PERSPECTIVES

Gandhi’s Satyagraha Apartheid translated itself in terms of
words, gestures and acts. In a sense it tur-

in South Africa and the Tamils ned to the advantage of the migrant Indians
that the practice of apartheid brought
together the motley groups of indentured
labour, coolies, white collar workers and
Vijaya Ramaswamy prosperous professional categories like
merchants and lawyers under the umbrella

I
Gandhi’s newspaper, the Indian n his book, Satyagraha in South Africa of discrimination. This banding together of
Opinion, was launched in South Mahatma Gandhi says, “I believe that the Indian community paved the way for
a struggle which chiefly relies upon in- the Gandhian satyagraha.
Africa in three languages –
ternal strength cannot be wholly carried
Gujarati, Tamil and English – in on without a newspaper – it is also my ex- The Tamil Edition
1903 on the eve of the satyagraha perience that we could not perhaps have The very first issue of the Tamil IO pro-
struggle. Tamils constituted the educated the local Indian community, nor vides the justification for its publication.
kept Indians all over the world in touch These reasons are as follows:
largest percentage of the Indian
with the course of events in South Africa “(1) The Whites do not consider us their
diaspora among the indentured in any other way, with the same ease and equals although both are ‘settlers in
labour as well as the “Passenger success as through the Indian Opinion, South Africa’.
Indians” who came in search of which therefore was certainly a most use- (2) We must take note of British ingratitude
ful and potent weapon in our struggle.”1 in not acknowledging the help rendered by
better opportunities. This essay
The first issue (which began as an the Indian soldiers in South Africa.
situates the Tamils in South English weekly) was published at Gandhi’s (3) We are pained at the complete igno-
Africa and their response to press at Durban, Natal on 4 June 1903. rance of second and third generation Tamils
Gandhi’s call for satyagraha The paper opens with a lengthy editorial about their own historical roots, Tamil
on the need for a Tamil edition of the Indian culture and India’s relationship with Britain.
by examining the available issues
Opinion (IO) in South Africa. It is noteworthy (4) We hope to overcome this lacuna (in
of the Tamil edition between that the Gujarati and Hindi editions also their knowledge) through learned articles
1903 and 1914. began to come out around the same time. by Tamils on all these aspects.
The publication of the IO in three major (5) Can we expect anything at all to be
Indian languages – Gujarati, Tamil and done for us by the King Edward VII or by the
English – foregrounds the Gandhian satya- Anglo-Saxon community? Our sole aim (in
graha in South Africa. The lead editorials starting this Tamil edition of Indian Opinion)
spoke of the ill-effects of imperial policy is to better the conditions of our people and
on both the Africans and the trope of establish ‘unity’ among the various Indian
Indian diaspora, in particular the Tamil communities settled here in South Africa.”
community. From contemporary records, Almost every edition of the weekly con-
it appears that the Tamils constituted the tains the lines “It is your paper published
largest contingent of the Indian diaspora in your interest in order to condemn dis-
among the indentured labour, and a size- criminatory laws against Indians”. It states,
able chunk of the “Passenger Indians” who “Your paper cannot run if we do not have a
I am very grateful to the Gandhi Museum and
its director Varsha Das, for suggesting that I
came in search of better opportunities minimum of 4,000 to 5,000 subscribers
should look at the issues of the Tamil edition of from various parts of their homeland. This and advertisements for at least four to five
Indian Opinion from 1903 to 1913-14 and article seeks to situate the Tamils in South pages”. It ends by appealing to the Tamils
present the nature of their contents before a Africa and their response to Gandhi’s call to patronise the weekly by buying their
select audience at a National Seminar held on for satyagraha, from the perspective of copies. It is noteworthy that very rarely
18 December 2006, titled “Indian Opinion, the
Editor Gandhi”. The present article is a revised
the available Tamil editions of the IO pub- did the Tamil edition of IO even run into
version of my paper, “The Indian Opinion: Voice lished between 1903 and 1914. the second page. It often shared the page
of the Tamil Diaspora”, published by the Gandhi The crux of the Indian grievance in with the Gujarati edition.
