acknowledgement

I consider my self very fortunate to get get the opportunity to
make assignment on jain philosophy.

I am very much thankful to dr.jimmy kushwah for providing me
the opportunity to make the assignment on jain philosophy.

I have gone through various sites ,research
books,magazines to get the accurate analysis and tried to find
the best conclusions.

Tanisha yadav

(ba.llb 1st sem)

An Introduction to Jainism or Jain
Dharma

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is one of the most ancient religious traditions of the
Indian subcontinent with its origin rooted in prehistoric times. Although it is now reduced to a
minority religion in India and elsewhere, there was a time when it dominated most parts of India
and enjoyed patronage from some of the most prominent rulers of ancient India. Chandragupta
Maurya, the first well known emperor of India, became a follower of Jainism in the last phase of
his reign and ended his life by fasting in the true tradition of a Jain monk.

Although it yielded place to Brahmanism and Buddhism, it left an indelible impression on the
canvass of Indian religious life. There is no exaggeration in saying that it was not Buddhism but
Jainism which lives in the core of Hinduism in the form of some vital concepts and practices that
are too difficult to ignore. According to Jain beliefs, its doctrine is ancient and eternal. It is
passed on to humanity in each time cycle and becomes lost over a period of time. It reappears
again through the teachings of purified and enlightened beings known as thirthankaras.

According to Jain tradition, the first to come upon earth in this time cycle to reintroduce the
ancient dharma was Rishabhanatha also known as Adinatha, the first in the line of 24
thirthankaras who were destined to manifest upon earth. Parshvanatha (877-777 BC) and
Vardhaman Mahavira were the two in the succession. Jainism played a significant role in the
religious tradition of India. Perhaps there is no other tradition in the country that left its
impression so much as Jainism upon the religious way of life which we now distinguish as the
Sanatana Dharma or more popularly Hinduism. Jainism stresses the spiritual independence and
equality of all life with a particular emphasis on non-violence, which is now an essential
component of Hindusim. Self-control (vrata) and vigorous asceticism are the means by which
Jains attain moksha or liberation from the cycle of rebirth. It is in the rigors of the practice and
the degree of seriousness with which the ideals of asceticism are followed where Jainism stands
apart from both Hinduism and Buddhism.

History of Jain Dharma

The Jain dharma or Jainism is one of the oldest religion of the world.
According to Dr. K.C. Sogani, “It represents the continuation of indigenous
shramanic culture which is as old as Vedas themselves, so far as literary
evidence
goes, through the archeological evidence takes shamanism far back to
harappan
civilization, which is regarded as non-vedic in origin and outlook.”
In the Jain canonical texts(called Agamas), the adjective ‘Arhat’ is appended
with Lord Rishabh. The religion propounded by ‘Arhat’ is known as ‘Arhat
dharma’.
This is the ancient name of Jain religion. In ancient Vaidika literature such as
Padmapurana, Matsyapurana, Shiv purana etc., we find the allusion to Arhat
dharma.
The term ‘Arhat’ continud to be in vogue till Lord Parshvanath. Lord Mahavir
was
more popularly known as ‘Shraman Bhagwan’. During the time of Mahavir
the word
‘Nirgranth Pravachan’ was in vogue in Jain religion. In the period of Mahavir
and for

Later on in 3rd and 4th century. So he could be called a reformer of the Jain Religion or rejunevator of the faith which was already and had a long tradition. According to Jain tradition. The contribution of the first Jain Tirthankar Rishabhadev is strengthening the Indian way can be apparant on four aspects.C.two centuries after his emancipation ‘Nirgrantha Pravachan’ remained prevalent. Lord Rishabh was the first interpreter of Ahinsa (Non-violence). As the Buddhist religion was sponsored by Buddha and the Christianity was sponsored by Jesus. But the term ‘Jin’ donot relate to any person. who has destroyed the veils of Karmas on knowledge. Shiva and Vishnu are personal names. the name ‘Jain Religion’ came into existence. 2 Rishabh the first Tirthankara. And the first among them is that being a great and wise caltivator he trained Indians in systematic agricultural work. intuition and power of soul. a new pattern seemed to have set in and its followers there after called Jains. the follower of Vishnu are called Vaishnav.e. so also the religion sponsored by Jin (Arhat) is called Jain Religion. Bringing the society in the range of simplicity was Rishbhdev’s second major contribution. laid the foundation of simple dharma. popularly regarded as the founder of Jainism. Christ. was the last of the Tirthankars who flourished from 599 to 527 B. The third and . is called Jain. so also the follower of ‘Jin’ are called Jains. One who has faith in preachings of ‘Jin’ and who practises it. Mahavir being the last of 24 Thirthankars. At present. It worships the real qualities of a soul who has attained the state of ‘Jin’ i. Jains have 24 Tirthankars. Jain religion does not believe in worshipping an individual. The Jains trace their history through the lives of 24 Tirthankars. the word ‘Jain Religion’ denotes the complete tradition and teachings of Thirthankars. As the follower of Shiva are called ‘Shaivs’. The preaching’s of ‘Jin’ is the foundation of ‘Jain Religion’. Lord Mahavir..

