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I/C, Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 1

**TENSOR PRODUCT BEZIER
**

SURFACE PATCH •TOPOLOGICALLY

RECTANGULAR SURFACE

PATCH

(n+1) = 4

(m+1) = 5

I/C, Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 2

(n+1) = (m+1) = 4

I/C, Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 3

AERO-FOIL MODEL USING TENSOR PRODUCT BEZIER SURFACE PATCH Delaunay triangulated net of Bezier curves The control surface or polyhedron The surface patch EDGES (BEZIER CURVES) I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 4 .

(0. Verify by substituting (u.n (u )B j .m (v). Caution.Regalla Srinivasa 1 Pn mPrakash Along u 1 edge 5 . 0 u 1. v) as (0. (1. 1). the tangent vectors at the corners become specific values as below. PARAMETRIC EQUATION OF BEZIER SURFACE PATCH n m P(u. v) Pij Bi . •Notice the suffixing method. 1). •The surface is tangent to the corner segments of the control polyhedron. the suffixes mean the number of control points only . 0). Pu 00 nP10 P00 Pun0 nPn 0 Pn 10 Along v 0 edge Pu 0 m nP1m P0 m Punm nPnm Pn 1m Along v 1 edge Pv 00 mP01 P00 Pv 0 m mP0 m P0m 1 Along u 0 edge mPnm Pvn 0 mPn1 Pn 0 PvnmI/C. 0 v 1 i 0 j 0 •The surface interpolates the four corner control points. 0) and (1. In case of Bezier surface patch. In HCC the suffixes could be taken equal to either parameter value or number of control points at the corners because there were only two control points in each direction. •As is true for the Bezier curve segment.

Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 6 . CLOSED BEZIER CURVE (CLOSED ALONG THE V-EDGES) CLOSED BEZIER CURVE (CLOSED ALONG THE U-EDGES) I/C.A closed Bezier surface patch is obtained by closing either u=0 & u=1 edges or v=0 & v=1 edges.

m (v) N (u. n m Bi . •The convex hull is the polyhedron formed by connecting all control points to all control points. v) Pij B j .n (u ) Pij Pkl i 0 j 0 k 0 l 0 u v I/C. •The shape of the Bezier patch can be modified by either moving the control points or providing multiple control points at the same coordinate location.m (v) Pkl Bk .m (v)Bk .m (v) B j .n (u ) Bl .n (u ) i 0 j 0 u k 0 l 0 v n m n m Bi .•The Bezier surface has convex hull property.n (u ) n m Bl . Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 7 .

C0 CONTINUITY C1 CONTINUITY CONTINUITY REQUIREMENTS OF BEZIER PATCHES AT BLENT EDGES I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 8 .

m (u ) P (u. v) B0.m (u ) P P11 P1m B1. P00 P01 P0 m B0.It is possible to express the Bezier patch equation in matrix form for generic situation of (n+1) by (m+1) control points. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 9 .m (u ) P(u.n (u ) B1.n (u ) Bn . v) U M B P M B V T T Review question: WHAT IS THE [B] MATRIX OF THE BICUBIC BEZIER PATCH EQUIVALENT TO THE HERMITE BICUBIC PATCH? Hint: use the tangent vector information required for Bicubic Hermite patch from the control point information of the Bezier curve.n (u ) 10 Pn 0 Pn1 Pnm Bm. I/C.

v. w is not independent. TRIANGULAR PATCHES • Necessary when: – The given surface data points form triangle – Given surface cannot be modeled entirely by rectangular patches and may required some triangular patches also • Three parameters u. used only to maintain the symmetry of barycentric coodinates I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 10 . 0w1 • The parameters u. v and w are called barycentric coordinates: u+v+w=1 at any point on the patch • Thus. and w are used. 0v1. of which only two are independent • The parametric domain is defined by a symmetric unit triangle of 0u1.

1) Y X I/C.0.0) v=0 w (0. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 11 Z .1.0) w u (0.0. wk) v v (1.1.0. vj.0.0) P(0. P(0.1) v=0 u P(1.0) u=0 w=0 u=0 w=0 P(ui.

k .n (u. 0 v 1. a triangula r Bezier patch is defined as P(u. v. Formulation of Triangular Patches Similar to the tensor product rectangula r patches. j . j . 0 w 1 i . The Bi. v.k Control points or data points that form the vertices of the control polygon. j .k . Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 12 . and i j k n and n degree of the patch. 0 u 1.j.n are the Bernstein polynomials of degree n : n! i j k Bi . w). I/C.k where i.k. For example. j . k 0.n uv w i! j!k! Pi . w) Pijk Bi . j .

Examples : How many control points are required to define (a) quadratic. (4 1)(4 2)/2 15 I/C. v and w directions unlike a rectangula r patch which can have n and m different degrees in different parametric directions . (n 1)(n 2)/2 (2 1)(2 2)/2 6 (b) Cubic : n 3. (b) cubic and (c) quartic Bezier surface patches? Solution : (a) Quadratic : n 2.The number of control points required to define a Bezier triangular surface patch of degree n is : (n 1)(n 2) 2 The triangula r Bezier patch has same degree in all u. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 13 . (3 1)(3 2)/2 10 (c) Quartic : n 4.

