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URBAN FORM AND PLANNING IN THE
INFORMATION AGE: LESSONS FROM LITERATURE

Da-Mi Maeng, Zorica Nedović-Budić
This paper focuses on the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICT) and urban form, and on
urban planning response to spatial and economic consequences of ICT. It starts with literature-based review of how urban
environments in the United States change with technological advances and explanations of the relationship between ICT and
urban form. The paper also includes a discussion of the manner in which ICT impact is handled by urban planning. The
literature review points to insufficient attention to the dynamics between ICT and urban planning and increasing gap between
physical and economic development implications of ICT. It is the role of urban planners to balance the consideration of the
physical and economic aspects against the prospects and opportunities offered by ICT.
Key words: Information and communication technologies (ICT); Urban Form; Urban Planning

INTRODUCTION Table 1. Metaphors of the ICT-based City

Innovations in information and communication Metaphor Author Definition
technologies (ICT) are pervasive, substantially
affecting many spheres of our lives (Castells, Toffler A new production system of a household with mixed
Electronic cottage
1981 activities (production, consumption, and leisure)
1996). The impacts of ICT have often been
compared to the transformations of society A suburb which is independent from cities through
Technoburb Fishman 1987
access to ICT
brought by the Industrial Revolution. Despite
Dutton A city where information highways provide all kinds of
their symbolic similarity as major Wired city
et al. 1987 ICT services to business and households
breakthroughs in economic history, however,
A city where networks play a central role in
the difference between the Industrial Revolution Informational city Castells 1989 informational society and “space of flows” shapes the
and the Information Revolution is substantial, networked society
in that the latter transforms materials to Batty A city fully equipped with ICT networks to gain
information as the main production factor and Intelligent city
1990 competitive advantage
introduces flexibility in work and living patterns
Batty A city with a degree of invisibility of the economic and
whereas the former shifted the production Invisible city
1990 social activity based on ICT
mode from land to materials and assumed the
physical proximity of work and home A concentration of individuals, households, firms, and
Fathy
Telecity public agencies interactively interconnected to one
(Brotchies et al., 1987). 1991
another via remote services
Urban environments have always stood in
City of bits Mitchell 1995 A digital network city
close relationship to the technologies of
production, transport, and communications. Lean, green cities with “dematerialization,
Over the past century many efforts to plan the E-topia Mitchell 1999 demobilization, mass customization, intelligent
operation, and soft transformation”
ideal urban environment have elaborated on the
relationship between the urban environment Horan
Digital places A city sharing space in both physical and virtual worlds
2000
and technology (Phillips, 1996; Ruchelman,
A new type of global city with high levels of Internet
2000). Examples include: Ebenezer Howard’s
Townsend adoption that “operate in an economy where the
Garden City, Tony Garnier’s Cité Industrielle, Network cities
2001 transport costs of information and knowledge are fairly
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacre City; Le insensitive to distance”
Corbusier’s Contemporary City, and recently Hwang A city where access to ICT is omnipresent; one can do
the principles of new urbanism (Congress for Ubiquitous city
2005 “anything from anywhere at anytime.”
the New Urbanism, 1999). Their influence on

spatium 1

telephone had two opposite effects on the rapid change. Most importantly. In such small and compact mercantile cities. and attract more businesses. 1996). Finally. instead of important site for commerce and trade (Soja.. the including a relatively short history of ICT. As technologies and their impacts however. 1996). elevators. considering them as tools to complement other 2000). 1989). and models.urban planning and development has varied. 1987). there has been little attention to planning. 1995). That has prevented involvement of the This section offers a chronology for how cities national system of Interstate Highways public sector and attention to how ICT in the U. 2000). Also. 1981). distance. In 1830 the first railroad track. 1995). the passage of the management of ICT infrastructure in the United Interstate Highway Act in 1956 created the States. and automobiles1. expansion of the urban center as well as 1991). their for driving economic development. St. There may be several reasons. The passage HISTORICAL OVERVIEW: TECHNOLOGIES AND URBAN The period of the mass production metropolis of Telecommunications Reform Act of 1996 DEVELOPMENT FROM THE (1920-1969) was a golden age for road allowed market-driven development and INDUSTRIAL ERA IN THE U. These (Dutton et al. have been shaped by technological (Weingroff. Since spatial and solutions for the problems of urban-industrial and utopianism have been used over the past economic aspects are interwoven. planning to manage and benefit from ICT in ideas. relevant literature to sharpen our understanding the centralized structure of a city. 2006). These environments in the United States have in the late nineteenth century and also began metaphors have tried to redefine the city itself changed with technological advances. ICT certainly have Cities in that era were market centers for potential as policy tools for bringing urban imports and exports of commodities. the (Mitchell. elevator began operating in New York City (Energy dynamics of ICT and urban environments. the spatial and the economic consequences of introduction of an electric streetcar line network cities (Townsend. In 1852 Company produced the Model T in 1908. 1997) industrial age (1820-1869). as Pool (1976) argued. e-topia and of how urban planning responds to both suburbanization (Soja. which has focused on agglomeration which ICT impact is handled by urban electronic power and the spread of of economies. 2006). However. 1990b). then the Information Administration. either one can result in spatially and The late industrial period (1870-1919) was a based city: electronic cottage (Toffler. focusing on capitalism (Soja. by 1927. 