Museum on the occasion of the centenary year South Africa was discrimination on gro-
of Gandhian Satyagraha in South Africa. unds of race. As the very first Tamil edition Tamil Diaspora in South Africa
Vijaya Ramaswamy (biyarangu@yahoo.com) of IO puts it, “The whites do not consider The inaugural issue devotes three long
is with the Centre for Historical Studies, us their equal although we both are set- columns to an essay titled “An Account of
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
tlers in South Africa”. Indians in South Africa”. It mentions that
36 september 25, 2010 vol xlv no 39 EPW Economic & Political Weekly

They ment had gone back on its promise to re. Many unemployed children of the labourer. ran a Tamil Mrs P K Naidu and Mrs Perumal Naidu. Gandhi is quoted as saying. It adds that people followed by Tamil merchants belonging served for five years to either return to would be informed about the further primarily to the Chettiar community. subsequent issues of the weekly. IO of 26 April 1913 Gandhi had called for One of the news items says that at Pieter- something that was denied to the latter satyagraha in which he stated that while it maritzburg P Narayanasami Naidu gave Economic & Political Weekly EPW september 25. Chinnasami Pillay. the indigenous Africans but an admixture 1 November 1913 that “we shall do nothing IO not only established schools for these of races and colours. This was edition of the IO. rice conditions. Indian children were not allowed to were settled primarily in the Cape Prov. The Tamils “coloured” peoples. The issue of 4 June 1903 condemns the Pretoria since Gandhiji had asked every- tion and terms of the labour contracts. It continued The early issues of The Tamil Opinion to be a burning issue even in 1913. Some of them who were illiterate or did not know any of issue of 21 January carries a direct appeal were also petty traders like R Munusami the European languages were to be sent signed by M K Gandhi in which indentured Mudaliyar. It was these Tamils community aware of the issues before it labour which had a predominant compo. The and other luxury products. Transvaal and published the photographs of women potential for sugar farming provided reli. Cape Muslims. These discriminatory laws included the tual agreements with potential employers. continued into the 1914 issues of the Tamil Indian indentured labour. well as the coloured Tamils who produced arate but we can demonstrate our union Around 1855. These groups seem to by which your rights shall suffer”. This The subscribers of the IO came from the of these merchants settled in Transvaal matter comes up again and again in the educated section of the Tamils. 2010 vol xlv no 39 37 . to get themselves elected to the city and Natal should show solidarity with the The first batch of Tamils arrived from provincial councils. Thambi Naidu and annual licence fee of three pounds per The children of these indentured N Pillay belonged to this second rung of person if the indentured labourer and his worker migrants wanted to acquire an the Tamil diaspora and came to be called family wanted to continue to remain in education and began to seek white-collar “passenger” Indians because they had South Africa. “We are as much the sub. peal this despicable Licence Act (Act 17 of attend government schools but separate ince. have gained voting rights in due course. The supplement to the ish colony of Natal had discovered that the and a number of Tamil schools founded by Tamil edition of 29 October 1913 proudly coastlands of Natal possessed tremendous them came up in Durban. A very important aspect of the pattern the white plantation owners of South became known for their services to Tamil Tamil IO is that it not only made the Tamil Africa began to rely on Indian indentured language and culture. the paper reports that the govern. Education for Tamil Children suggest that there was yet one more cate. those among them English. Tamil and Hindi editions. Further. The tax was levied even on occupation as schoolteachers and clerks. others. Natal. nultimate year of publication of the Tamil The lead article in the 4 June 1903 issue of gory of these early immigrants. Families like those Licence Act negotiated) or to enter into new contrac- of Murugesan Pillay. was but natural that Transvaal and around one lakh and reiterates loyalty to Anil Nauria in his book The African Element Johannesburg should lead the way in the the British monarch Edward VII with the in Gandhi provides examples of “coloured” struggle as the worst hit by the Licence assertion that. with or without their consent. in the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius had school and published a Tamil weekly called The angry responses to the Licence Act developed a thriving sugar industry using Viveka Banu at his own printing press. from India under the slave trade. In the issue of 26 April IO expresses anxiety about the denial of of those who seem to have been brought 1913. who became the backbone of the Tamil but also served as an information bulletin nent of Tamils (over 60%). spices. The colonists a small business in Durban. In the children but also appealed for donations. In course Louis Botha (1862-1919). Besides Cape Tamils there were the 1895). PERSPECTIVES the Indians in South Africa number waves of immigrants from the Tamil country. India or serve under the same terms and course of action through their respective These came with their silks. The paper responded by running their own schools like the European masters nor “black” like quoted Botha as saying in his speech of in defiance of government orders. brought back shiploads of indentured The editorial of the issue of 7 January 1914 labourers most of whom were illiterate Issues Raised in the IO says that no one should proceed towards and quite ignorant of both their destina. who had satyagrahis like Mrs K Murugesan Pillay. Perumal Naidu. able labour could be found. and Pietermaritzburg where only elemen- of time these groups came to be termed ter of Transvaal and of the South African tary education was imparted. that is neither “white” Union to Gopalakrishna Gokhale. Indians like Abdur Rahman who managed Act. teachers and professionals by our action”. etc. a solemn promise made by General ones were established for them at Durban Cape Malays. back. intellectuals. the white settlers in the Brit. “The Madras on 17 November 1860 to work in It was the Tamil Chettiar community as government may treat us as if we are sep- the sugar cane fields of South Africa. education to the children of the Tamils. the Prime Minis. for further action on the satyagraha front. other areas like Cape Province and jects of the British empire as the British”. and Johannesburg. the father of Tillaiyadi Valli. labourers are requested not to pay the yammai. Labour agents edition of the IO. paid for their passage in the ships. Adopting the same Scholars like S M Pillai and G R Naidu edition. Immigration Restriction Act that required one to wait until the outcome of negotia- The early indentured labourers were the indentured labourers who had already tions was known. who opened a small provision 3-pound licence fee (which was being store in Johannesburg. the pe.2 One Vriddachalam Pillai.