think and act responsibly towards all existence. All the above four contributions of Rishbhadev. There is no such thing as divine intervention or grace of a guru. His fourth contribution had been in his examplary teachings of realistic honesty particularly for those who were involved in business for their livlihood. they are are pure beings. In his connection too. The liberation of each soul depends upon its own karma and purity of effort. Through Ratna-trya system – Samyak darshan –samyak jnana and samyak charitra – he inspired the people to go forward to attain the highest stage of humanity. some bound and some liberated. in this regard. Doubtlessly. Jains venerate Tirthankaras as a mark of gratitude for the teachings left by them.ever memorable contribution of Rishabh towards the Indian way had been in his work and teachings of developing the art of cottage industries and that too according to demand of time and space. The pure soul of each living being is looked upon as Infinite Knowledge. Mahavir the 24th Tirthankar took the Indian ways to heights. They all are capable of become free or attaining Moksha. In Jainism there is no place for an omnipotent Supreme Being. since it is infused with innumerable souls. he trained the people. in spite of being extra ordinary in his own time. Ananta Caritra. Being a great guide. but rather in an eternal universe governed by natural laws and inhabited by innumerable souls in varying degrees of bondage and libeation. We should therefore. Jainism views the whole existence as sacred. Souls are unborn and uncreated. and Ananta Sukha). souls According to Jainism the destiny of every being is a consequence of its actions. Perception. who are concerned of making this way firm and broad in prevailing conditions of India and the whole world. They are also eternal and equal. are worth giving a thought until today. . Creator or Doer. and Happiness (Ananta Jnana. Ananta Darshana. The Ratna-traya system established by him is one of the living examples of it. elucidator and defender. They exist in both animate and inanimate objects of existence. Consciousness. Rishabhdev goes beyond the limits set by any particular religious community. Tirthankar Rishbhadev is ideal for those who think about the Indian way. who manifest upon earth from time to time according to an established pattern to teach people the doctrine of liberation and show them the way through their own example. through their personal efforts.

Dharmanath. Sambhavanath. Kunthunath. Chandraprabhu. Shreyansanath. Aranath. A thirthankara is not a god but a pure soul who shows the way to liberation. Sumatinath. . Vasupujya. Mallinath. Abhinandananath.Adinath (or Rishabhnath). Pushpadantanath (or Suvidhinath). Padmaprabh. Neminath. The 24 tirthankaras in chronological order are . Sheetalanath. Vimalanath.tirthankars One of the distinguishing features of Jainism is the concept of Tirthankaras or pure beings who have crossed the world of bondage to the other side of eternal freedom. Suparshvanath. Arishthanemi. Ajitanath. Munisuvratanath. Parshvanath and Mahavir (or Vardhamana). Shantinath. Anantanath.

In Delhi. often the majority of the population is vegetarian. in that the Jain diet also excludes most root vegetables. As a part of its stance on nonviolence. However. Delhi has a bird hospital run by Jains. The monsoon is a time of fasting. Otherwise. one will remain eternally caught up in the never-ending cycle of transmigration. Jains run animal shelters all over India. lasting eight days in Svetambara Jain tradition and ten days in Digambar Jain tradition during the monsoon. This form of dying is . a Jain may fast at any time. Variations in fasts encourage Jains to do whatever they can to maintain self control Some Jains revere a special practice. History suggests that various strains of Hinduism became vegetarian due to strong Jain influences. where a person who is aware that he or she may die soon. Jains cover their mouths to prevent the possibility of inhaling insects and small organisms. Pajushan is the most prominent festival. In regions of India with strong Jain influence. due to the cruelty. even though the shelter is generally known as a Gaushala. invisible to the naked eye. Most Jains fast at special times. Every city and town in Bundelkhand has animal shelters run by Jains where all manner of animals are sheltered. as Jains believe such vegetables have an infinite number of individual souls. Observant Jains do not eat. both monks and practicing lay persons of all sects and traditions. Many historians believe that various strains of Hinduism adopted vegetarianism due to the strong influence of Jainism and Buddhism. especially if he or she feels some error has been committed. the Jains run animal shelters. and always rise before sunrise. For example. ceases to eat or drink until death. are required to be vegetarian. Many Jains are also vegan. Jain Fasting Fasting is common among Jains and a part of Jain festivals. rational knowledge and rational conduct. and feels he has completed all his duties. In many towns. during festivals. and on holy days. Jainism is the only religion wherein all followers. drink. there is a bird hospital run by a Jain temple.ahimsa Compassion to all fellow living beings (along with humans) is central to Jain belief. a practice associated with their belief in non-violence and the possibility of unintentional bad karma. Jains also do not eat certain other foods believed to be unnecessarily injurious. The only way to break out of this cycle is to practice detachment through rational perception. Existential Suffering Jains hold that this temporal world is full of miseries and sorrow and hence in order to attain lasting bliss one must transcend the cycle of transmigration. or travel after sunset. and violence inherent in modern dairy farms. Jainism goes even step beyond vegetarianism.

