Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Indonesia
M.H. Hasan a,∗ , T.M.I. Mahlia a,b , Hadi Nur c
a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
c
Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The global energy consumption is likely to grow faster than the population growth. The fuel consumption
Received 21 April 2011 was growing from 6630 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1980 to 11,163 Mtoe in 2009. This pro-
Accepted 19 December 2011 jected consumption will increase 1.5% per year until 2030 and reach 16,900 Mtoe and the main drivers
Available online 23 February 2012
of this growth are mostly developing countries in Asia. Indonesia is one of the developing countries and
energy supply is an important factor for all-around development. The country’s energy consumption still
Keywords:
depends on non-renewable energy such as crude oil, coal and natural gas as sources of energy. Utiliza-
Renewable energy
tion of fossil fuel continuously contributes to huge amount of greenhouse gases emission that leads to
Sustainability
Fossil fuel
climate change. Facing such an unfavorable situation, the government of Indonesia prioritizes on energy
Biomass supply securities by diversification of energy resources. The energy mixes in Indonesia based on five
Hydropower main resources; these are crude oil, natural gas, coal, hydropower, and renewable energy. Although the
Indonesia country encourages utilizing renewable energy, the contribution is only around 3%. Considering natural
condition and geography, this country is blessed with great potential of renewable energy such as solar
energy, wind energy, micro hydro and biomass energy. Noting the potential of renewable and sustain-
able energy resources in the country, the government must pay more attention on how to utilize it. Many
efforts have been done to promote renewable energy such as to create energy policy and regulations, yet
it still did not give any satisfactory result. Government, non-government agencies and the public should
take a more proactive step to promote and use renewable energy in order to achieve the secure and
environmentally sustainable energy resources.
© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2317
2. Indonesia energy scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2317
3. Energy mix in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2317
3.1. Crude oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2319
3.2. Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2319
3.3. Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2320
3.4. Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2322
4. Renewable energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2323
4.1. Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2323
4.2. Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2323
4.3. Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2324
4.4. Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2325
5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2325
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2326
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2326

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 3 7967 5228; fax: +60 3 7967 5317.
E-mail address: heikal hasan@yahoo.com (M.H. Hasan).

1364-0321/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.12.007

renewable energy and sustain. Some of successful implementation of renewable energy This study presents an overview of the energy reserves. action toward using try also needs for energy management in both.4 610. solar. the utilization of new and renewable crude oil and natural gas are estimated to last for 23 years and energy resources has not been optimized due to its high produc- 52 years respectively [41]. projected consumption will increase 1. renewable energy and sustainable energy is very low in comparison to other countries. The Indonesia with its consumption is about 296 Mboe (41%) from total global energy consumption and emission growth data have been consumption of national energy in 2009 and followed closely by discussed deeply in Refs.6 Mboe (37%). Hasan et al. energy efficiency.3 29. Industrial sectors dominate energy consumption in sumption is likely to grow faster than the population growth. The contribution of the other energy resources such as sector [44]. to 2009 [41]. the country must discover alternative LPG is used for cooking and as a fuel oil in the transportation sector energy source to sustain economic development in the future [42].000 islands covered area about 9. Apart from that. the dependency is still high. recovery. Residen- from 6630 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1980 to almost tial and commercial sectors also increased steadily. in Indonesia are discussed in Refs.5% per year until 2030 and but the demand of energy is concentrated in Java that can be seen will reach 16. While the fossil fuel 1990 to 18% in 2009 which is mainly used in power generation and reserves are limited. 3 [52]. The GDP energy exporter [70].8 19. Currently the final energy supply is dominated by non- energy supply is a very important factor in promoting country renewable energy resources such as oil. Along with the increased development especially contributed for 75% of the final energy consumption. 