K. Rs. They were about to be protecting their interests. 2008. Rs. Rs. authorities and there could be no appeal Governors’ Fortnightly Reports and It points out the patriarchal set-up in which against their verdict. handed over to the police by an English. European Perspectives business opportunities. The report con. and ed. Pillais and Chettis. A number of European other Key Documents long speech by Achalambikai Ammaiyar. Those who had very little acterise Tamil indentured labour was being Demy 8vo. 2001. of the girl child. spices and other luxury items certainly the Tamils are referred to as 81-7304-500-3.. 1963 women’s involvement in the anti-imperial ration of Transvaal. Royal 8vo. Fax: (011) 2326 5162 email: sales@manoharbooksl. in this case primarily Tamil 420p. Congress in Mid-Term abuses like child marriage and dowry. Demy 8vo. Ironically the report in the IO also Phones: 2328 4848.com the contentious issue of the Trade Licence tion back home in the Tamil country 38 september 25. 1050 education on the grounds that educated Cape Province where the first wave of women will not only be able to fight mari. The article has been merchants. The paper Formation of the Ministries and A somewhat unusual story figures in the says that the European traders took this Start of Congress Government 30 August 1904 issue. The editor advocates women’s tion was marginally better in areas like 422p. Rs..com Website: www. Indians MANOHAR PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS in the families of these upper caste are regarded as Paraiahs. 198p. which is a do not consider us their equals although IN UTTAR PRADESH trading caste clearly came in search of we are both settlers in South Africa”.” 4753/23. Singh (Gen. 1936-1937 women’s journal Madar Manoranjani. Set Price Rs.PERSPECTIVES Rs 225 as donation to the Tiruvannamalai Victoria Hindu Primary School while M Ponnusami gave Rs 105. Women and Land in Uttar Pradesh points out that unless the Tamils improved Smita Tewari Jassal their own education system and imparted Common Issues of Apartheid 81-7304-375-2. 4970 capital ended up as white collar workers. Tamils settled. 2009. 978-81-7304-868-5. for which they hoped to find an African “coolies” by the Europeans. The Pillais and Mudaliyars (the is a Tamil word. Rs. cludes on an optimistic even defiant note 418p. 81-7304-790-1. It is ISLAM IN SOUTH ASIA (6 Vols) belonged) also came in quest of business obvious that a word that was used to char.) words in English. 2005. Act.. UNITED PROVINCES’ POLITICS. to trade in the region. of women. The term “coolie” 318p. The laws were most other Key Documents marriage and housework takes the place stringent in Transvaal and the Orange Lionel Carter (comp. The report issue focus particularly on the education bitterly complains that the granting or re. The act places the Tamil merchants among others at the mercy of the licence granting authorities. It is noteworthy that by the lawmakers of the Municipal Corpo... The addresses the issue of the commercial ban Governors’ Fortnightly Reports and second lead article is the reproduction of a on Indian merchants. and ed.) of education and employment in the case River Free State while the diaspora situa. They brought with The Indian community as a whole and Roger Jeffery and Jens Lerche (eds) them silks.) many of their anxieties get sharply focused Indians were clubbed with the “Kabiris” 81-7304-114-3. 2010 vol xlv no 39 EPW Economic & Political Weekly .. UNITED PROVINCES’ POLITICS. Demy 8vo.) the well known educationist of Chennai got together to resolve that they would not 978-81-7304-810-4.manoharbooks. To quote the report: for our complete catalogue please write to us at: struggle was again more clearly perceived “In society and in social practice. The licence had to be MANOHAR U T TA R P R A D E S H Two lead articles in the 3 March 1904 renewed on a yearly basis. They taken verbatim from the Chennai-based also warned the local people not to buy any UNITED PROVINCES’ POLITICS.S. 625 market. Ed. and ed. the lat. 2327 5162 The inaugural issue of 4 June 1903 raises becomes a reflection of caste discrimina. merchants’ associations in Pietermaritzburg Lionel Carter (comp. used as a generic term for Tamils includ- PEOPLE OF INDIA These groups represented the articulate ing the educated and fairly affluent Tamils Uttar Pradesh (3 Parts) face of the Tamil diaspora and therefore like the Mudaliyars. Ansari Road. Demy 8vo. Daryaganj. goods from the Tamil shops. 