the Namokara Mantra. It is a declaration that a person has finished with living in this world and now chooses to leave. state. Guru-Vandana. Jains have built temples. i. or reality in general. Pratikramana. . Anekantavada Anekantavada is one of the foundation pillars of Jain philosophy. But some Jain sects refuse to enter temples or worship images. and other sutras to honor ascetics. process.e. Samayika. Literally meaning "Non-one- endedness" or "Nonsingular Conclusivity". Chaitya Vandana. Anekantavada is a set of tools for overcoming the inherent bias in any one perspective on a given subject. aka the Navkar Mantra. Jains are clear that the Jinas reside in moksha and are completely detached from the world.called santhara. object. or Basadi or Derasar. Syadvada. Jain rituals may be elaborate because symbolic objects are offered and Tirthankaras praised in song. Jains see Sallekhana as spiritual detachment. in order to attain moksha. a lawyer petitioned the High Court of Rajasthan to declare Sallekhana illegal. where images of Tirthankars are worshiped. One of these tools is known as The Doctrine of Postulation. All Jains accept that images of Tirthankaras are merely symbolic reminders of the path that they have to take. where in Rajasthan. Jain rituals include: Pancakalyanaka Pratishtha. It is considered to be extremely spiritual and creditable. Jain worship and rituals Every day most Jains bow and say their universal prayer. This has recently led to a controversy in India..

the Universe consists of Infinite amount of Jiva'(life force or souls). continuing the infinite repetition of the Kalchakra. people will lose religion again. with approximately 19. It has no beginning or end. Jain philosophy is based upon eternal. the twenty-fourth.Anekantavada is also define as multiplicity of views. Jainism does not trace its origins to Rishabh Deva. and the design is similar to a form of a man standing with his arms bent while resting his hands at his waist. According to Jainism. and people will be born in sets of twins (Yugalika) with one boy and one girl who stay together all their lives. Jains also believe that at the upswing of each time cycle. An Utsarpini and a Avsarpini constitute one Time Cycle (Kalchakra). thus making a total of twenty-four Tirthankaras. . strength. During the first and last two Aras. but time is cyclical in nature with progressive and regressive spirituality phases. was the last Tirthankara to attain enlightenment (599-527 BCE). Traditionally. or Mahavira. It is important to note that the above description stands true "in our universe and in our time" for Jains believe there have been infinite sets of 24 Tirthankaras. the first. During the Utsarpini half cycle. Every Utsarpini and Avsarpini is divided into six unequal periods known as Aras. before eventually completing the cycle at their best and starting the process again. Jains believe we are currently in the fifth Ara of the Avsarpini phase. in our universe and in our time. All things people want will be given by wish-granting trees (Kalpavrksa). progress. universal truths. animals and plants. history of the universe is shaswat (infinite). Lord Rishabha is regarded as the first to realize the truth.000 years until the next Ara. Lord Vardhamana Mahavira. according to its followers. one for each half of the time cycle. Tirthankara. Currently we are in the Bharat Kshetra of 'Jambu Dweep' (dweep meaning Island) . the Utsarpini phase will begin. During the Avsarpini half-cycle. during the third and fourth Aras. these truths lapse among humanity and then reappear through the teachings of enlightened humans. humanity develops from its worst to its best: ethics. and religion each start the cycle at their worst. happiness. health. these notions deteriorate from the best to the worst. Hence. Therefore. and this will continue in the future. In other words Jains divide time into Utsarpinis (Progressive Time Cycle) and Avsarpinis (Regressive Time Cycle). Creation and cosmology According to Jain beliefs. and stresses looking at things from the other person's perspective. After this Avsarpini phase. who was himself preceded by twenty- three other Tirthankaras. those who have reached enlightenment or total knowledge (Kevala Jnana). nor will it ever cease to exist. This can be seen as a symbol of an integrated human with male and female characteristics balanced. The narrow waist part comprises various 'Kshetras' which act as place of 'vicharan' (roaming) for humans. the universe was never created.