3. Energy mix in Indonesia 2.37 estimated to reach about 1270. The country should be urged and house gas emission will be depleted one day. the sit. [52].52]. As shown in double reaching 11. On the other hand. geothermal. M.900 Mtoe and the main drivers of this growth are from Fig.1% per year from 1971 to 2008 Global primary energy consumption.9 Mboe in 2009 which is more than Coal 1807. It is Petroleum 2979. economic growth and population growth. wind. ernment. Indonesian energy decreased from 45% in 1990 to 39% in 2009. effect on the economy in Indonesia. The contribution of crude oil in energy supply in Indonesia has Besides that. For Indonesia.6 2653.H. Facing such an unfavorable situation.1 34. the consumption rapidly increased with annual growth rate 7% and contribution of coal in energy supply has accelerating from 4% in not followed by enough energy supply [43].822. The future will the cement industry.3 5. The transportation and industrial sectors are expected the use of natural gas also is expected to grow at a steadily increas- to become the highest energy consumers followed by household ing pace. Fig. with GDP per capita about of US$ 2850 in 2010 [41. adopted by Indonesian government and that can be found in Refs. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 2317 Table 1 grew at an average economic rate of 6. fossil energy resources and supply will be diminished in the near At current production rates. Indonesian proven reserves for future. because human welfare in modern life is closely related the final energy consumption by sector in Indonesia from 1990 to the amount and quality of energy used.8 740. biomass and geothermal as a new source of energy has been reviewed and the potential of utilizing this renewable energy for the future in Indonesia has been discussed.163 Mtoe in 2009 as shown in Table 1 [14]. development and economic growth continue to affect the growing of energy consumption demand. On the other hand. Indonesia is preparing for a turning point 893 Mboe. [60–69]. hydropower.55 to Indonesia energy scenario are discussed by Refs. [1–13]. Also. uation of the country in using renewable energies such as wind.9 3882. 2 shows all nations. the dependency of should fully support the utilization of new and renewable energy Indonesian energy scenario to fossil fuels will have an adverse to improve energy security and create energy autonomy. The global energy con.1 23. and solar is only 3% in 2009. Therefore. Total primary Mtoe Share (%) Mtoe Share (%) energy supply had increased steadily over the past 19 years. sector of energy consumption. [45–51]. There were a large growth in Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation with 230 million the demand for energy. the . The fuel consumption was growing transportation sector which consume 226. and programs from developed and developing countries that can be demand and on current energy scenario in Indonesia.3 6. With increasing environmental issues. in the generation renewable energy source should be put as priority by the gov- sides and in the distribution sides due to high energy demand [52]. The primary energy supply share in Indonesia see an increase in energy consumption of the country as economic is presented in Table 3 [41]. Some of the works related to in the future will be an important factor for the future of energy energy scenario. supply. However. Introduction [52].4 among developing countries [41]. [16–40].3 3278. changes in legislations and regulation people and ranks 13th in the primary energy use which is about amidst rising oil prices.570 km2 .80 100 11. This Table 2 that most of the energy resources are located out of Java. it is expected to continue to increase in the future. Some of the early works related Hydropower 384. Like many Source 1980 2009 developing countries.49 200% increase from 1990 as shown in Fig. Indonesia only used 0.65 TOE per capita with an average growth of primary energy about 7. The coun.02 Natural gas 1296.e. tion makes the government and the energy society worry as the demand for energy continues to rise steadily. which tion.5 5. Total 6629.9 27. Due to Indonesia’s rapid depletion in tion cost and worsen by the subsidy policy on fossil energy where oil and natural gas reserves. the final energy consumption increased drasti- Energy supply in the future is a problem that attracts attention of cally due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. after economic recession in 1998. which is one of the developing countries in Asia.7 TOE per capita. The country is an archipelago nation consisting of more in the future when it will become energy importer rather than than 17. gas and coal which development. Some of the early works related to energy consump. Indonesia energy scenario Dynamic changes were seen in the energy sector in Indonesia after the 1998 economic crisis.294. Due to environmental consequences of burning fossil fuels like The crucial challenge facing the power sector in Indonesia is greenhouse gas emission [59] and the fact that fossil fuel like green- the issues of sustainability.7% in the past 19 years 1.8 44. 1 and it is considered high Nuclear 161 2.90 100 Even though the world’s energy consumption is quite high i. [53–58]. The energy consumption of transportation sector developing countries in Asia [15]. energy efficiency. 1. This situa- in the industrial sector. demand supply projection and has potential to become the highest able energy in selected Asian countries are given in Refs.

1. Primary energy supply by fuel type in Indonesia. Final energy consumption by sector in Indonesia. Fig. . 3. Distribution share of final energy consumption by region in Indonesia. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 Fig. Hasan et al.2318 M. 2.H. Regional Oil (%) Natural gas (%) Coal (%) Hydropower (%) Geothermal (%) Java 19 6 0 6 34 Sumatra 69 55 50 21 47 Kalimantan 9 14 50 29 0 Sulawesi 1 2 0 14 8 Others 2 24 0 31 10 Fig. Table 2 Primary energy supply share in Indonesia.