1045 “Adayar feminists”. The reporter can stop us from trading in these parts”. who belonged to the group dubbed as allow Indians. As the imbibe all that is worst in society. 1938 tal ill-treatment but also act against social The Tamil edition of 29 October 1904. The crux of the Indian struggle was dis. 2010. Demy 8vo. meaning labourer or worker caste group to which Tillaiyadi Valliyammai and occurs in early Tamil inscriptions. in the issues of IO. Titled “Higher Education jection of application to trade depended 1939 The End of the First Congress for Women” the first article examines the entirely upon the whims and fancies of the Ministry reasons for education being denied to girls. 1045 man when a wealthy merchant intervened stating “provided we stand united nobody DAUGHTERS OF THE EARTH and saved the children. Rs..3 very first Tamil edition puts it “The whites SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE The Chettiar community. Demy 8vo. New Delhi-2 Tamil groups. the right values to their children. Mushirul Hasan (ed) opportunities. A news item informs step because they feared competition and Governors’ Fortnightly Reports and that two students of a Durban school were believed that the Trade Licence Act of the other Key Documents found brawling on the street using abusive imperial regime did not go far enough in Lionel Carter (comp. 2003. 400 ter would forget their cultural roots and crimination on grounds of race. 2328 9100.

This was held a hefty sum of 50 pounds (which of course are written by “lokopakari” literally “uni- under the leadership of H G Muhammad he was unable to pay) failing which he versal well wisher”. The thrust of arbitrarily arrested and detained”. The events included Tevaram (2) Indians were not allowed to walk out. Naidu. Pretoria has been given the status of a na. events. The piece is pedantic in style and patriar- Indians were advised by the government ple temples to Mariamman and Karumari.4 In the present issue stresses the importance of walking could not settle anywhere in Transvaal South Africa. Tamil community. restraint. whether a warning to unwary visitors. These were particularly Appar is an important saint in the Nayanar of the Saiva Matam celebrating the 63 applicable in Transvaal. edition had started. A curious man or woman. the Harikatha Kalakshepam or Divya medieval Saivite literature. It also Tamil edition. The lead piece is titled on 24 May to seek the withdrawal of the would have to face a three-month jail term “Good Advice to Women”. It centres Immigration Control Act and demand reser. in the a deity in the Tamil country. Guru pujai both the articles are based on speeches by physical discrimination as well. under the cot. etc. Krishna’s ally true as can be seen in the 16 April editions of IO? Here are some samples compassionate glance produces blue lotuses 1904 issue in which Hindi. It became the sym. through an act of faith. The performance of this worship in a local and S Duraisami Pillay and a number of (1) No Indian who did not own minimum temple in Transvaal is clearly addressing members from the merchant community property worth at least 75 pounds could an exclusively Tamil audience. Arjuna is enjoined by ground as well as common space with the Transvaal. to purchase land in Transvaal and non. The names such as Kandasami Chettiar. house is indicated by the tying of the Does this mean that the performing art- bolic issue of Gandhi’s satyagraha move. South African struggle. by renowned scholars and nadasvaram It was however the rule about carrying a It is well known that the goddess of (an ancient Tamil wind instrument associ- “pass” at all times that became a burning small pox. both literally and figuratively. given as Thyagaraja Pathar and Chappani reciting competition for children. hension of the South African health offic. Mariamman. Tamil and from the year 1904. not However the Tamil