the Jain religion philosophy is eternal but its code of conduct is continually modified by various Tirthankars based on time. Outside the symbolic figure of this creation nothing but aloka or akaasha (sky) exists. He felt that such changes were essential for proper spiritual advancement. infinite in number. Firstly. the degree of suffering increases and the amount of Light reaching into it decreases (no light at all in the seventh Narka). Thus Mahavir. luminous and blissed soul which is without body and without actions. Similarly beneath the waist part are the Narka Loka (Hell). where all the jivas having attained nirvana reside in a state of complete peace and eternal happiness. Jain Philosophy The Jain system. the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar of this era. that there is something called the living. . In summary. The souls are many. The sidhha kshetra or moksha is situated at the symbolic forehead of the creation. The present Jain scriptures are compilation of Lord Mahavir's teachings. where all the Devas (demi gods) reside. like the Buddhist. Lord Mahavir expanded the code of conduct and introduced daily observances for his followers.The Deva' Loka (Heavens) are situated at the symbolic chest part of the Creation. There are such Seven Narka Lokas. statement shows that it involves following seven propositions. each for a varying degree suffering a jiva' has to go through to face the consequences of its papa' karma (sins). expounded the Jain philosophy. Another important feature is that it is pluralistic system. Founders Approximately 2600 years ago Lord Mahavir or Vardhaman (599 to 527 BC). place and circumstances of the era. is non-theistic. which had been previously preached by his predecessor Tirthankar Parshvanath (about 950 to 850 BC). It does not acknowledge the existence of creator of God. like other Tirthankars was more of a reformer of an existing religious order rather than the founder of a new faith. Moksha is not absorption into the supreme but the attainment of a perfect. From the first to the seventh Narka.

the attainment of perfect freedom or salvation). that the process of this contact could be stopped.. that salvation could be achieved. Thirdly. that there is something called the nonliving. the influx of Karmic matter in the soul Bandha (i. and Lastly. Sixthly. e.. e. Fourthly. the gradual removal of Karmic matter). matter or non-living substance.. e. e. the stopping of Asrava) Nirjara (i. e. The religious philosophy of Jainism teaches that there are nine truths or realities (Nav-tattva) They are : Jiva (i.non-soul) punya (merit) paap (demerit) Asrava (i. Secondly. 1. e. Fifthly. Living substance. e. that the contact leads to the production of some energies. Jiva (soul) : The principle of Jiva is a conscious substance which is different in . bondage of soul by Karmic matter) Samvara (i.soul) Ajiva (i. that the two (i. Moksha (i. that the existing energies could also be exhausted.. the living and nonliving) come into contact with each other.. e.

i. adharma. 3. The non-soul substances are of five kinds. The number of Jivas (souls) are infinite. It transmigrates i.e. liberated souls. in fact. it takes successive births according to the nature of stock of its deeds. Adharma. . The soul is not only the enjoyer of the fruits of karma (bhokta).. 2.e. i. souls are of two kinds. Time is atomic in dimension and the kala atoms pervade the whole cosmic space.. space or medium of accommodation are formless (amurta) and indivisible wholes. akash. medium of rest. e. Dharma.. It can attain emancipation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death by freeing itself from all that is non-soul (ajiva).e.. Pudgala. taste.different individuals. colour and smell. the first three (medium of motion. pudgala and kala substances.. different forms of practicing charity.. Samsari. but also the actor. Punya (merit) : Punya is the consequence of good and religious deeds. by destroying accumlated karmas and by stopping their further influx into it.e. good or bad. Akasa. mundane souls and Siddha or Mukta.. i. viz. medium of motion. Ajiva (non-soul) : Ajiva is the opposite of jiva comprising of dharma. matter. and Kala i. Furthermore.. time These six living and non-living substances are called Dravyas in Jaina Philosophy. There are nine ways to it. medium of rest. viz. i.. They are. of these. i.e. space. e.e. i. deeply engaged in wordly affairs and responsible for his act (karma). The forth substance matter is defined as what is possessed of the qualities of touch.