ConocoPhillips. Chevron are experiencing a decline in production due to maturation Natuna Island and West Papua [70].00 Indonesia became a member of Organization of the Petroleum Balongan 125.3 28.3 −19. duction rate 84.8 −10.00 Sungai Pakning 50. Almost all Indonesian oil 3.4 54. Tri Wahana Universal 6.6 48. energy mix in Indonesia includes five main resources which are crude oil.00 Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1962. of the country’s natural gas production.1.4 44. tamina and six major international companies (Total. and Taiwan) and 9.7% of world proven natural gas reserves as of Kalimantan and Natuna Sea.00 Balikpapan 260.e.6 2000 95 76 170 Pertamina 43.5 36.8 31.00 Dumai 127.0 −18. 6 [41]. 2009 are presented in Table 6 [14. There are ten active oil refineries tries.2.000 billion barrel per day.5 2007 106 59 165 Others 79. Indonesia has the largest proven natural spond to 0.22 Tcf of natural gas production was processed into in Indonesia with the largest at Cilacap-Central Java of 348 MBSD.390 231.678 28.4 21.41]. Primary energy supply Amount (kboe) Share (%) 1990 2009 1990 2009 Crude oil 297.73]. An increase in the domestic demand for natural has not seen Table 4 a parallel development of gas production. Crude oil Musi 127. ficient results to counterbalance the declining production by older Vico. BP. . The country of a lack of investment for exploration and development com. of which this 4.2 2002 90 86 177 Petrochima 40.9 2001 92 76 168 Conoco Philips 51. Most of the proven oil reserves are located onshore with 107 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves that cor- the major fields located in Central Sumatra. Northwestern Java.7 2003 91 87 178 BP 38.3% of world proven reserves and 3.6 74. This decreased sharply from the year 2000 because In 2009.1 −14. significantly increased.1 −6.9 81.930 29 18 Coal 24. infrastructure and pric- Primary energy supply share in Indonesia 2003–2004.00 3.0 0. Tuban (TPPI) 100 Total 1157. exported to Singapore and Malaysia through pipeline [41.8 Natural gas reserves in Indonesia.191 279. ing policy. Many efforts are underway.10 In the last decade.6% of the total natural gas 125 MBSD as shown in Table 5 [41. Natural gas has become an increasingly important resource and In 2009. These appear to be a restriction of supply of natural gas Company 2003 2004 Change (%) Caltexa 506. natural Refinery Refinery capacity (MBSD) gas. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 2319 Table 3 Primary energy supply share in Indonesia. by diversification of energy resources.7 3. hydropower.5 −14.70]. The largest oil producing province is January 2009 [15]. oil production of the country decreased steadily caused by disappointing exploration efforts and declining produc- tion of oil in the existing oil fields [71]. CNOOC 94.973 0 1 government of Indonesia prioritizes on energy supply securities Table 5 Refinery capacity in 2009. The country’s natural gas consumption by sector can be seen in Fig.8 0.9 507. consumes 1. Indonesia produced 3.2 2005 97 89 186 Vico 32. However. and renewable energies. Minas and Duri oil fields with average pro. yet the country resigned in Cepu 3. Nowadays. South Sumatra. Therefore.7 billion are potential gas reserves in the Asia-Pacific region and 11th in the world with [14.0 Table 6 Total 81. Indonesia’s oil reserves are estimated at around 8 billion as global commodity.8 2006 94 93 187 ExxonMobil 25. 5 [71]. The percentage of natural Indonesia produced 347 million barrels of oil including conden.688 3 2 Geothermal 2185 14.5 Tcf of natural gas mainly for electricity and indus- pounded by the ageing oil fields.351 4 18 Hydropower 21. respectively A large percentage of natural gas reserve (about 70%) are located [70.710 45 39 Biomass 193.80 2008 after becoming a net importer of oil in 2004 [71]. and Chevron) dominated more than 90% fields [71].3 Exspan 66.604 220. 4 [41].435 495.4 2004 98 91 188 BumiSiakPusako 32 30.4 10.1 81. liquefied natural gas (LNG) to meet the need of the ASEAN market in Balikpapan-Kalimantan of 260 MBSD. Natural gas companies reported a drop in oil production as shown in Table 4 [72]. sate in 2009.0 −6.70]. The state oil company Per- of the fields. Hasan et al.06 Tcf of natural gas. the Minas and Duri fields which are operated by offshore and can be found in East Kalimantan.2 Year Proven (Tcf) Potential (Tcf) Total (Tcf) Unocala 53. while 1. Indonesia’s Kasim 10 petroleum production and consumption are presented in Fig.9 55.2 −16. The natural gas reserves in Indonesia up to end in Central Sumatra i.9 2008 113 58 170 a 2009 107 52 160 Changed to Chevron after merger. and Balongan-East Java of (Japan.6 −9. the demand for natural gas has barrels.251 29 22 Natural gas 127.000 and 200. coal. but have not brought suf. ExxonMobil. M.H. gas production shares is shown in Fig.30 Cilacap 348.3 billion are proven reserves that corre. South Korea.41]. East responds to almost 1.