edition also had the paper came out irregularly. Her visit to a formances by artists from Nagapattinam. musical evenings and cultural cle on women’s education and higher edu- Hindu temples. a detailed account of the first anniversary February 1903. of the patrons of this religious festival are Chettiar. Many and Mahesvara pujai was performed for made by Achalambikai Ammaiyar. selfless care of a signifier of the Gandhian satyagraha in of his action that was beyond the compre. Africa in the 1900s have read in their steps. representing a welcome to the goddess and from Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu? nantly put it. to be watered. the horses need Tamil edition of IO shared common What would the Tamils sitting in Natal. In the same issue is a news item on constituting the most important body of (3) Indians could not live in the same lo. “whether old or young. The article compares angry The Indian community was not allowed ers would however be crystal clear to the women to asuras who wreck their homes. Saivite pantheon for whom annual worship Nayanmars of the Tamil Saiva bhakti tra- Natal and Pietermaritzburg although their is offered in the temples of Tamil Nadu. Johannesburg. except in the quarters allotted to them. or to drink water from the were devoted to happenings in Tamil consists primarily of a two-part lead arti- same well as the upper castes and to enter temples. As the IO issue of 4 June 1903 indig. Saiyappa walk on the same pavement as the whites. It must be noted that of faith and surrender to the supreme. Johannesburg or elsewhere in Krishna to create a pond and construct Gujarati and Hindi editions. Charitai of Arangan (the Tamil term for Kathakalakshepam (musical discourses) habit particular areas of the town. etc. for hiding his smallpox-affected parent around how women should serve as role vation for Indians in the Cape Town Council. PERSPECTIVES because the Paraiah is regarded as an un. They Town British India League. The second piece in the same not to rent out their houses to Indians who amman in South Africa. dissimilar from the didactic tone of the Economic & Political Weekly EPW september 25. soon after the Tamil in the pond. Verbal discrimination was accompanied ported that on 23 April 1903. Tevaram side after 9 p m. which had built multi. 2010 vol xlv no 39 39 . This is liter. away from the gaze of the models for society through their obedi- The burning of these hated passes became health authorities. In the middle of On most of the issues listed above. in that order. their children and practice of patience and South Africa. The main patrons were C K D Pillay application extended beyond these. The cultural implications ence to their husbands. dition. For example the 4 June issue re. of these unequal Acts were incorporated Vaidyanatha Svami (Siva) and Appar The only other news item in the issue is in the Immigration Control Act passed in Svamigal (one of the Nayanar trinity). the Pages from the Past the war at Kurukshetra. chal in tone. The moral is the importance Gujarati articles appear on the same page. the Mahabharata on the power of sur- IO and the Tamil Cultural Identity render and devotion. A number of reports shares space with the Hindi edition. is worshipped as ated with musical rituals in temples) per- issue. It reports that one Karappa the articles seems once again to be on talks about a protest meeting of the Cape Pillai was arrested by the police and fined women and religion. The next piece is a religious story from tional monument by the government. There were cality as the whites but were forced to in. margossa (neem) leaves in the front arch ists were actually paid to come all the way ment. which cannot be found 3 March 1904: The single page issue touchable and not allowed to move freely in the other two. whether at daytime or at news item in the 3 September 1904 issue 9 April 1904: This issue once again shares night. anyone found without a pass can be testifies to the cultural specificity of the space with the Hindi edition. cation for Indian women. distinctive features. It in society. Vishnu) by Vriddachala Pillai. the Mariamman temple in as an exercise for women. Interestingly.