6. Asrava may be described as attraction in the soul toward sense objects.Mithyatva- Delusion or ignorance 2. They include Pramad in the category of Kasaya. The nature of activity is shubha (meritorious) or ashubha (demeritorious). Asrava is the cause. 5. Samvara (stoppage of karmic matter) : Samvara means stopping. conceit.Pramada- Unawareness of unmindfulness 4. which leads to the influx of good and evil karma which lead to the bondage of the soul. Asrava (influx of karma) : Asrava denotes the inflow of karmic matter by the soul.Yoga- Activities of the mind. smavara is effected through self control (gupti).4. 7. contemplation (anupreksha).Avirati- Lack of self restraint 3. and body * Some Jain literatures mention only four causes of Asrava. virtues (dharma). deceit. and lust 5. The principle “like causes produce like results” is accepted as a determining feature of the Jain doctrine of karma.Kasaya- Passions like anger. is a major factor in the bondage of jiva. Just as water flows into a boat through a hole. speech. controlling or ceasing of inflow of karmic matter into the soul. Bandha (bondage) : Bandha is the union of jiva with pudgala (matter) or soul . so the karmic matter flows through asrava into the soul. conquest of hardship and monastic conduct. Injury to and killing of living-beings is a heinous sin and results in terrible punishment. Papa (sin or demerit) : It is called sin or evil . The following are causes of Asrava or influx of good and evil karma: 1. restrained movement (samiti).

external Tapaä which disciplines the human body against passions and desires and internal Tapaä which purifies the soul. 8. carelessness. Nirjara (shedding the karmic matter) : Nirjara means shedding off. attachment. (no attachments to the taste of the foods) 5. That is samvara.Rasatyäga- Complete abstinence of eating or drinking juicy and tasty foods such as butter. yogurt. . There are twelve types of Tapaä or austerities defined in the Jain scriptures. Intake of boiled water is optional. but there is already some water in the tank. milk. we arrest the increase of water in the tank. This is nirjara.Anasan- Complete abstinence of eating any food for certain time. 6. juice etc.Samlinatä- Giving up the pleasures of five senses and mind. Nirjara is to destroy and burnup accumulated karma.Kayäklesa- Activities like live and travel barefoot in a severe heat or cold weather and removal of hair with the hand. it may be exposed to the heat of the sun for some time. snacks. spicy foods.with non-soul particles.Alpähära or Unodary- Reduction in the quantity of food one normally eats 3. By stopping the inflow of water into the tank. sweets. tea. In order to dry up this water. fried foods. External Tapa: 1. The matter is determined by five causes. passions and activity. Take the example of a tank.Ichhanirodha or Vritti_sankshep- Limiting the number of food items to eat and material things for use 4. They are divided into two groups. 2. namely wrong belief. drying up or destruction. The internal Tapaä is the true austerity because it exhausts the attached karma before their maturity from the soul.

Moksha is attained though right faith. 9.Vaiyävrata- Rendering selfless service to Sädhus and Sädhvis and those who are suffering and deserving 4. For the perfection of right conduct.Internal Tapa: 1.Svädhyäya- Studying and listening to the religious discourses and scriptures 5. teachers and elders 3. and the mind is fixed by means of sublime meditation. five kind of vows recommonded : Non-violence (ahinsa).Präyaschita- Repentance for the breach of vows for spiritual purification 2. Sädhvis. chastity (brahmacharya) and no greed (aparigraha).Dhyäna- Religious meditation. one is ‘any activity’ and other is fine particles that get attracted and stick to the soul on account of its activity. right knowledge and right conduct. where the activities of body.Vinaya- Humility (appropriate behavior) towards Sädhus.Kayotsarg or Vyutsarga- The ultimate internal austerity. Moksha (liberation) : Moksha is the supreme stage of spiritual attainment when all causes of bondage having been uprooted. perfect faith. truthfullness (satya). the speech is fixed by means of silence. and a stage of having achieved siddhi. Contemplations 4. Karma Philosophy The word has two meanings. speech and mind are withdrawn. That which is being done is ‘karma’ is the etymology of the term karma. This Tapa along with Dhyän can destroy all Ghäti karmas. It is a stage of peace. The body is fixed without movement. Both these meanings are . perfect knowledge. the soul is freed from karmic matter. non-stealing (asteya).