have seen a drop in oil production in recent years.4 Tcf followed by Donggi LNG project in Centre of Sulawesi [71]. Although mated of coal resource in this country is about 21. Indonesia’s production and consumption. Natural gas production share. Coal for domestic utilizations such as fertilizer industry. 6. K-Power in Korea. Fig. ceramic indus- try and electricity as well as the deferment of some LNG cargoes Being the cheapest and most abundant available fossil fuel. In an effort to make up for this shortfall. Natural gas consumption by sector. the Tangguh LNG project in West Papua is a high profile project with total proven reserves of 14.3. there has been an increase in natural gas explo- ration so that Indonesia is able to satisfy its long-term contract obligation and rise in domestic demand. Indonesia has large reserves of natural gas and most of them are being exported. POSCO in Korea. and Sempra Energy in Mexico [71]. the efforts of shifting natural gas toward domes- tic uses are being hindered by poor natural gas transmission and network distribution [71]. for export [70]. Substitution of oil based energy with natural gas coal will always have a role in energy mix in Indonesia. 5.13 billion short Fig. Arun and Bontang. 4. Hasan et al. The esti- has been considered as the country’s declining oil output. The several new projects being developed.H. The development of BP’s Tangguh field in Papua is intended for export markets and has been secured for a long term contract sales that include the Fujian LNG project in China.2320 M. . 3. which are major LNG production plants. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 Fig.

iron and steel plants as presented in Fig. South Korea.71. Kong. of coal production to Japan. 9. In 2009. The rise. mainly Fig. Taiwan. The remaining 58 MMst of tan. Hasan et al. The produced from surface mining operation. Hong which most of the reserves are located in Sumatra and Kaliman. 7. up about 232% more than in 2000 and 95% of the coal production. 7 [41. This is because of large share of coal in Indonesia’s primary energy supply has been on amount of Indonesian coal are available close to surface [70].H. and Sulawesi as presented in coal which is relatively small compared to its production. 8 [41]. Indonesia’s production. 8. and Filipina.74]. Indonesia’s distribution coal reserve potential. Malaysia. India. Thailand. tons (approximately 85% consist of lignite and sub-bituminous). from 4% in 1990 to 18% in 2009. M. Fig. Indonesia plans Fig. Indonesia’s distribution coal reserve potential. with the balance in West Java. China. . Indonesia produced 256 million short tons used for power generation and industrial sectors such as cement (MMst) of coal. domestic consumption and net exporter. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 2321 Fig. primarily due to the rapidly country exports 198 million tons which represented 77% of total expanding use of coal for power generation [41].

it is a renewable energy source and pro.6 MW Heat content (kcal/kg) 5300–6700 4100–5200 2 × 21.35 MW.10–0. due to their ultra-low sulfur contents (less than 0. Lampung The coals for export purpose generally come from bituminous PLTA Besai 2 × 46.15 MW.40 MW 19.44 MW.5 MW 4.1 MW ranging from 4100 to 5300 kcal/kg are classified as sub-bituminous 1 × 6.000 MW is exploitable [70.5 MW Hydropower is one of renewable energy technology that is com- PLTA Kedung Ombo 1 × 23 MW 23 MW mercially viable on large scale in Indonesia. Hydropower PLTA Garung 2 × 13. The country has become the second largest coal 4. The potential of PLTA Sulewana Poso I 4 × 40 MW 160 MW micro hydro is estimated about 459. Table 8 shows the installed capacity of hydropower PLTA Balambano 2 × 65 MW 130 MW stations in Indonesia [88].25 MW 317 MW to develop coal fired power plants with capacity 10.H. Bengkulu exporter and the largest thermal coal exporter in 2009 [76. PLTA Tulis 2 × 7 MW 14 MW ever. 14.2 MW 2.70 MW PLTA Cibadak – – pose are summarized in Table 7 [79].5 1.95 0.008 MW The sub-bituminous coals with lower heat content are supplied PLTA Jatiluhur 7 × 25 MW 175 MW PLTA Lamajan 3 × 6.80]. The country has a huge PLTA Wlingi 2 × 27 MW 54 MW PLTA Lodoyo 1 × 4.85 MW or 4.5 MW 29 MW estimated about 75.4 MW PLTA Mrica 3 × 61.48 MW 9. Indonesian coals characteristic for export pur. PLTA Cirata 8 × 126 MW 1. water supply. The potential of hydropower is PLTA Sengguruh 2 × 14. Furthermore. hydro dams are 1 × 0. [81–87]. Riau while 85% of total coal production was dominated by nine large PLTA Koto Panjang 3 × 38 MW 114 MW companies [78]. 