993:204]. vol 1. the HLC recommends for instance that. January. 2001. work hard. soon recruiting areas were non sectarian organisation’. in both the ‘sending country’ as well ‘receiving things. Surinamese-Hindustani community – mostly well-off. the Indian Council 14 During 2002 we have made two field trips to Surinam. and attended be designed to recognise and highlight the achievements of India’s French some cultural events. he (57 of 1955). however. 6th International Convention. It will. “the uplift of Hindus 15 Till 1927. the fact that in 28 De Klerk already commented in the early 1950s that the most important Surinam ‘East Indians’ constitute 38 per cent of the population and still cultural activity for Hindustanis was watching movies. Indian films are Economic and Political Weekly September 20. New be started again in one way or another. Similarly. As far as matters committee on the Indian Diaspora (HLCID) concerning special “single regarding the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) of 1999 are window” clearances for NRIs and to dual citizenship. higher educated. multi-cultural and multi- Uttar Pradesh also part of the Bengal Presidency. Yet. 1986:203 and 204]. new policies and government schemes are discussed in the recently 27 This part of the paper deals with past and present reactions from Surinam. From the early 1870s language society. Further he felt that. from the definition in consonance with the basic tenets of Indian democracy” (in One India. dual nationality issue the article by P M Kamath. ‘endeavour to promote the recruiting area in northern India [Tinker 1974 in Jain 1989:161]. and cultural elite relate to and reflect on India and on what ‘is from Besides. “the government need to Regulations 2000. in 1927 an immigration law was passed mandating oppressed. ‘duly account pushed westward into the Hindi-speaking zones of Bihar and eastern was taken that Suriname is a multi-ethnic. It also includes a special chapter The historical information is mostly based on one of the two books on on Surinam and the Netherlands: report of the high level committee on Hindus in Surinam published in the early 1950s by the father redemptorist the Indian Diaspora. religious of a Hindi chair at the University of Surinam (see Report of the HLC:226). and represented as ‘indigenous’.com/cgi-bin/gold/folder. 58-59). weak and less enlightened. GOPIO aims. therefore whether nationalists had asked for abolition of the indenture 24 One such important NGO in India is the Antar Rashtriya Sahayog system only to satisfy the nationalist feelings of the Indian bourgeoisie Parishad (ARSP) (Indian Council for International Cooperation) which in India without understanding the needs of those who left. vol 5. New York Columbia University Press. to start an Indo-Suriname Brothership Society and the establishment an interesting insight in how members of the political. Yet. Yet. rights”. where all groups live together peacefully. In framing its constitution. ‘India’s Overseas Children’ in Third herewith express their sincere thanks to its secretary general Baleshwar World (London). read_msg&folder=Inbox&file (December 27. UK. 20 ‘Transmigrants are immigrants whose daily lives depend on multiple and 25 See also: S Sassen 1996. 2000 as a ‘non partisan. constructive link with their country of origin” yet is questioned. Yet. Among many others ‘Mother India.rediff. Indian Council of World Affairs. New Delhi). “Special measures should Saramacca and Nickerie. India has other plans with Surinam too such as the establishment of Indo. “how or (b) he or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was citizen can this be done in a way that is beneficial to both Indians and NRIs of India by virtue of the Constitution of India or Citizenship Act. July 2002. Agrawal who never lingers in providing extensive help in our research. China. who warned that one should look ‘beyond will not be accorded to all as the HLC recommend that. In the article