So they are called the cause way of bondage. the karmic particles associated with the karma would then get bound with may soul and make me experience the fruits of my actions later. Every activity that is there with these four acts as a cause of bondage.appropriate in the context. The whole universe is packed with fine karmic particles. speech and body. in Buddhist and Yoga it is vasna. The soul (mundane soul) is the doer of both these karmas. There can nerver be any birth which is not connected with the previous . So the activity is called asrava (influx). In non-Jain system of philosophy the following words are employed for karma : In vedanta it is maya. In other words Jains distinguish between mental are spiritual karma. (i) Cause of bondage : The karmic material particles are first attracted to the soul and then bound by it. aversion are caller ‘bhava karma’ or mental karma. The function of attracting them to the soul is performed by the activity of mind. (ii) Philosophy of rebirth : Every birth of a soul is rebirth in view of its previous birth. in Mimansa it is apurva. From this we can understand that yoga (activity) is the cause of both the influx and the bondage. in Sankhya and Yoga it is asaya. The karmic particles bound with the soul are called. adrsta and sanskar. avirti (non-restrain). Yoga or activity alone is called asrava. avidya and prakriti. just as a seed and a tree. It can be said when I am attached to something I would do inauspicious karmas. pramada (lethargy) and kasaya (passion). then only they are designated by the term karma. the remaining four like kasaya or not asrava or influx but the causes of asrava. “dravya karma” or physical karma while internal states of attachment. in Nayaya and Vaishesika it is dharmadharam. rather cause of influx and the function of binding the karmic particles with the soul is performed by mithyatva (unwholesome inclination or faith or conviction). But when these particles get attracted to the soul and stick to it and bind it through its activity. They are mutually related as cause and effect.

It would be quite illogical to believe that the soul remains free from birth for sometime starts to assume birth again. Rishbhdev. absolute and perfect liberation impossible. without interruption and that once it is snapped. from ancient times and particularly from the time of Tirthankar . if it continues at all. The philosophical school of Mimansa. the king and queen of Ayodhya. the first Tirthankar. As per belief of Jain religion emancipation is defined as. The philosophical schools of Jain. Particularly Jain treatises descirbe that Hindustan (India) was known as Bharat due to Bharat. churning is undertaken to separate ghee from butter milk and fire is used to separate ore from metal. Not only was this. so also the soul attains emancipation penance through and self control.birth. I am particularly of the view that Jain philosophy is Sanatan. Buddhist and Sankhya belong to the Shraman culture. It is logical to hold that the series of birth continues. Vedanta. Undoubtedly. like Hinduism history of Jainism is ancient. proofs of existence of Tirthankar Rishabhdev have been found in digging work of sites of the Indus valley civilization. “Just as the oil mill is operated to separate oil from sesamum seeds. then it would lead us to believe that it is possible that even a pure soul that has freed itself from the birth-cycle on account of its attainment of purity will have to take birth sometime. the eldest son of Rishbhadev and who was a great king. This would render eternal. In treatises of Hindus and Jains both it has also been mentioned that Rishbhadev was from Ikshavasu family. The series of soul’s birth has no beginning.” Jain Traditions Indian culture can be categorized into two broad groups – (1) Brahaman (Vedic) culture (2) Shraman culture. the Jain treadition is quite old. was the son of Nabhi and Marudevi. as per the mention in the Jain treatises. Nyaya and Vaishesika fall into first category. The tradition of Jain philosophy and Tirthankars is very old. If we were to assume that a soul is borne for the first time. it is snapped for ever. In the Rig-veda itself he has been mentioned as one of the Avatars- incamations. Thus.

The thing can be described from at least seven standpoints (saptabhangi) and all can be equally true. This doctrine has contributed to the tolerance of contrary opinions among theologians and philosophers. (iii) Anekantavad : Philosophically an important contribution of Jainism is the doctrine of Anekantavad. Non-violence means not to kill or hurt any living being by the body. In modem times. It is so central in Jain faith that it may be called the beginning and the end of Jain Religion. It is the main requirement of life. The craving of more possessions make people indulge in violence. The minor vow called “Ahinsa Anuvrata” prescribed by Lord Mahavir is an effective step in the direction of creating a healthy society. Violence and acquisitiveness go hand in hand. speech or mind. So Non-violence is secondary where as Non-possession is the main principle of Jain philosophy. land etc. A man cannot sustain his life without it. One cannot understand Lord. and craze for acquiring more things are the root causes of violence. Jain Ethics and Literature (i) Non Violence : The Jaine have laid great emphasis on Ahinsa vrata. when exclusive claims of religion are under strain. The Jain doctrine of Anekantvad (Non-absolutism) which is so relevant . this doctrine has a special relevance and meaning. Jainism has contributed greatly towards strengthening and developing the Indian way. The doctrine of Ahinsa (Non-violence) is a cardinal principle of Jain Religion. It is possible only for those persons who dedicate their whole life on the basis of Mahavratas and who have renounced their household life. (ii) Non-possession : A person perperates violence due to desire of possession. The greed for money. The first and foremost principle of Jain philosophy is Non-violence (ahinsa). First of all one should shun all thoughts leading to ‘Sankalpja Hinsa’ (The violence perpertrated by intention and activities premeditated) coming to his mind out of attachment and aversion.Rishbhadev. The Jain thinkers thought that reality can be examined from many (aneka) standpoints (anta). Mahavir’s conception of Non-violence until and unless he comprehends his principle of Non-possession.