has urged the sanitise their homes and surroundings in South African imperial regime to concede to of a moral struggle. arduous struggle ahead. gruel- faith and surrender. …This fight was outbreak around Natal and Johannesburg The Indian Enquiry Commission. Role of Tamil Women years of the Tamil edition by supplement- cation in its lead issue. The only be renewed. Let’s think of those Indians for “Dr William’s Pink tablets” which seem reproduction of articles from Chennai-based who do not need to pay this tax or of those to be a cure for many ailments including periodicals (Madar Manoranjani. its raison d’etre but it also served the larger dhi’s directives which were issued from tually got linked to a second Sino. stands suspend- addressing “The deeply felt absence of a ed. Viceroy’s emissary. The Hindi issue talks about the the political modes of protest were clearly ance groups as well as for conveying Gan- Russo-Japanese war in 1904 (which even. set up by joined by women and by many young boys of followed by general advice to Indians to 16. provided the Indian communities. South African Indians geared up for the unequal laws of the British in South Africa. Only if his efforts oners reported the filthy conditions in South Africa including the burning issues failed would the non-violent struggle which they were housed and how the of licences and racial apartheid. This enjoins every satyagrahi to prepare for the few prisoners including Bhadri (a Tamil). unmindful of for their passive resistance and occasionally 40 september 25. As passive resistance against the unjust and fetched a tidy and much needed sum. 2010 vol xlv no 39 EPW Economic & Political Weekly . It the Gandhian struggle in South Africa and The response to Gandhi’s call for seems likely that the advertisement its implementation in three phases. noteworthy that at least two of the pieces on issues which exercised the cultural The best historical representation of the in this issue – the essays on women and the imagination of the diasporic Tamils at satyagraha movement in South Africa is news cum advertisement by William Pink that particular time. In his essay of 23 the steps taken to oppose the hated information and directives through adver. Tamil and Hindi issues. as vestiges of Tamil cultural history as of the press in Phoenix. etc) such women with young infants who are suffer- headaches. stomach disorders. The This struggle will not only confer honour woman) were released due to ill health and political protests by the Indian community upon us. On 29 May. This decision is being duly advertised in count of the atrocities being perpetrated Hindu temple in Johannesburg”. On no account of diarrhoea among the prisoners (7 Janu- should be consent to pay the cruel three satyagraha struggle in South Africa. provide regular lists of Tamils imprisoned Tamil edition of the IO would suggest that Those who join this struggle. In this. etc. A deci. Gandhi writes: Padam Singh and Bhavani (a Tamil tion was building up towards a crisis. One of For example. never hestated other column is a historical piece on the The same editorial dated 7 January 1914 to use the whip on them. became the talk of the world. political framework. The Tamil issue matters pertaining to the Tamil diaspora. states country’s name immortal. on the political prisoners at the Durban sion will be arrived at by the end of this jails.000 poor Indians Indian community in South Africa. South African Indians our demands for autonomy. order to escape the dread epidemic. The ations. The pris- umns on the politics of discrimination in Benjamin Robertson. the editions of the met with an overwhelming response from 28 May 1904: Two lead articles deal with IO in Gujarati. ing the scattered information provided in repeat of William Pink’s elaborate two col. the Tamil IO dated 7 Janu. I never dreamt that 20. Gandhi observed. long march to Pretoria. it is also a spiritual struggle. that of raising other time to time. Chief Commissioner Indian struggle in South Africa. The edition had a ling imprisonments. would arise and make their own and their the other lead articles deals with the plague ary 1914. Japanese confrontation). warders who were Kabiris. the long march to Pretoria which had last item is in the form of a lengthy letter A reporter sought from Gandhi an ac- been planned for 1 January. followed by a The issues of the Tamil edition of IO. of the newspaper become more clear in their own expense with the support of this issue which is entirely devoted to the Gandhi evinces much hope in the Gokhale to understand the course of the Tamil edition and with three lengthy col. they reported the large-scale prevalence and by the Tamils would foreground the we need to fear only god. The Tamil edi- the political history of that period against tion was now in its waning phase and the 16 April 1904: One single sheet encom. pills as the ultimate panacea for all ills. would have earned ‘self-respect’ for themselves and the commu- The last piece is an unusual advertisement somewhat wider canvas which included nity of Indians. a maharaja Ramavarma of Travancore. Two Christian priests named Andrew 2 July 1904: The strong political overtones month and conveyed to all (Satyagrahis) and Pearson also flew to South Africa at through these editions. In this final section therefore I propose does not concern itself with this major war to piece together the story of these closing but continues to talk about women’s edu. Tamil and Gujarati satyagraha movement. pound tax which which will take a toll on the ary 1914). It is as the ones by Achalambikai Ammaiyar ing in South African Jails. Tamil and Hindi. so that the campaign became much more the Indian National Congress. purpose as well. Satyagraha and action plans for the various passive resist- editions. the English. The Tamil editions of 1913-14 This brief glimpse of the pages from the poor and downtrodden Indian community. Natal. July 1913 in the IO. Pending negoti. between 1913 and 1914 deal almost the issues with the more consistent infor- umn advertisement recommending his exclusively with the commencement of mation provided through other sources. issue makes it clear that the political situa. the specific background of the Gandhian information it provides is more in terms of passes the Hindi. Licence Act aimed at destabilising the tisements regarding Gandhi’s plans. Therefore the Tamil the publication of the Golden Number of – are replicated in the other editions of editions of the IO should be read as much the Indian Opinion – 1906-14 published at the IO.PERSPECTIVES advice to women stressing once again not every issue was keyed into a narrow the blows and the gunshots and long.