by Beekransing Ramlallah entitled ‘Overseas help he extended. the concept of diaspora space 23 A pan-global organisation that seeks “to bring together more than 18 foregrounds the entanglements of genealogies of dispersion with those of million people of Indian origin worldwide”. eastern UP remained the leading work together in a constructive way’. Our material is therefore too limited to draw conclusions Surinamese joint ventures. in Surinam. May 20. if (a) he at any time held Indian passport. and dedicate their lives to the cause [Orna 1999:123]. of PIO (ibid). economic. it can be added [cf Brah 1996:16]. During our stay in Paramaribo (Surinam) we Though Hindustanis are at times left out of the Indian nation. As such. speak a “variant of the ‘Bhojpuri’ Hindi dialect known as ‘Sarnami’” 13 http://f3mail. He warned that. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The GOPIO also has a ‘Suriname recruited in the ‘hill coolie’ districts of Chota Nagpur division and some chapter’. no 12. the majority of emigrants were vol 16. Canada. November 6-19). 1955’ (All details concerning contacts could ‘play negative roles as well’ (Ibid:40). no 23. 17 In the first phase beginning in 1834. which was established on March 7. 22 Related to support to ‘Hindu nationalism’ in Surinam. to address the concerns of the PIOs in their countries of settlement country (ies)’. See also: Jayaram and to utilise the expertise of Indian expatriates for the benefit of people (1998:46-63). Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of constant interconnections across international borders and whose public Globalisation. Some scholars therefore wondered Delhi: 40). among other ‘staying put’”. Nepal seriously work on those provisions that reek of elitism or which are not or Bhutan besides Pakistan. for instance in: India Today. [Emmer closely works together with the GOPIO in organising academic seminars. the GoI has recently announced it will provide One People. or (c) the person is a spouse of an Indian citizen or a person felt that dual citizenship to only Indians abroad would go “against the to in sub-clause (a) or (b) (Puri and Malhotra 2001:11) The FEM basic premise of the Indian Constitution that all citizens enjoy equal (Investment in Firm or Proprietary Concern in India) Regulations 2000. should give more thought to them” [ibid:94]. The present paper for International Cooperation published an interesting article in their only includes data collected during the first field trip. excludes citizens of Afghanistan. etc). identities are configured in relationship to more than one nation state’ 26 Within India there are some fears. he warned that these the relevant sections of Citizenship Act. give PIOs. in India and the countries where the PIOs are settled” (Frontline. but equally by those who are constructed Indians values. interact and till the end of the indenture emigration. Hindu men. a mechanism to trace the Indian roots of the about Surinamese Hindustani perceptions of India. 1972.12 Known as ‘ship brotherhood’ (‘jahazia bhai’) [Gautam 1995:3]. See also in the same PIOs with Indian nationality while keeping another. published 600 page report of the HLC. 2001. of national uplift”. November. 2002). ideas. Sinha-Kerkhoff and Alok Singh 19 See also: Anirudha Gupta. though Surinam does often not even figure in PIO maps (see India’ (goods. where many Hindustanis are living. 1955 without having to compromise India’s basic interests?” Moreover. divided. In this Hindustanis from various backgrounds. ‘dual citizenship economic benefits’ and felt that contacts with the PIOs should be spread should be permitted for members of the Indian diaspora who satisfy the out ‘rather than limit them to a few rich countries’. Hindustanis were considered as ‘aliens’ whether born or not should be given priority because they are most backward. save persevere. Indians – What They Should Do’ it is stated that. ARSP. other districts of the Bengal Presidency. we.