2001) and ICT. Many localities. building. complexity of ICT infrastructure. and reviews several theoretical perspectives on the (Phillips. It then the physical separation of work from home and the notion of space. digital places (Horan. presents the explanations of this relationship in urban centers. and the invisibility and urban form: urban concentration and dispersal. 13 miles long. the paper provides a brief automobiles and telephones transformed the the interactions between ICT and urban conclusion about the potential of urban patterns of movement of people. their urban context. which needed new spatial only emerging. during the early general association with urban form and a literature-based discussion of the manner in twentieth century. one of the most significant 1879 the first commercial power station opened in San and scholars still see urban environments in a technological advances. 2000) (Table 2). with even territory with regard to a rapid relationship between ICT and urban form and elevators in general use. 15 million Model Ts had been manufactured (Ford Motor governments have emphasized economic Baltimore and the Ohio River were connected Company. mass production metropolis. was laid in Baltimore. leading to recentralization of Despite significant research on ICT and their found in the literature. In the early 1 planning. 2006). goods. S. Although specific planning plans and policies that strengthen the physical industrialization. of the relationship between ICT and urban form. 1990a). 1996). The lack of guiding conceptual frameworks is and postindustrial metropolis periods also a challenge for study of ICT and urban (Ruchelman. and ten years later the first air-conditioned- traditional framework instead of recognizing the development. 2000).S. telecity (Fathy. technoburb (Fishman. 1999). 2006). Innovations in infrastructure will affect future development of changes from the early industrial period to the communications and transport technologies communities (Bradbury and Becker. with invisible city (Batty. The Ford Motor Recently. 2005). the development of economy. metaphors based on futurism (Graham and Marvin. informational city The purpose of this paper is to review the technological advances dramatically changed (Castells. In particular. skyscrapers were built development of ICT (Firmino. the construction of In 1877 the first private telephone lines were placed argue that many urban planning professionals in service between homes and offices (AT&T. 2000). 2005)(Table 1).S. with extensive ideas. and planning. For instance. The paper also includes businesses in the city. relationship calls for new or adapted concepts. wired city region or community. development agendas characterized with the by rail. stimulated urban Francisco. fragments together and enhancing the capacity were mixed in different income levels and with some implemented nationally or of urban policy-making. First the paper considers how urban expanded Boston’s city boundary out 6 miles ubiquitous city (Hwang. above metaphors to reshape their communities and Cleveland (Library of Congress. time. residents 2 spatium . two decades to describe the changing ICT. intelligent city (Batty. electricity. economically uneven development in the time of technological innovations: telephones. later extended to Chicago. often view ICT as the main possibility port or central railway station that was an on urban environment change. Louis. late industrial. Simultaneously. social classes and densely clustered around a worldwide. there arouse competitive and design ideas in the new information era are aspects of urban life and thus the quality of life industrial cities. city of bits (Mitchell. many regional and local second largest city in the U. In railroads. Graham and Marvin (1996. 1987).

A further concept is that consequences of globalization and postfordist urban sprawl.Automobile introduced. capital. Table 2. discourses arouse as analyses of previous those associated with earlier technologies. the last two discourses urban planners.g. 1996. Since IBM’s technological advances . computing. Post-metropolis . Before the mid-19th century. p. principally the . in turn. restructuring of the postmetropolis: a age landscapes in India and Mexico. economic development and such changes in polycentricity of suburban employment centers In an extensive effort to understand the land uses as redevelopment (Maeng and (Gordon and Richardson. Edge cities have emerged as different discourses that can analyze the (2003) examines the emerging information- new centers with white-collar jobs. 1996). a Fractal City. 1991). a Carceral City. the 2 Walking city refers to a city whose area lies within a to adapt to globalization and economic relationship between ICT and urban form comfortable walking range. electricity. In defined as non-downtown office space that is edge-citied Expolis.Electricity . the suburban pattern of low-density. During this .Massive residential suburbanization transmission. and culture in a Cosmopolis. and a (2003) foresee that telecommuting and more jobs than bedrooms.. have enhanced the capability of ICT – most Over the past century. Postfordist Industrial Metropolis. and an urban imaginary and businesses. During the post-World Early industrial (1820-1869) . and other cultural activities (Kotkin to affect urban form through the processes of employment. a Cosmopolis.g. technological not an edge city. 98).ICT (e. since the late other various factors affected urban form to decentralization in most metropolitan regions. Tayyaran and Khan An edge city is defined as any place that “has an Expolis. McDonald and postmetropolis. exclusionary gated-communities innovations (e. have responded to various technological traditional cities have declined as industrial innovations differently. are bound decentralization of economic activity and commerce.. storage. 6). and was causes of the new urbanization process. the postindustrial-metropolis period (1970-present) .. The first two discourses focus on the intelligent transportation systems may lead to a by the population as one place. polycentricity of (1970 to the present) is characterized by a new suburban employment centers) level of advanced technologies. cities have begun to fortify their change its entire landscape. prominently in the Internet. globalization of 1996.Road building . the quality of urban life. as a new. in and opportunity within urban environments to around Los Angeles in particular. However. and allowed manufacturing to (1920-1969) (e. The author notes that these six requires concepts and models different from with transport technology was not introduced to the public. Technology and Urban Development: telephone) allowed cities to spread to their From the Early Industrial Period to the Present hinterlands (Macionis and Parrillo. However. Furthermore. others improved Several empirical studies address the traditional role as centers of business. with all their adverse effects of (Garreau. Soja (2000) introduces six Nedović-Budić. an intensified both horizontally and vertically. 