Please look for EPW Akkur S Ramalingam. Odyssey. no matter what it may mean in visit to Tillaiyadi to pay his personal The Tamils forming as they did a sizea. end of her prison term in February 1914. Veerasamy. As the frail but 3 It is noteworthy that today South African educa- tional institutions have a separate Tamil depart- group. out of a total of 8. The Newscastle. The Publications Division. Valliyammai and her the Tamils themselves and are fostering the dis- semination of Tamil language and literature. Gandhi wrote: India on 18 July 1914 and reached in Janu- Chinnasami Pillai. her sacrifice. The Economic & Political Weekly (EPW) is ammai came from a traditional Tamil Gandhi in his letter (15 July) from Bloem- now available at a number of additional weaving caste called Senguntha Mudali. supplement in the Tamil edition dated 29 mother Mangalathammal were a part of p 117. Mrs Pillai. Valliammai was born in published refers to the unveiling of two For example. performed in the traditional Indian style them. The Economic & Political Weekly EPW september 25. She died You can now buy the latest issues of the EPW at Landmark. The latter Chennai he praised the role of the Tamils and Mrs Tommy. the Pass system. fontein refers to his visit to her in prison at retail outlets. Here I shall focus on the role of Tamil On 23 October 1913. Advancement Society. when a women’s Notes women in this struggle with special rally started out from Johannesburg to 1 Collected Works of Gandhi. It said at the Outlook Counter at the above longed to Puducheri (Pondicherry) while that the struggle will ensure the repeal of mentioned stores. Mrs Bhavani Dayal. I have been able to piece together the time of her release and his sense of something of her personal life because of guilt at her pathetic condition. Gandhi had instructed the group that it of Indian Opinion” at the seminar on “The Indian these passive resisters. Mrs Perumal Naidu. the Sengunthars published in 1953 titled The Tamil edition also ceased publica- Sankars and other select bookstores “Tillaiyadi Valliammai” and written by tion a few months later. P K Naidu and others listed in the aware of the discriminatory laws and en. In his speech at Triplicane in Bhagyam Murugesu Pillai. the majority of was incumbent upon them to make the in. Indian sweets.000 Pillay. Tamil women resisters who spent three mother were both arrested and were in. Her father be. They were accorded a warm feel that they can no longer refrain from in South Africa and followed it up with a welcome by the Tamil community of Natal. 3 April 1914 announced its closure. Navjeevan Trust. Ladysmith and Maritzburg schools all over South Africa as well as the Tamil department at the University of Durban-Westville Bhawani is a common Tamil name. in February many other names whose presence is 1914. 4 Today the re-assertion of Tamil identity by the months in the Pietermaritzburg jail. father Munusami Mudaliyar opened a the passive resistance struggle failed. Miss Most of the settlers here including the ary 1914. Gandhi’s return to India. etc. the article in the community journal of the same month. Mrs Gandhi made the offer tribute to Valliyamma and acknowledge on her own initiative and I do not want to ble component of the Indian diaspora. 11 in number illegitimate child in the eyes of the law. both Valliamma and her ing. Ahmedabad. The only non-Tamilian in this list them in the struggle. debar her. rendering her an stones are cultural signifiers of the Tamils The women passive resisters. 18 December 2006. The South African government was not recorded. 600. This terned at the Maritzburg prison which South African Tamils is being done by various local associations such as: The Natal Tamil Vedic list includes the name of Valliamma also housed Kasturba Gandhi. They were: Mrs Licence Act. The memorial tablets in memory of Valliyamma ary 1914. Mrs On 19 April 1913. such as Tiruppugazh and Tevaram. Opinion: Editor Gandhi”. Tamil Munusamy. A good general history of the Indian Opinion is to be found in Y P Anand’s presentation “History October 1913 carries a picture of some of it. etc. Miss Meenakshi womenfolk will join the struggle. facing goal. records the re. The Saiva Siddanta Sangam and Arutpa Kazhagam are doing the samy (Valliamma’s mother Mangalat. notification. 2010 vol xlv no 39 41 . dren) by the Newcastle court were released the growing Indian resistance to the I would like to close this narrative with on the 13th from Durban jail. Valliyamma along with Nagappan fell teaching and singing of Tamil religious music hammal also called Janaki). Ministry of Information and Broadcast- reference to Taillaiyadi Valliammai. V Naidu. Fi. appears to brave women’s brigade marched through ment. Gandhi left for Thambi Naidu. what she read in the Indian Opinion about referred to as Virakkal or Nadukkal. Bhavani ill and at a time when Gandhi was negoti. Gandhi Society. yar. Moonu. Crossword. the women courted arrest in batches. her mother was from Tillaiyadi in Tanjavur the hated licence act. PERSPECTIVES the release of some political prisoners small shop selling provisions and South Gujarati edition which continued to be and the warm welcome accorded to them.00. are now supplementing the private schools run by Another photograph in the IO files is of nally at Volkrust. The IO mentions ating with General Smuts. 