3 MW adjusted to meet consumer demand. West Java and volatile matter characteristics. 6.44 MW operation of dams themselves but embraces the issues of social.4 MW PLTA Wadas Lintang 2 × 8. PLTA Mendalan 3 × 5.000 MW which makes Indonesia ranking fourth PLTA Tulung Agung 2 × 23 MW 46 MW in Asia after China. How.12 MW 20. Compared to oil and natural gas. Hasan et al. North Sulawesi the hydropower and often involves socio-economic issues.1 MW development. Moreover. 86. 8.5 MW multipurpose and are built primarily for socio-economic devel. Firstly. PLTA Selorejo 1 × 4.4.1 MW 1.2 MW The bituminous and sub-bituminous with higher heat content PLTA Saguling 4 × 175 MW 700 MW sub-bituminous are characteristically supplied for export purpose. Center Sulawesi power which is spread out across the country.20 MW PLTA Tanggari II 1 × 19 MW 19 MW environmental and political issues.50 MW 286 MW PLTA Tangga 4 × 79. The coals with a heat values PLTA Ubrug 2 × 10. 9.07–0. because the issues are not confined to the design.1 MW. 3.77].2 MW 17.2 MW 16. 5. East Jawa duces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases. flood control.91 MW and 20.4 MW 3. the country also has potential for small hydro 13. Quality parameter Bituminous coals Sub-bituminous coals Station Installed capacity Total (MW) Total moisture (wt%) 10–12 24–38 Ash content (wt%) 2–12 1. Indonesia’s distribution coal reserve potential PLTA Agam 3 × 3. West Sumatra amount of reserves. South Sulawesi hydropower plant in selected countries was discussed deeply by PLTA Larona 3 × 55 MW 165 MW Refs. 17.30 MW coals while heat contents excess of 5300 kcal/kg are regarded as PLTA Bengkok 3 × 3.4 MW 12. Installed capacity of hydropower station in Indonesia. 1 × 0.54% PLTA Sulewana Poso II 3 × 60 MW 180 MW of the potential has been developed by PLN for power generation PLTA sulewana Poso III 5 × 80 MW 400 MW in rural areas [70].48 MW opments such as irrigation. PLTA Maninjau 4 × 17 MW 68 MW The country has played an important role as the worldwide PLTA Singkarak 4 × 43.48 MW gained acceptance in export markets [79].000 MW of 75. This is 10.52 MW 7 MW PLTA Gajah Mungkur 1 × 12.2 MW both for export and domestics markets in a certain proportions. Center Java most of the sub-bituminous coals with lower heat content have PLTA Jelok 4 × 5.5 MW amount of hydropower resources. North Sumatra PLTA Sigura-gura 4 × 71. coal is preferable as PLTA Sipan Sihaporas 2 × 25 MW 50 MW energy resource in Indonesia due to its relatively low price and huge PLTA Asahan I 2 × 90 MW 180 MW 3. The potentials are located in West Kalimantan. hydropower PLTA Sidorejo 1 × 1.80 MW.5 MW.90 PLTA Peusangan 2 × 22. the former Russian Federation and India. PLTA Timo 4 × 3 MW 12 MW PLTA Ketenger 2 × 3. South Kalimantan PLTA Riam kanan 3 × 10 MW 30 MW basically due to the high capital investment required to develop 11. ash.40 MW 19. Successful implementation of 12. construction and 1 × 5. .5 MW 110.92 MW However.2%). PLTA Cikalong 3 × 6.75 MW 175 MW coal supplier. The PLTA Tonsea Lama 1 × 4.5–7.000 MW by PLTA Lau Renun 2 × 41 MW 82 MW 2010 [75].48 MW 4. PLTA Karrebe 2 × 70 MW 140 MW PLTA Bakaru 2 × 63 MW 126 MW Besides that. only 34. PLTA Parakan kondang 4 × 2. moisture. PLTA Tes 4 × 4 MW 16 MW PLTA Musi 3 × 70 MW 210 MW Coal production in Indonesia was contributed by 251 companies.2322 M. electric PLTA Karangkates 3 × 35 MW 105 MW power and improvement of navigation. 9 [74].8 MW 23 MW PLTA Siman 3 × 3.85 MW bituminous coals.4 MW 90 MW PLTA Batu Tegi 2 × 14 MW 28 MW to sub-bituminous coals with widely varying sulfur. PLTA Tanggari I 1 × 17.38 MW development of a hydropower dam is overwhelmingly complex 1 × 4. 7.2 MW 26. In the long term.5 MW is presented in Fig.8 MW it produces large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be PLTA Giringan 2 × 1. Aceh Volatile matter (wt%) 31–42 28–37 PLTA Angkup – – Sulfur content (wt%) 0.4 MW 14 MW dams have made important and significant contributions to human PLTA Klambu 1 × 1. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 Table 7 Table 8 Typical quality specification for Indonesian export coal.6 MW 10.5 MW 184.