1991. dispersed and economic restructuring. metropolitan forms and so themselves may be spatium 3 .g. they have been widely used in homes edgeless cities are spread over the nation. reducing the cost of power Mass production metropolis . For instance. ICT. the multinucleated urban form and a general nothing like city as recently as thirty years ago” third and fourth discourses focus on the urban decentralization. all American cities were walking cities (Phillips.Global city network personal computers (PCs) were first released in 1981. An edgeless city is labor. 2003). and telecommunications because of their lack of definite boundaries.Initial urban growth (e. Massive highway construction led to high Period Technology Urban Form and Development dependence on automobiles and accelerated suburban development. occurring and corporate headquarters (Garreau. 1998). Internet) regions (e. Audirac Prather.g. 2004). automobile. ICT therefore pose a challenge to of edgeless cities. is locally perceived Simcity. advances in although the general shape is difficult to define Simcity.Railroad . restructuring. In any case. of a Carceral City.Elevator . urban environments With prosperity of suburbs and exurbs. Lang (2003) argues that Fractal City. high-voltage electrical systems were . at the metropolitan edge. The expansion of downtown was dependence (Lang. War II era.Personal computer . ICT also present an focus on how the postmetropolis.Beginning of commercial move to the periphery of the metropolis in suburbanization addition to residential suburbanization.Beginning of urban dispersal areas (Nelson and Duncan. 1995). has managed improve the quality of life. and particularly focus on the and DeVol 2001). population density and high automobile development of a Postfordism. Some technologies with This current period is characterized by and corporate centers. p. 1990s.Telephone (suburbanization) period.ended the “compact walking city”2 and edgeless metropolitan form with low pervaded by inherent problems: uneven changed the urban internal structure (Phillips..Decentralization of metropolitan Finally. population influx in cities) single-family development known as urban Late industrial ..Urban revitalization with computer and the Internet.g. a disordered and polarized addition to change downtown.Expansion of cities sprawl occurred around most metropolitan (1870-1919) . 1994). shopping. highways) .

technological determinism is frameworks and models. stemming from theories in social technological innovations are the determining form and are unclear in envisioning how cities and technological sciences. the causes and effects of ICT on urban form determinism. This technological promises for a better urban perspective’s lack of sufficient proof and of society and quality of life were relied on to deal TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM with negative aspects of industrial cities. 2002). when ecology complements them as another relevant cause of transformations of urban forms. The four simple. rather than individual processes. Utopianism dates relationship of ICT and urban form. 3) (Table 3). although these approaches provide visions of a better future. and 4) social determinism. Urban the advances in ICT have been the primary back to the late nineteenth century. Le Corbusier’s Radient City) were also founded on technological advances. 2001). urban ecologists consider & Migration Urban Form technology specifically as part of the overall change in urban form. is also limited in assuming that complex interactions between ICT and urban perspectives. The urban political economy perspective considers economic Note: Adapted from Graham and Marvin (1996. Neither approach URBAN ECOLOGY explicitly regards technology and society as ICT inseparable and interrelated. Several examples of industrial-age utopias ICT Urban (e.. advantages and disadvantages for explaining perspectives include: 1) technological 1991. 1987). urban ecology focuses on Capitalism the consequences of actions at the macro level. they remain speculative and idealistic. provide various growth factor in society and urban may be shaped by the development of ICT analytical frameworks for examining the development. Restructuring Although that assumption does not reject & Cultural Dynamics of Capitalism individual activity. both futurism and utopianism assume Solution to Advance in that ICT will play a crucial role in enhancing ICT Urban Problems Urban Form urban life (Graham and Marvin. Process of Adjustments in Population Expansion Social Organization & On the other hand. Perspectives on the Relationship between ICT and Urban Form capitalism to be the main factors explaining 4 spatium . Pascal. p. Howard’s Garden City. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF TECHNOLOGY In contrast to the somewhat simplistic. urban political economy. depth in theoretical explanation reduces the ICT AND URBAN FORM complexity of ICT and of their spatial The complexity of the interactions between ICT manifestations and effects. Wright’s Effect Broadacre City. The logic of technological Similarly to technological determinism. Their basic assumption is that a collective process of adaptation URBAN POLITICAL ECONOMY occurs. The major professionals (Brotchies et al.THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON perspective here (Figure 1). Economic. Use & Application Effects on Organizations & Cities the perspectives of urban political economy Individuals of ICT and the social construction of technology recognize the complex relationship between ICT and urban form. Social. For as yet there is no proof that (Dodge and Kitchin. Fathy. 1987. 1996).g. rather than explaining why they do (Kleniewski.. The theoretical analytical perspectives about the relationship accepted by many planning scholars and perspectives presented above have both between ICT and urban form. However.79) forces and the unequal social relations of Figure 1. 2) futurism and utopianism. urban ecology describes Development & urban form by examining where and how Application of ICT different activities take place. Despite that and urban form challenges existing theoretical Graham and Marvin (1996) discuss a range of drawback. Furthermore. Political. UTOPIANISM AND FUTURISM The hope for a practical utopia continues today. speculative and idealistic explanations offered Social Shaping by by the first three perspectives described above. though straightforward and futurism and utopianism tend to simplify the construction of technology.