FINDING THE BASIS POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS IN THE TRINGULAR BEZIER PATCH BY MEANS OF PASCAL’S TRIANGLE v4 4uv3 4v3w 12uv2w 6v2w2 6u2v2 12uvw2 12u2vw QUARTIC PATCH 4vw3 4u3v w4 6u2w2 4u3w u4 4uw3 I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 14 .

l (v). i 0 j 0 0 u umax . v) Pij N i .k (u )N j . 0 v vmax •LOCAL CONTROL IS POSSIBLE •ALL OTHER PROPERTIES OF B-SPLINE CURVES APPLY •KNOT VECTORS IN THE TWO PARAMETRIC DIRECTIONS CAN DIFFER •COMPOSITE B-SPLINE SURFACES CAN BE OBTAINED BY BLENDING PATCHES WITH C0 AND C1 CONTINUITY IN THE SAME WAY AS BEZIER PATCHES I/C. B-SPLINE SURFACE PATCH n m P(u. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 15 .

COONS surface patch I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 16 .

1).w) and P(1. Linear Coons Surface • The linear Coons surface is the simlest of all Coons surfaces. a more general Coons surface is possible • The linear Coons surface is obtained from four boundary curves. P(u.w) • The above four boundary curves are blended by a bilinear blending function for interior of surface patch I/C. P(0.0). P(u. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 17 .

I/C. • Is this correct? • No……………………Why? • Let us see.• The linear Coons surface is normally said to be obtained by * superimposing or by superposition (summing up) of two ruled surfaces in the u and v directions. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 18 .

v)(1 u ) P(1. v) P (0. Why? . P(u . also at the edge u 0. we should get the corner points and boundary curves from this parametric form. I/C. Will we obtain P00 if we substituteu 0 and v 0? P(0... Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 19 Neither result correspond s to the original data..Consider t he linear Coons surface patch being obtained by simple summing up of two ruled surfaces obtained by using the oppositeboundary curves as rails.so No.1)v P(0.. P(0.0)(1 v) P(0. v)u if we substitute the boundary conditions . v) which is not P(0.. v).0)(1 v) P (u ..... v) P (u .0) 2 P00 .1)v P (0.0) P(0. Indeed.0) P(0.

0) and P(0.v) Or u=0 P00 P(u.v) boundary curves. the corner points are counted twice.0) Or v=0 I/C.0) is contained in both the P(u. • The correct result is obtained by subtracting the excess contribution to the surface due to duplication of the corner points. as P(0. P(0. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 20 .• Because.

1)(1 u )v P(1. v) P(u.1)v P(0. P(0.1)uv Now. this yields. v) and P(u.0)u (1 v) P(1.0)(1 v) P(u. the edges will become P(0. Indeed.• The correct result is obtained by subtracting the excess contribution to the surface due to duplicatio of the corner points.1). respectively.0) P00 . At u 0 and v 1. v)u P(0. P(u.0)(1 u )(1 v) P(0. I/C. if we substitute the boundary conditions at the corner points and boundary edges we get the original data. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 21 . v)(1 u ) P(1. At u 0 and v 0. etc.

0) P(0. P(0. (1 . Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 22 .u).1) or more compactly as P(0. v ) v P(0.1) 0 1 The functions (1 . v) 1 v P(u .0) P(1. v) v P(u .0) P (u . 0 ) P (1.1) P (1.1) P(1. v) 1 v P(u .In matrix form.0) P(0.v) and v are called blending functions because they blend the boundary curves to produce the internal shape of the surface. u.0) P(u . v) [1 u u 1] P(1. I/C.1) 1 w [1 u u ] w P (1 . v) [1 u u ] P(u .1) P(0.

C4[0 0 0] • P(1.0).5 when the four boundary curves P(u. C3[0 1 1]. B2[1 1 0]. Example on Linear Coons Surface • Find the point a linear Coons surface at u=v=0.1).v): C1[0 0 3].v) are given by open quadratic (k=3) B-spline curves defined as follows. B2[1 1 3]. P(0. C2[3 1 2].1): B1[0 0 3]. C3[3 1 2]. B3[2 1 0]. C5[3 0 0] I/C. B4[3 0 0] • P(0. C4[3 1 1]. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 23 . B5[3 0 3] • P(u.v): C1[3 0 3].0): B1[ 0 0 0].v) and P(1. C2[0 1 2]. P(u. B4[3 0 0]. B3[2 1 3]. • P(u.