1898 into this fairly well-off family. were in the forefront of passive resistance. going by the surname. induced to release Valliyamma before the More Retail Outlets for EPW The 17-year-old resister Tillaiyadi Valli. going back to the Sangam age in the pre- who had been sentenced to three months hard Her political awareness was widened by Christian era where such “hero stones” are labour (which they spent with their chil. a place like this.000 South African Indians. 1969. Mrs P K Naidu. The Tamil departments in government be Bhawani Dayal although the name Charlestown. Mrs K Murugesa Pillai. Dayal and V S Pillay. Vol 29. in a small news item “Release of first impact of the apartheid in South and Nagappan at the Braamfontein ceme- Our Brave Indian Sisters” appearing at Africa on Valliyamma was when marriages tery by Gandhi and his moving tribute to the bottom of the page. the Tamil IO dated 28 Janu. The Hindi and Tamil If you need any help locating a store district. It is worth noting here that memorial lease of some of these women: were declared illegal. South African Tamil Federation. The last issue of across the country. The family came to Johannesburg editions would also cease publication please call us at 022-40638282 and we (the year is not mentioned) where her forthwith and resume publication only if would be able to assist you. them being Tamil women – K Murugesa dentured labourers and their families 2 According to recent figures Natal has the largest concentration of Indians in the country. himself was at the Bloemfontein prison.

Research papers are only for discussion at the workshop and not for publication in EPW. Jamia Millia Islamia regulations. Jamia Millia Islamia”. The focus will be on interactive participation. Applicants must submit one draft research paper of a total of 6.in/asc/asc.ac. Travel and Accommodation: Travel costs of selected participants will be covered as per UGC-Academic Staff College. dir. and conducted by EPW will offer teachers in colleges and universities an opportunity to learn and discuss the techniques of research writing and publication. 42 september 25. using footnotes and endnotes • How to critique and revise a manuscript • Organising the argument • Publication process/formatting for submission • On use/abuse of language • Draft research papers: Feedback and revision Resource Persons: This workshop will be conducted by resource persons from EPW and external resource persons who have experience in writing. organised by the UGC-Academic Staff College. Applications without the draft paper will not be considered. New Delhi between 22 and 27 November 2010. 2010 vol xlv no 39 EPW Economic & Political Weekly .jmi. and (iii) familiarise them with the academic publication process.000 to 8.htm Please submit a demand draft of Rs 150 as processing fee in favour of “Registrar. Who Is Eligible? Teachers in colleges and universities who have completed their PhDs from any of the social sciences. Jamia Millia Islamia and conducted by Economic and Political Weekly Applications are invited for the third Research Writing and Publication Workshop that will be held in Jamia Millia Islamia. Selected candidates will have to pay an additional Rs 500 as registration fee after they are informed about their selection. Important Dates: Last date for Receipt of Applications: 15 October 2010 Date for informing applicants of selection: 1 November 2010 Address for Correspondence: The Director UGC-Academic Staff College Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi . along with the application form. payable at New Delhi.110025 Tel No: 011-26926049 Fax: 011-26926051 Email: smahmud@jmi.000 words (including footnotes/endnotes and references) that they have written along with their applications. An important component of the workshop will be a discussion and revision of draft research papers prepared by participants. The workshop. editing and publishing research papers. Jamia Millia Islamia. edit and review their own work. Participants will be provided accommodation and will be eligible for TA and DA as per UGC rules. The workshop will (i) help participants understand how to structure research papers effectively.in. The modules in the workshop include: • Structure of research papers • Literature review • Plagiarism and ethics of research • Results and data presentation • Journal selection: Writing for an audience • Writing the introduction and conclusion • Citation styles.com All correspondence to be sent only to the above address. (ii) enhance their ability to critique. The workshop is being conducted as part of a project funded by the University Grants Commission and executed by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Mumbai and the Economic and Political Weekly.ascjmi@rediffmail.PERSPECTIVES Third Workshop on Research Writing and Publication in the Social Sciences 22-27 November 2010 Organised by UGC-Academic Staff College. The workshop will be structured as an intensive mix of lectures and discussions. Application Forms and Registration Fee: The application form can be downloaded from http://www.ac.