Jain dharma has the capacity to become Vishva dharma (Universal Religion). The Tattvarthasutra is a famous book which summarizes Jain teachings. A most remarkable description of hells is given in Sutrakritanga. Above all it is a religion of love and compassion to all living beings. The Kulpasutra describes in detail the life-story of Mahavir. Joshi is of the opinion that the literature of Jainism is vast and varied. They deal with myths and legends. Its principles are certainly beneficial for the humanity at large. The Sthanga discusses dogmatic topics. mythology and cosmology. morality. yoga. in Gujrat. ethical and monastic discipline. history. and action. legendary romances. religion. cosmology and astrology. philosophy and mythology. The Jain scriptures are the sources books of Jain ethics. The Achangasutra deals chiefly with the ethical conduct and descipline of monks. it can solve many of the burning problems of modern times. non-possessiveness. (iv) Jain literature : The sacred books of Jainism are called Agamas. The Upasakadasha deals with pious men of the time of Mahavir. The Jain agamas or scriptures are works of the immediate disciples of Mahavir. Dr. At the heart of Right Conduct for Jains are the following five great vows: . Anga Agamas or the original twelve books and Angabahya Agamas or the texts outside the original twelve books.today that if propagated properly. The first sacred books of the Jain are in Prakrit or Ardhamagdhi language. hells and heavens. but also fable fairy-tales. Literature known as Agamas includes a large number of texts. religion and philosophy. and non- absolutism (Anekäntväd) in speech. equal kindness. They were given their written form in the 5th century at Vallabhi. 6 hagiography.M. Its subject matter includes not only ascetic culture. Ethical code The supreme ideals of the Jain religion are nonviolence (Ahimsä). reverence for all forms of life. thought. The contents of other book are mixed and varied. These are devided into two classes. L.

while lay people follow the vows as far as their life styles and personal commitments permit (called Anuvrata). Ahimsä (non-violence). Non-attachments places. Anekäntväd (multiplicity of views) and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness) are the cardinal principles of Jainism. 5. In Jainism. political or economical.1 Ahimsä (Compassion / Non-violence) .Scriptural Name English Name Meaning Ahimsä Nonviolence / Compassion Not to cause harm to any living beings Satya Truthfulness To speak harmless truth only Asteya non-stelling Not to take anything not properlygive Brahmacharya Chastity Not to indulge in sensual pleasure Aparigraha Non-possession / Complete detachment from people. rules. self-centered or social. life. Monks and nuns practice these five vows with utmost dedication (called Mahävrat). traditional or modern. And the proper application of Anekäntväd stops the violence of thoughts and speech. Ahimsä supersedes all concepts. customs and practices. non- stealing. Anekäntväd is also called the intelligent expression of the Ahimsä. Non-violence in the center is guarded by truthfulness.and material things These vows cannot be fully implemented without the acceptance of a philosophy of non-absolutism (Anekäntväd) and the theory of relativity (Syädvad). eastern or western. These concepts are fundamental to understanding the true nature of the universe. celibacy and non-possessiveness. Aparigraha plays significant role in stopping the physical form of violence. ideologies. and reality.