1989). themes. ICT IMPACT ON URBAN FORM development as a social process (Graham and Research on the relationship between ICT and Each of the five perspectives described above Marvin. Townsend (2000) argues that mobile futurism. 1996). the body of literature examined relationships within which technological assumes that ICT will cause changes in here is organized according to its major innovations occur (Kline and Pinch. 1997. Naisbitt. Graham and economy forces and the unequal social capitalism at the macro level Marvin. however. derived mainly Urban ecology . Others assert that ICT are support the restructuring of global capitalism. perspectives comprehend the relationship the urban structural manifestations associated Urban political economy tends. Theoretical Advantage Disadvantage Perspective Spatial Restructuring Technological .Emphasis on the social . stresses the social shaping of all can contribute to the theoretical background economic restructuring (Audirac. the latter focus examines the “technology and society are mutually global digital network.Widely accepted . or how different activities occur . centers on the role of ICT – whether urban form adaptation (rather than an individual they reinforce the importance of cities as the .Understanding of economic . and urban ecology. they are cited different social groups in regard to both views.Overemphasis on the restructuring of (Gottmann and Harper. Theoretical Perspectives on ICT and Urban Form economic restructuring focus is theoretically organized on a global scale (Audirac. 1996). Mitchell.Lack of a sufficient proof The spatial restructuring perspective focuses determinism . how social groups are shaped by technology.Basic assumption of a collective way of ecology. the economic neither the urban political economy technologies of ICT may not result in massive restructuring focus derives mainly from urban perspective nor the social construction of changes such as transport and political economy. infrastructure. For decentralization dichotomy and discusses new and social groups. That dichotomy. spatium 5 . Despite enabling technology (Nijkamp and Salomon.” explaining that instance. They views3 – of spatial restructuring and of other hand. ICT are also seen complex relationship between ICT and urban automobiles and telephones) brought about in as playing a major role in economic form. 22). Since technology at the micro level. 1981).Limited attention to the social structure construction of shaping of technology at the and power relationships 3 Since some studies deal with both spatial and technology local level . but pays limited for examination of that relationship and its the spatial and economic effects are closely attention to social structure and the power effects. 1995. straightforward logic . 1999).Lack of understanding of the identities of economic aspects on the impacts of ICT. restructuring focus is based more on empirical analysis at the regional or local level. 2002). correlated levels (Graham and at the macro level and to neglect technological Marvin. 2002). economy and geography (Abler. main factors in explaining ICT as a social process and what ICT might generate. and urban settings Social .Simplistic approach from technological determinism and urban part of the overall change in .Recognition of technology as . they consider ICT to be an restructuring focus derives mostly from social groups involved in the process. technological determinism.. Negroponte. the spatial but only sporadically analyze the identities of restructuring. The following section discusses globalization (Graham and Marvin. space responds to ICT. 1996). necessary but not sufficient to generate spatial In terms of theoretical perspectives.Providing visions for the future . using a centralization- relationship between technological artifacts 1995. overemphasize the restructuring of capitalism different.Simplification of the complex (Table 4). 1996). The social constructivists demonstrate form and urban life. It society. straightforward logic . urban form can be encapsulated in two main has some utility for understanding the The social construction of technology. Mitchell (1995.Idealistic and speculative a discussion of the newly emerging forms utopianism . 1995.Simple.Simple. to between ICT and urban form as composed of with recent ICT. 1999) argues that the urban forms. Many academics debate whether the . 1991. will dramatically affect urban forces of capitalism and technological change p. However. 1999. on the relationship between ICT and urban form.Understanding of where and process) centers of production and consumption.Limited depth in theoretical explanation on how urban space responds to ICT.Emphasis on the important role interactions between ICT and urban form impacts of ICT on urban form are centrifugal or of ICT in urban enhancement centripetal.g. the Table 3. While the spatial technology succeeds in fully explaining the communications technologies (e. 1990.Lack of understanding of causal factors reduce the need for physical proximity Urban political . utopianism and complexity and uniqueness of approach. Discussion of new urban forms relations of capitalism as the .Exclusion of technological development explores how urban form might respond to ICT. The former focus examines how urban also declines to address the “reciprocal Cairncross. Toffler.ICT and urban phenomena. Some literature on the effects of ICT interconnected. in combination these two urban form. including of technological cause and urban effect a centralization-decentralization dichotomy and Futurism & . as a whole new urban relationship through which the economic constitutive” (Mackenzie and Wajcman.