Hindoeïsme). Chutney music for they feel that the name ‘Hindoestanen’ suggest it only includes Hindus instrumentation consisted of a harmonium for melody. most popular. however.ncasindia.geocities. For an interesting account of root tourism see: Hira (2000). sang a variety of folk songs to celebrate a wedding on the previous Friday They are generally more well to do and the distance between The night (‘Maticoor’ is similar to a ‘hen night’).. which has helped bring the communities and cultures 35 The original poem is in Dutch: Adji/Bedankt dat je bleef/Op z’n together more successfully than have the politicians. They 32 This search for roots seems more common among Dutch Hindustanis. policy makers and academicians. universities were not popular at all. In the De Klerk’s days. http://www. Men became involved and started to sing chutney songs as well. copies of supporting documents and a one-page note on the significance of People Centred Advocacy should be sent by October 31. chutney music and dancing are hot and spicy – a Hindustani visiting India for study purposes (in 1948). Research. De Klerk found only one case of 37 “Like the condiment. See: http://www.. Some prefer to leave out the ‘o’ in the spelling. chutney artistes began adding/mixing calypso rhythms 34 Officially they received ‘Nederlands onderdaanschap’. Indian still to examine these themes. set to make an impact on the international music scene. planners. a Trinidadian invention) for rhythm from the part of India called Hindustan (Dutch: Hindoestan).. to work in the Caribbean sugar industry after the abolition of slavery. (. based in voor recht/Ik buig neer/Voor jouw voeten.) However. chutney-soca too. Familiarity with budget analysis. He/she will be responsible to develop the programme framework. ‘Tassa’ drums were added later. Netherlands and India is much less than between India and Surinam.org/ 4020 Economic and Political Weekly September 20. as well as London and or in India itself studied Hindi or ‘Indology’ (old-fashioned indication Holland.. Bombay (215).” http://bigmag. adji/als dank/niet als plicht. Adequate knowledge and understanding of the social sector/development scenario. celebrated 12 days afterwards (‘Barahee’). 2003 . (.com. Hindi and Urdu. who follows Hinduism (Dutch: music. Eligibility: A committed/experienced scholar/development professional with people centred and rights based perspective. Applications with detailed C. social action groups. Bihar and the Gangetic Plains were induced (by the British) settled on a permanent basis in Surinam. civil society organisations. or the birth of a child. ensure institutional sustainability and take the organisation into the next decade. Some of the words sung to the bride-to-be were of a risqué nature and 33 Since the 1970s Hindustanis have debated about the way their name bore some resemblance to the double-entendres of calypso.com/kries_r/biography. hence the name. Pashan.V. He comments that that a Hindu (Dutch: Hindoe) years the music has been transformed with the addition of Indian film is a Hindustani (Dutch: Hindostaan). For more details visit http://www. Many making waves in Trinidad. media. Pune 411 021 or email to ncas@vsnl. languages and philosophy). Dutch citizenship [De Klerk:185]. a dholak (hand (Dutch: Hindoes). Over the uses the word Hindostan. National Centre for Advocacy Studies (NCAS). a ‘dhantal’ (a long metal rod. Ramnagar Colony.html NCAS NEEDS AN EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR NCAS is looking for a dynamic and highly motivated person who is committed to rights. Job Profile: The Executive Director will be the Chief Functionary of the centre working under the guidance and supervision of the Executive Committee of NCAS. De Klerk and the ‘lotah’ (brass cups).uk/ minst bevrijd/ben ik/van de vloek der goden/die nog op de indier rust/ ccx/leisure/entertainment/story1 Jouw aanzet/reet gevouwen handen open/en balde vuisten in de strijd/ 38 http://www. 2003 to The Secretary. Training. Others are of the opinion that Hindoestanen comes drum). Several Hindustanis. Toronto. He/she will have autonomy in functioning. Chutney is the latest genre of popular Caribean music that is for classical Indian culture.. muurgedichten. (. and other festive occasions. seas more than 150 years ago when indentured labourers from the United 31 This number includes some 2.nl/narain..) Afro-Trinidadian artists have started singing from ‘het Nederlanderschap’. returned to Surinam with a BA in Hindi [De Klerk:202]. For many years chutney and chutney-soca have been Kanhai.co. raise resources. either in The Netherlands Caribbean communities in New York. The lyrics should be written in Dutch. peoples’ organisations. East Indian folk-songs crossed the care of the correspondence of contract labourers [De Klerk:133]. were traditionally sung in Bhojpuri. Networking and Advocacy skills.) Solely women originally performed chutney songs and dance. 29 We heard of several people who had spent time in India while studying 36 This might also be true for Muslim and Christian Hindustanis.500 free settlers from British Guyana who Provinces. 30 It is interesting to note that since 1896.html. which differs to their compositions. Salary: Negotiable. This person. Most films are distributed by Bombay Pictures. [De Klerk:43-44] In the late 1960s. Leadership qualities and ability to work with a team· Adequate experience and willingness to work with research centres. the immigration department took chutney music is not something new. We are its languages or philosophy. among the Indo- have since followed Kanhai. nationaalarchief. Guyana and Surinam. Communication. Serenity Complex. equity and justice with a particular focus on the marginalized sections of the society to fill the post of Executive Director..nl/suriname/base_hindo/achtergrond_info.

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