1) P ( s ) B1 N1.5C3 (0)C4 0.5 1 0 P(0.0) P(1. v) is t [0 0 0 1 2 3 3 3] The knot vector for P(u.5. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 24 .3 ( s ) C3 N 3.5 P(1.Solution : The knot vector for P(u. v) is s [0 0 0 1 2 2 2] P(u .125C2 0.50 1 1 0 1 1.52 1 0 1.0) P(t ) B1 N1.875 I/C.3 (t ) B2 N 2.3 (t ) B4 N 4.5) P(1.3 ( s ) B2 N 2.3 (t ) C4 N 4.3 (t ) C3 N 3.0) and P(1.75C3 0.75 B3 0.51 1 0 0.3 (t ) B5 N 5.0.5) (0) B1 0.1) P (1.875 1 3] P(u .5.0.1253 1 2 0.5 B2 0.5 B3 (0) B4 0.3 (t ) C2 N 2.3 (t ) B3 N 3.50 1 2 0. v) P(t ) C1 N1.3 ( s ) C2 N 2.125C4 (0)C5 0.1) and P(0.1251 1 3 0.125 B2 0.1253 1 1 3 1 1.3 ( s ) C4 N 4.3 ( s ) P(0.3 (t ) C5 N 5.3 ( s ) B3 N 3.753 1 2 0.5) (0)C1 0.3 (t ) P(1.1252 1 3 [1.3 ( s ) B4 N 4.5) P (1.5C2 0. v) P ( s ) C1 N1.125 B4 (0) B5 0.0) (0)C1 0.0) (0) B1 0.3 (t ) P(0.3 ( s ) P(0.752 1 3 0.

6375 I/C. v) 1 v P(u. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 25 .Now we can find the matrix form of linear Coons surface patch. P(0.5 1.5.1) P(1.0) P(0.1) P(0.25 1.5 1 0 0 1 1.1) 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 1.5 1] 3 0 3 3 0 0 3 1 1.0) P(u. v) v P(u.875 1 3 1.6375 2.0) P(1.5 P(0.5) [0.875 0.5 0.5 0.0. v) [1 u u 1] P(1.

appliance industries • Sculptured surface is a colletion of interconnected and bounded parametric patches together with blending and interpolation formulas • The surfaces must be amenable to APT for NC m/c tools • The sculpturing surface can be divided into the proper patches which can be created to produce a C0 or C1 continuous surface using the modeling techniques described till now I/C. shoes. aerospace. glass. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 26 . cameras. Sculptured surface • A single patch alone can not build the practically found complex surfaces in design and manufacturing • These complex surfaces are called as sculptured or free- form surfaces • Typical applications are automotive die and mold making.

A rational tensor product surface can be described as n m P h F (u) F (v) i 0 j 0 ij ij i j P(u. Bezier. the rational parametric surface is obtained by algebraic ratio of two polynomials and using weight functions. and B . Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 27 . Rational parametric surface • Just like the rational parametric curve.Spline surfaces are available I/C. v) n m h F (u) F (v) i 0 j 0 ij i j Rational bicubic.

Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 28 . Surface Manipulations: Segmentation • The process is identical to that of the curve • Segmentation is essentially a problem of reparametrization of the surface while keeping the degree of its polynomial in u and v unchanged. v1) – Two patches by segmentation along u=u1 curve – Two patches by segmentation along v=v1 curve I/C. • Different requirements of segmentation of a given surface defined for u=0 to u=um and v=0 to v=vm exist: – Four patches at a point P1(u1.

Segmentation into four sub-patches • For sub-patch 1: u1=u0+(u1-u0)u v1=v0+(v1-v0)v • Similar equations can be written for other sub patches also. • u1=0 to 1 and v1=0 to 1 correspond to the proper values I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 29 .

Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 30 .I/C.

Segmentation into two sub-patches • Along the u=u1 curve. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 31 . for the first sub patch 1: u1=u0+(um-u0)u v1=v0+(v1-v0)v I/C. for the first sub patch 1: u1=u0+(u1-u0)u v1=v0+(vm-v0)v • Along the v=v1 curve.

Newton-Raphson iteration method is very useful.v) – P(w) = 0 • Three scalar equations in three unknows u. w) = 0 Three scalar equation with four unknowns. I/C. u. Intersection • Intersection of surface with curve: P(u. One parameter is kept constant and others are found out. v) – P(t. t and w. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 32 . v. v and w • Intersection of surface with surface: P(u.

v) = a + ub + vc • We need to solve the above equation and the equation of the projection line given by P(w)=P0+wr. Projection • This is projecting an entity onto a plane or surface • When we project a point P0 along r on a planar surface defined as P(u.v) – P(w) =0. That is P(u. I/C. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 33 . • Further derivation takes the following form.

c Similarly.(a .(P0 .a (b c).(P0 . I/C. (c r).a) v (b r ).b (b r ).r Similarly. projection of curves and surfaces onto a given surface can also be solved. v) P( w) 0 a ub vc P0 wr Dot multiply both sides of the above equation by (b c) to get (b c). Therefore (b c).a) u (c r).( P0 wr ). we can write for the other parameters. Regalla Srinivasa Prakash 34 . since (b c) is perpendicular to both b and c.P(u .P0 ) w (b c).

E can be obtained from the tables I/C. of complete elliptic Regalla Srinivasa integrals available Prakash 35 in standard mathematical tables. Application of Intersection problem • Pipeline design needs the knowledge of intersection of surfaces Analytical Solution to find area and perimeter after A and B are found: Ellipse area a A B A Half major axis B Half minor axis A 2 B2 Ellipse perimeter p 2 4aE 2 where E the complete elliptic integral at k A 2 B 2 / A. .

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