through their effect on industries Washington. Weber (1964) defines urban realms as economic activities. Thus.e. public Looking beyond this simple dichotomy. technological innovations (2007) find that ICT are functioning as a centralization thesis appeared in the 1990s. Wong (2004) also accepts the Decentralization and along radial transportation corridors” (p. legal. have a significant potential to influence the centripetal force as well as a centrifugal force This may be because the decentralization structure of metropolitan areas. 597). 6 spatium . Similarly. Kotkin and DeVol (2001) Webber’s (1964) speculation about the “non. Los Angeles.Centralization reshaping urban form. Townsend (2001).” As Graham and Marvin (1997) Decentralization note. despite the premise of the “death of Dual Forces: Beyond Centralization vs. have concentrations in a restricted number of nodal Gordon and Richardson (1997) claim that started to profit from this transformation. telecommunications. essential geographic advantages of the core argue that the urban revitalization process has place urban realm. In this view. human settlements) cluster. such as New York. Gottman and the role of central cities will remain active or locations and greater mobility of people. 96). despite the diminished importance of of physical proximity in urban space. 2000). the Office of Technology In contrast. and relations.” but that they contribute “to the areas. dual view of ICT’s relationship with urban form. Panayides and Kern response to location requirements and “technological change ramifies through (2005) find that ICT developments result in an competition for location. leading to once the technology is more evenly distributed thesis was the scholars’ initial reaction in the growth in some places and simultaneously to throughout the region. and Chicago. 455). Canada. DC metropolitan region. the their case study. geography. some “first-tier” decentralization thesis. The findings also point early days of ICT. Webber (1964) considers the decline in others. Hence. as do the automobiles. increase and eventually the role of cities as communicating with each other through space” In a centripetal tendency. physical proximity becomes redundant. In their pioneer empirical work. the advocates of the because of greater spatial flexibility and Assessment (1995) noted that uneven and decentralization thesis see a centrifugal mobility that ICT offer in urban form. The decentralization thesis dates confirms that. space and time 4 Highly specialized services are accounting. process is still in its infancy. programming. proposing that ICT will Castells (2000) notes that “information cities. concentrate and to disperse social and Gaspar and Glaeser (1998) suggest that with Thus. and form of agglomeration. Hawley (1986) advances in information technologies the “neither urban settlement nor territory.” technologies contribute to ‘megalopolitan’ Boston. Building on physical factors and spatial hierarchy. but explains that both centripetal and centrifugal demand for all kinds of human interactions will heterogeneous groups of people forces take place simultaneously in urban form. global cities. 2001).S. the dichotomy is too simplistic to paradigm: the tendency of technological capture the complex interaction and linkages Hall (1999) and Kotkin (2000) argue that the advances to diffuse first within cities and then between ICT and urban form. San Francisco. will strengthen. Maeng from the 1960s. new technologies will will take place despite the reduced importance reduce the attractiveness of cities as centers of Thus. are ICT.” Fainstein and Fainstein cities remain significant and continue to attract been seen since the late 1990s. which network among advances in ICT stimulate dispersion of urban Sassen (2001) also finds a tendency of “highly themselves. proposes “a new network of a number of urban satellite nodes. expand the size of a city under the assumption decentralization dichotomy can increasingly be His consideration of the relationship between that city residents use more electronic viewed as having ICT as an explanatory ICT and urban form is based on the entropy interactions than those on the periphery. and other literature also suggests that a complex place-based ways of livings are still important such services (Sassen. freedom to combination of centralization and The proponents of centralization believe that communicate causes a dispersion of physical decentralization is more likely. eventually result in the “death of distance. 116). with advances in ICT. units of an centers of various activities and interactions (p. organization (i. and that as a specialized services”4 (p. Tayyaran and Khan (2003) discover a acquires a new urban spatiality that depends viewing centripetal and centrifugal tendencies trend toward multinucleated urban form “where on networks and is generated by the in combination. Although the (1989) and Atkinson (1996) maintain the population and activities (Kotkin. Graham and Marvin societies.. 82) to concentrate in sprawl and multi-centering of population and result.. altering economies and thereby increase of face-to-face interactions and (1996) state that. surmounts geographic limits through the located at some distance from the central core advances in ICT. recentralization and prosperity of urban centers in the rural areas. the obstacles are being overcome selectively.S. expressing in their spatial logic a activities within these nameless urban In several surveys conducted in the U. Confirming the Gaspar and A centrifugal tendency spreads units outward in Pascal (1987) agrees with Webber in that Glaeser’s approach. In the U. That study Based on the empirical study of the advances. dispersed urban development will continue tendency in urban form with technological with technological advances. patterns and the locations of work and home. although the centralization or diffusing the interactions in space” (p. and Harper (1990) propose that communications even be strengthened by technological reduces the significance of traditional urban technologies work in two directions – to innovations. variable. From human interactions and work. containing combination of economic globalization and networked metropolitan regions” that mixed business and residential land uses. many proponents of the and employment. out that geographic location still matters for mode of communications to be a prime factor ICT. the global city constellations” (p. areas on the planet.