Geothermal distribution potential in Indonesia by region of biogas energy potential by provinces in Indonesia [70]. biomass. these days [80]. Some works that deal with geothermal power generation are to ordinary diesel fuel. and wind in this country. M. solar. Central Java. In Indonesia.000 MW of geothermal potential. Ring of Fire and its volcanic geology.H. The cation process to serve as addition to diesel fuel. The rest are from agricultural wastes as fossil fuels and uranium. geother. coconut oil. Some of early works on biomass energy conversion especially in remote areas for rural independent power generation in Indonesia are discussed by Refs. renewable energy [114]. For Indonesia as an archipelago agree with a few large rivers. this study will look into the aspect of renewable energies raw materials such as vegetable oils or fatty acid through esterifi- such as geothermal. equiv- private sector. solid and are seen as one option that may be used as local energy resource gas fuels [70]. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 2323 Table 9 Geothermal distribution potencies by region. 78 GJ/year. to provide energy for cooking. and biomass. One of the factors of world’s potential geothermal resource. The country also plans to to the abundance of raw materials in the country.73 million hectare in 2010 [124]. Due and 3. GWA Ungaran (Central Java). Table 12 shows the summary [107. jatropha oil. it gives an excellent opportunity to develop energy alent to 470 GJ/y and mostly used by rural areas and small industries sector as well as the policy [80]. does not produce black exhaust gas. forest waste. most North Sulawesi. wind and veneer residues with potential energy smaller than 20 GJ/year energy.8% from 2009. commodities of plantation. are distributed evenly around the islands. Hasan et al. coal. tion because biodiesel has similar physical properties compared tion. The country construct leading to higher production is the expansion of palm oil plantation about 1200 MW of power plant from seven geothermal areas in area by 6. and GWA Sokoria the quantities are in different amount. sawn timber residues and plywood potential renewable energy resources such as geothermal. Biomass energy source in the country can be obtained from palm oil residues. Indonesia should develop nine Geothermal Working Areas such as GWA Seuwalah explore the potential of biodiesel as an alternative fuel [126].70]. It is estimated. rice residues. Biomass plants will play a prominent role in energy mix of the country. coconut residues. palm oil.2. GWA Tangkuban Perahu (West Java). geothermal power is an increas. There are some advantages of biodiesel over ordinary diesel fuel. Vegetable oil as hydropower will not be discussed here because it has been used the main source of biodiesel can be produced from plant oils such widely and is discussed deeply in the previous section. corresponds to 40% 21. [97–106]. Renewable energy is the energy derived from natural processes and palm oil residues with energy potential 120 GJ/year. and is biodegradable and environmental friendly by Refs. Considering the small scale of hydro potentials that and animal waste. liquid. rise 3. rubber wood. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel mainly derived from renewable Therefore. mostly coming from agricul- which contributing at least 7500 MW are economically feasible ture crops and residues. The country’s total [89]. sugar residues.1. that do not involve the consumption of exhaustible resources such and 67 GJ/year. and hydropower. Biogas from buffaloes. respectively.7% to 5. of the CPO (around 60%) that exports to other countries still in raw mal energy represented 1. However. In 2009.7 million tons per year.6% of its electric power [41]. followed by rubber wood. heat and electricity. Geothermal Biodiesel can be mixed with any composition of diesel oil and can be applied directly to the diesel engines without any modifica- Many countries use geothermal successfully as power genera. North Sumatra.108]. pigs and Gunung Tampomas (West Java). Area Resource (MW) Reserve (MW) Speculative Hypothetic Probable Possible Proven Sumatra 4975 2121 5845 15 380 Java 1960 1771 3265 885 1815 Bali-Nusa Tenggara 410 359 973 – 15 Sulawesi 1000 92 982 150 78 Maluku 595 37 327 – – Kalimantan 45 – – – – Papua 75 – – – – Total 9060 4380 11392 1050 2288 West Sumatra and Central Sulawesi. palm oil residues. etc. It also has higher cetane number than reg- given in Refs. Agam (Aceh). oil. development of micro and mini hydropower 4. and Java [41. the country is blessed with Indonesia was known as the largest palm oil producer in the untapped potential of geothermal energy. contains no ingly significant source of renewable energy as deeply discussed toxic and sulfur. as 4. 