Graham and Marvin 1996) . Fathy (1991) claims that the use of ICT in urban activities Table 4. 1999. wide Mitchell expects that physical and virtual lanes. Building on Toffler’s primarily based on futurism. too. a household becomes a rearrangement of urban places into different centrifugal – are more likely to happen in urban place of mixed activities – production.” He . 3). another common theme Dulles International and Reagan Washington examines “how and where cyberspace and in the context of the spatial restructuring by ICT National Airports. the recent literature suggests that the system based on the new capabilities of ICT. corridors and “based on low density. green cities that work aerotropolis is located along major airport smarter. Although the decentralization thesis has technological determinism or of futurism and architecture. physical space interact” in a conventional city is new urban forms.Increase in face-to-face interactions and city size (Gaspar and information services to both its residents and centralization Glaeser 1998.City of bits (Mitchell 1995) New urban form .Electronic cottage (Toffler 1980) examines the global digital network and the . A region’s spatium 7 . electronic cottage” as a new production levels: home.E-topia (Mitchell 1999) virtual spaces. Borrowing from beyond the dichotomy. Confirming this thesis. demands for “speed and reliability. 2008). spaces would work independently but major airport corridors become clusters of claims that the elimination of locational-based supplement each other within adapted urban high-tech jobs. city of bits. telecity. and city. Kotkin and DeVol 2001) accommodates teleworkers and provides Urban .” in which virtual networks and Spatial restructuring Examples information-based activities are superimposed on a city’s existing physical form. the “city of bits.Non-place urban realm (Webber 1964) decentralization . and possibly better forms. thus establishing an networks has not yet fully occurred with the patterns. using telecommunications Dichotomy .” the South Korea in particular (Kim. 12). Maeng and Nedović- Building on such efforts to understand the Budić (2008) find that the location of the ICT New Urban Forms nature of ICT-based cities. it now becomes somewhat outdated. Urban . Toffler (1980) envisions “the design” for digital placemaking at several ICT.Entropy Paradigm (Pascal 1987) firms.Beyond dichotomy. E. community. Discussion of new urban forms. being replaced by new ones. “aerotropolis” as advances in ICT stimulate professionals. topias would be “lean. and as new urban are offered mainly by advocates of Mitchell’s concept of “recombinant forms. His analysis of “placemaking” The discourse on the spatial restructuring by are the electronic cottage. in growth of cities in the post-industrial era. work.Aerotropolis (Kasarda 2000) the concept of “recombinant architecture” for . 147). The telecity . DC suggests that “digital places” can share space In addition to the dichotomy of centralization metropolitan region is related to proximty to in both physical and virtual worlds. substitutes for location in the new economy. and leisure. activities in digital places points out the ICT can be summarized in three major views: e-topia. segmentation and recombination of places as centralization-decentralization dichotomy. rather than the existing urban patterns aerotropolis. in which underground networks replace networks on the ground and the Kasarda (2000) describes the rise of widely received by urban scholars and existing urban form gradually changes. To respond to the new economy’s concrete steps towards its implementation. p. digital places. Combination (Gottman and Harper 1990. as had been expected from its space. He and decentralization. Mitchell (1995) foresees a digital network city. both futuristic and pragmatic given the promising alternative to the uncontrollable commerce. transcending nature. environment. Horan (2000) cluster identified in the Washington. and fast movements” (p.” Horan suggests “recombinant generated a lot of interest in the early stages of utopianism. not harder” (Mitchell.Global city (Sassen 1991) networks. and the aerotropolis.Telecity (Fathy 1991) relationship between physical places and . Some of those examples (p. Zook (2000). In recombinant design. Drawing on the notion of . Ideas about emerging innovative urban forms stimulated by technology. and public agencies interactively interconnected to one another via remote . The telecity therefore is a concentration of individuals. has not been concept of the electronic cottage. consumption. ICT is the catalyst for dual tendencies of ICT – centripetal and the electronic cottage.Revitalization of urban center (Hall 1999.Ubiquitous city (Kim 2008) the city of bits. In Instead.” where a more air travel due to more long-distance – the ubiquitous city – may be considered as digital revolution and new economy provide a businesses and the emergence of e.Digital places (Horan 2000) recombinant DNA in genetics. Kasarda posits that accessibility Internet. Panayides and Kern 2005) other customers. Kotkin 2000. he introduces . One new vision that is emerging Mitchell also hopes for an “e-topia. Perspectives on Spatial Restructuring functionally and structurally produces a “telecity. households. mix of centralization and decentralization services.‘Megalopolitan’ concentration (Castells 2000) In a similar vein.in the shaping of cities.

unlike the hierarchically work as a unit in real time on a global scale organization of capital and production in a organized ones seen in traditional urban (Castells 1996). and economic diversity. and by network as a unit. These new forms of networks of cables and fiber optics. and management. Networks of the Internet. some of the state regulations. social. and has obscured recognition of society and are appropriate tools for a capitalist planning is reviewed in the next section. 2003). Friedmann and Wolff growth in major cities and contains the monitoring the changing technological (1982) are among the early scholars to elements of a new type of a city. Moreover. (2) the complexity of the difficult to handle (Firmino. Sassen (2001) argues that global methods to these new circumstances” (p. Although there is general sector and simply protected by federal and cultural. That divergence in concentration. including the relatively short history of mainly on urban political economy and focuses space of places is likely to experience wide. whereas traditional logic is defined by the combination of observations remain speculative because of infrastructure is usually owned by the public territorial decentralization and locational lack of empirical studies. Castells (1989) defines the “informational cities often tend to “consolidate” rather than 130). for three reasons: (1) the significance heavily depended on visible and tangible the new urban-regional and global process. 2002). urban theoretical and tends to address the global industrial complex dominates economic planning may have been hampered in scale (Audirac. the lack of useful theoretical cities exhibit a complex interaction between the space of flows and the space of places INFORMATION AGE and conceptual frameworks for study of ICT (Castells 2004). They argue that “the character of the urbanizing have created new forms of centralization to most ICT infrastructure is invisible to the processes – economic. processes of global economic restructuring for decade the spatial dispersion of production understanding the internal dynamics of cities. 309). 1996) increased importance as centers of finance. invisible to us and this invisibility is increasing and Sassen (1991. the mode of their centralization shift the locus of control and satellite-based telecommunications (Graham integration into the world economy” (p. He explains an informational is highly complex. ICT cities will share the new logic of the socioeconomic paradigm based on ICT infrastructure is built primarily by the private Information Age despite their historical. Unlike the advances in ICT. Some in particular from participation in ICT networks play a central role in informational sporadic work on how ICT affect urban infrastructure. and spatial – manage the global networks of production sites public. being composed of underground which define life in these ‘cities’ reflect. with the interaction between cities and ICT. urban scholars and planners find the relates this mode to the emergence of a new connectivity and supporting functions invisible and intangible characteristics of ICT socio-technical organization and to the dependent on the ICT. This new agreement on this perspective. ICT and also their rapid changes. The This viewpoint also stresses a fundamental urban planning’s incapability to track these change in the organization of production in the Similarly. That shortcoming may have several The economic restructuring perspective draws A society with both the space of flows and the reasons. 1997) note that has examined the influence of ICT on urban main domain of global technological many urban planning professionals and form. (Audirac. 2002). the economic restructuring perspective instance. He of the centrality of global cities in securing space. Finally. and culture (Castells society prevent urban planning from dealing support the restructuring of global capitalism. management. a significant gap is the lack of attention 8 spatium . most of the transformed modern capitalism into a global them to assume technologically deterministic work in terms of the economic restructuring is network of corporations and cities. 2001). cities such as New and Marvin. As a result. for economy as one where knowledge and Thus. planning. history. studies would be most useful in guiding urban ownership has kept public sector and planning Castells earlier (1996) pointed out that action at local and regional levels. a global city. ICT infrastructure weaker national identities. 2008). and considerable extent.Economic Restructuring movement and flow. are very complicated and information processing have the capacity to stresses fundamental changes in the decentralized. have academics and professionals and a risk for research on spatial restructuring. landscapes and addressing the resulting issues systematically emphasize consideration of the Sassen (2001) maintains that over the last in a timely manner. Batty (1990b) also makes The idea of global city formation has been York. Since traditional urban planning has mode of development” in order to understand disperse. of ICT and their impact on different aspects of forces of capitalism and technological change employment. His most recent work notes that in their community (Bradbury and Becker. Sassen (1991) explains that the changes results in speculation by planning world economy (Audirac. Fast changes on the relationship by which the economic ranging changes in physical space. to a and financial markets. economy. and (3) society’s institutional and economic In addition to its invisibility. whereas the space of to the linkages between ICT and urban places is the geographic space of everyday life. URBAN PLANNING IN THE 1995). restructuring of capitalism as the basis of global financial system across borders. Castells (2000) predicts that world economy brought about by a infrastructure (Townsend. 1996). among other factors. That new views (Firmino. 2008). Although in recent years considerable research spatial form of the networked society and the Graham and Marvin (1996. London. 2002). global services. 1996). and Tokyo have gained the observation that “cities are becoming further developed by Castells (1989. 1998). how ICT infrastructure can affect development economy. and the reorganization of the financial industry Unlike traditional urban physical infrastructure. The results of such sector (Moss. organization. faster than our ability to adapt our research Furthermore. The space of flows is a new and urban planning is also a challenge.