4. in Table 10 [41]. Renewable energy presented in Table 11. the coun. Despite high growth rates. GWA Jailolo (North Maluku).6 million tons of palm oil. sugar residues. still represents only a small part of today’s global energy picture. and other 30 kinds of Indonesian plants [115–123]. as kapok seed oil. West Java and Bengkulu [89]. By exploring this potential intensively with involvement of biomass production was around 146. ular diesel fuel. Rice residues have the biggest energy poten- tial about 150 GJ/year. The country produce try has 28. though Java). [109–113]. GWA areas is somewhat encouraging. As a consequence of Indonesia’s location in The [115]. world after overtaking Malaysia in 2006. GWA Cisolok-Cisukarame (West cows droppings can be found in all provinces in Indonesia. Biomass is the only one of the renewable energy. The potential of biogas energy for applications in small rural GWA Telaga Ngebel (East Java). About 6000 plants of the mini hydropower range (300 kW–5 MW) Biomass is natural energy source. while the largest installed is given in Table 9 and geothermal power plant capacity is presented capacity of micro hydro can be found in North Sumatra. GWA Soboi (Aceh). Apart from the main sources of energy and residues from any other agriculture activities such as log- such as natural gas. small hydro power plants which can be used to produce three kinds of fuel.22% of the country’s total energy supply form which is considered as low value-added industries [125]. Indonesia has great ging residues. . [90–96].

Bali.5 generally burnt. such as generating electricity.3.7 80 kW and 7 other units with the same capacity have been devel- North Sumatra 46. Kalimantan.Indonesia has constructed 5 units of Central Java 63 windmills generators across the country each with a capacity of NTT 56. until now Indonesia has not West Java 40. Irian Jaya Palm shells: 1. All wind turbines installed worldwide are generat- gies since it produces no air pollutants or greenhouse gas and ing 340 TWh per annum.7 South Sulawesi 28. North Sulawesi. Cane tops: 4 (90%). Java.5 16 Residues are generally used yet production residues Java.2 Based on data collected by the Institute of Aeronautics and Space South Sumatra 26. Kalimantan 4. the Pacific Islands. At the end of 2009.H. Hasan et al. Sulawesi Husk: 12 7 Residues are used generated decentralized and Bran: 2. Sumatra. Some works on wind energy in Indonesia can East Java 125.2324 M.2 4. Selayar Aceh 42. Kalimantan 1. 10 and 11 [139]. Lampung. NTB 28. 1. which is about 2% of worldwide electricity contributes minor impacts toward the environment [127]. 159. areas that have wind speeds above West Sumatra. Husk: 12 150 Stalk and straw are generated at the field and Sulawesi. the suitable wind power generators to develop in Biogas energy potential in each province. new areas: Empty fruit 67 Palm cells and fiber are common fuel source. residue available for free Plywood and veneer Kalimantan. Indonesia are small (10 kW) and medium scale power generations Province Biogas potential (MW) (10–100 kW) [70]. especially in coastal areas where wind is abundant.4 EFB are generally incinerated Maluku. Kalimantan. Biomass Main region Production Technical energy Remarks (million/year) potential (GJ/year) Rubber wood Sumatra. worldwide wind powered generators capacity was Wind energy is considered as one of green power technolo.8 oped in four locations. Sumatra. 10–19 West Kalimantan. . Utilization of wind power as an energy source in the country has great potential for further development. in some areas used for feeding Bali/Nusa.9 be found in Refs. South Coast of and Southeast Sulawesi Java and South Sulawesi [138]. Kalimantan.3 13 Residues of the factory often used as fire wood by local communities. wind mills for mechanical power. Sumatra. 5 m/s are West Nusa Tenggara. Irian Jaya. Bagasse: 10 78 Bagasse is generally used in sugar factories Sulawesi. Bunches: 3. Nusa Fibers: 3.5 usually left on the plantation field. Kalimantan. Working Area Location Turbine capacity Operator Total capacity 1 × 30 MWe PLTP Kamojang West Java 2 × 55 MWe PLN 200 MW 1 × 60 MWe 2 × 20 MWe PLTP Lahendong (Pertamina) North Sulawesi PLN 60 MW 1 × 20 MWe PLTP Sibayak (Pertamina) North Sumatra 1 × 12 MWe Pertamina 12 MW 3 × 60 MWe PLN PLTP Salak (Chevron GS) West Java 375 MW 3 × 65 MWe CGS 1 × 55 MWe PLN PLTP Darajat (Chevron GI) West Java 1 × 90 MWe CGI 255 MW 1 × 110 MWe CGI 1 × 110MWe PLTP Wayang Windu West Java SE 227 MW 1 × 117 MWe PLTP Dieng (Geo Dipa Energi) Central Java 1 × 60 MWe GDE 60 MW Total 1189 MW Table 11 Major biomass energy potential as energy resources. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 Table 10 Geothermal power plant capacity. Wind usage. 41 (replanting) 120 Small log < 10 cm medium and big logs are Java used as fire wood in brick and roof tile industry Logging residues Sumatra.5 19 Sawn timber residues Sumatra. Largely Stalk: 2 used as Firewood and for production charcoal Straw: 49 Palm oil residues Sumatra. Tenggara Stalk: 2 or raw material for paper industry Straw: 49 Husks often burnt uncontrolled Coconut residues Sumatra. North Sulawesi. However.8 Island and Nusa Penida. Sulawesi.6 investigated Rice residues Java. Wind power is growing rapidly and having doubled in the energy is the conversion of wind speed into a useful form of energy past three years [130]. Bran: 2. Wind wind pump for pumping water or sails to propel ships [128].2 GW [129].8 Agency (Lapan) in 120 locations. The use of cane leaf and tops need to be Bali/Nusa Tenggara Cane leaf: 9. East Nusa Tenggara.1 had a comprehensive map of potential wind due to the mapping Bali 32 of wind energy potential estimated would cost billions of dollar. The Sumba’s and West Timor’s wind Other provinces <10 energy mapping is given in Figs. With the wind speeds between Table 12 2 and 6 m/s.6 Tenggara. [131–137]. Maluku Sugar residues Java. Province of Central Sulawesi.

renew. Based on the data collected from 18 locations in the country. In order to develop a photovoltaic solar energy system. utilization of fossil fuel contin- uously contributes huge amount of greenhouse gases emission and can lead to climate change. able and renewable energy is unavoidable. resource to solve the world’s energy problems [140]. West Timor’s wind energy mapping. cannot be helped it will be run out someday. the country has an abundant potential of solar energy. but also reduces the interest of local communities to use this system due to its exorbitant cost.1 kWh/m2 /day with variation around 9% for Eastern Region [156]. coal and natural gas as a source of energy. However. Successful implementation of photovoltaic solar energy system in rural areas can be found in Refs. Sumba’s wind energy mapping. Most of Indonesian areas get a quite intense of solar radiation solar energy has become more popular as an energy supply in the with the average daily radiation approximately around 4 kWh/m2 world [10. Solar energy is one of the most promising source of clean. many challenges must be sorted to develop this system such as expensive prices of solar module which is the main component of the system.5 kWh/m2 /day with monthly variation around 10% for Western Region and 5. the solar radiation distribution can be divided into Western and Eastern regions. using sustain- Fig. Since Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equa- able energy and it has the greatest potential than any other power tor line. In addition. 5. [157–168]. Even though Indonesia has huge amount of energy source which most of it coming from oil. 10. [70]. Conclusion Indonesia energy consumption still depends on non-renewable energy such as crude oil. M. Nowadays. Although the country . This condition not only affects the financial bodies to provide a funding to develop this system. 4.H. [142–155]. Considering the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and adverse of greenhouse gas emission. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 2316–2328 2325 Fig. the government tries to design a variety of strategies including the integration of photovoltaic solar energy system for consumptive and productive purposes.4. Due to these problems. It is estimated that the distribution of solar radia- tion is about 4. coal and natural gas. development of this system is highly dependent on funding from the government [169]. photo- voltaic solar energy system may be used to fulfill power demand in rural areas including lighting for public service area and places of worship. Hasan et al.141]. Many countries have been utilizing solar energy. 11. For Indonesia which has so many small and isolated islands where electricity demand is quite low. Solar Successful implementations of solar power plant in selected coun- tries are discussed by Refs.

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