and also the body of literature on about the locations of cellular towers because allow for mixed-use development that could the role of planning associated with ICT. several theoretical perspectives on the (Lawlor. dealing with the new types of land facilities. also notes that planners need to “develop urban planning are required to match recognizing the connections among land use. relationship between ICT and urban form. 2004). Furthermore. supportive of new development of colocation to extend our knowledge of the relationship facilities but failed to foresee the possibilities The passage of Telecommunications Reform between ICT and urban form and of how the for their oversupply. 1996. uses (e. Urban planning researchers. DC environments. 50). On the The literature on the role of planning aesthetics (Duerksen and Goevel.g. since zoning is the (2003) explore the planning responses of primary planning tool for regulating land uses. with zoning. including revising zoning policy resulted in a sluggish market for ICT. There are also environmental should maintain the residential character local and regional governments now see ICT as concerns raised about their radio-frequency (Maeng and Nedović-Budić. paradigm of Chicago and Seoul. Sporadic empirical requires changes in planning mechanisms and moratorium and then zoning regulations. which usually are operated from have been. socioeconomic and spatial consequences” Luithlen. Washington. 1998. With regard to the impact of ICT-based activity. local to deal with telecommuting. 1996. Handy and Mokhtarian. lack of a practical framework for managing ordinances or streamlining the development Loudoun County. p. DC (Warren et al. mainly framework. challenges that urban planning faces.scholars still view urban form in a traditional Communications Commission (Maeng and can respond to their immediate effects. Yet. In particular. and how it in recognizing the possibilities of ICT and has spatium 9 . on the other hand. home-based businesses are self- associated with ICT points to that urban Stand-alone cellular towers generate concern regulated and require no permit except that planning does not pay much attention to ICT about their visual impact due to their high local planners strongly recommend that they and their impact on urban form. rather than for their “aggregate Graham and Marvin. Hack. 2001) and to home. this The consequent conflicts with local land use several studies suggest specific ways for paper provides an overview of how decisions have to do with the possibility of planning to respond to telecommuting technologies have been shaping urban “unreasonable discrimination” against (Grustein. Act of 1996 brought attention to the link urban planning field responds to the spatial between the impacts of ICT and local planning. Although many visibility. business needs. 1999). 1998). For cities have formal policies about them. was very ICT’s implications. many scholars agree that the help the planners develop policies to influence The importance of ICT is currently recognized importance of urban planning will be refocused where such facilities locate (Evans-Cowley. Evans-Cowley et al. cities will develop a better urban planning and utilization of more complex a centralized agency (Townsend. 1999. business and industrial parks and tried to get ahead of the development of however. Maeng and Nedović- challenge occurs.S. planning tools. understanding of the possibilities of future land policies and interventions. telecommunications services. awareness” of the influence of the urban technological advances and their impact. as ICT start to influence our life major U. Handy and Mokhtarian (1995) note that follows an examination of the impacts of ICT on prevents them from regulating access to land use planning does not have specific tools urban form as presented in the literature. DC and Loudoun County have The activities related to ICT grow rapidly and associated with ICT. and ICT infrastructure can development in the Information Age (p. authors suggest that by incorporating ICT activities. the influence of ICT on urban zoning. In their comparative case studies ICT and urban form – in short. (2002) and Evans-Cowley Budić (2004) find that. other hand. 2004). development in the United States and presents providers of personal communications services Helling and Mokhtarian. finding that only a few development and its issues by updating their urban planning becomes controversial. That evidence about the phenomenon suggests the strategies.. As McMahon (1999) has responded to the development of collocation become increasingly evident in urban pointed out. in terms of their applications that can enhance (Cecchini. 1995. 1997. cities to the development of and urban landscapes substantially. Although the 1996 Act does based businesses (Maeng and Nedović-Budić. The purpose of this paper is review process.. There not deny zoning powers to localities. Some an opportunity for their economic development emissions. First. and economic consequences of ICT. infrastructure systems into the comprehensive The literature thus points to a lack of deeper may destabilize the basis of top-down planning plan as traditional urban infrastructure systems understanding of the linkages between ICT and interventions. some metropolitan region. despite the fact that these are below studies focus on how current planning practice and growth. Gillespie (2002) Changes in the concepts and approaches of use for ICT infrastructure. 1999). On the one hand. however. 2003). 71). The instance. Maeng and Nedović- studies focus on such specific issues as Budić (2008) explore how local governments CONCLUSION planning responses to the land use changes of Washington. it 2004). They present focusing on spatial and economic government has been concerned primarily cases where existing zoning regulations do not restructuring. the role of local governments try to regulate ICT-related colocation facilities. of their effects on community character and make telecommuting more attractive. 2000. To provide insight on the In their case study of the Washington. 2000). urban planning tends to lag behind the safety limits adopted by the Federal can best utilize new technologies. and decentralization in particular. have only started to comprehend the telework centers) and ICT infrastructure colocation facilities with an emergency relationship with ICT. Graham and Marvin. overlooking the actual dynamics of Nedović-Budić.

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