abuse. and nature of individuals. 5. Also the Jain dictum "Parasparopagraho jivänäm" means.Compassion is the true nature of a human being. place. Violence imposed upon others in any form by our body. violence towards others is violence to one’s own soul because it impedes one's spiritual progress. oppress. In other words. universal forgiveness (Kshamä). From a religious point of view. This is known as non-absolutism. "Living beings (Souls) render service to one another". protecting and serving them. known as Anekäntaväd or the doctrine of many aspects. and universal fearlessness (Abhaya). Ahimsä also has a deeper meaning in the context of one’s spiritual advancement. The scriptures tell us: “Do not injure. From an ethical point of view Dharma means duty - Compassion is the supreme duty of an individual. torment. or speech leads to the acquisition of new karma. The path of non- violence leads one to spiritual progress and liberation from karma. . mind. torture. insult. Ancient Jain texts explain that the intention to harm and the absence of compassion is what makes actions violent. Dharma means the true nature of a substance .The basic tenet of Jainism is "Ahimsä Parmo Dharmah" (Non-violence is the supreme religion). which are positive in nature. Anekäntaväd means acceptance of all viewpoints. In a positive sense. or kill any living being including plant and vegetables. These viewpoints depend on the time. Ahimsä also refers to an active concern and compassion for fellow humans and other living beings.2 Anekäntaväd (Doctrine of many Viewpoints) The concept of universal interdependence underpins the Jain theory of knowledge. ahimsa means caring for and sharing with all living beings as well as tending to." The teaching of Ahimsä refers not only to the avoidance of wars and physical acts of violence but also to the avoidance of violence in the hearts and minds of human beings. It entails universal friendliness (Maitri). enslave. In this ever-changing universe an infinite number of viewpoints exist. Ahimsä is a principle that Jains teach and strive to practice not only towards human beings but also towards all nature. which hinders the soul’s spiritual progress. circumstances.

which states that expression of truth is relative to different viewpoints (Nayas). even if they seem to contradict each other. 5) Develop a strong urge to seek truth. Using any resource beyond one's needs and misuse of any part of nature is considered a form of theft. What is true from one point of view is open to question from another. Jainism advocates that lay followers should minimize their desires for accumulation of possessions and enjoyment for personal ends. orphanages. relief and rehabilitation camps for the handicapped. 3) Accept the truth even if it is expressed by adversaries. More importantly these doctrines also provide ways of resolving global differences and conflicts. Because it is rooted in the doctrines of Anekäntaväd and Syädväd. and other nations. 6) Believe in possibilities and 7) Exercise equanimity towards all. ethnocentric or egocentric viewpoint.This leads to the doctrine of Syädväd or relativity.3 Aparigraha (Non Possessions and Non-acquisitiveness) Jain ascetics have no possessions. clinics. desires curbed and consumption levels kept within reasonable limits. grief. The Jain faith goes one radical . 4) Accept that the truth can consist of seemingly opposing views. sick and disadvantaged as well as hospitals for ailing birds and animals. envy. Absolute truth is the total sum of individual (partial) truths from many different viewpoints. Generously giving charitable donations and one's own time for community projects are a part of a Jain householder's obligations. other communities. hospitals. This sense of social obligation cultivated from religious teachings has led Jains to establish and maintain innumerable schools. Similarly. Wants should be reduced. Jainism does not look upon the universe from an anthropocentric. 5. colleges. and hatred. Absolute truth cannot be grasped from any particular viewpoint. It takes into account the positive viewpoints of other human beings. old. To be Anekäntvädi: 1) Do not insist on your own approach. A deeper understanding of Anekäntaväd and Syädväd provides great insight into the problems of human interactions that cause conflict. 2) Accept partial truth as expressed by others. Similarly it is highly applicable in understanding social problems and national strife.

whereas Sanllekhanä is the result of dispassionateness. These principles translate into three practices: 1) you’ll not kill. have great relevance for modern times. inner happiness and joy in the present life through spiritual development based on freedom from passions. and kindness towards all beings. They establish universal friendship and peace through nonviolence and true social equity based on non-acquisitiveness. non- absolutism (Anekäntväd) which strengthens autonomy of thoughts & speech and non-possessiveness (Aparigraha) which strengthens autonomy of interdependence are the three realistic principles which strengthen our belief that every living being has a right of self-existence. 2) no economic exploitation and 3) no environmental & ecological destruction.5 The Holy Death (Sanllekhanä) Sanllekhanä is a death while in ultra-pure meditation.4 Relevance to Modern Times The principles of Jainism if properly understood in their right perspective and faithfully adhered to. non-possessiveness.step further and declares unequivocally that waste and creating pollution are acts of violence. reaching its final destination of eternal bliss. 5. In the . ultimately achieving perfect enlightenment. Suicide is the result of the outburst of passions. It is recommended only when the body is completely disabled by extreme old age or by incurable diseases and the man becomes conscious of the impending unavoidable death and of the necessity of concentrating on the pure qualities of the soul. and ending all cycles of birth and death. an austere life-style. and communal and racial factions through the philosophies of non- absolutism and relativism. They reconcile diverse religious faiths. 5. So there is a fundamental difference between suicide and Sanllekhanä. If everyone adopts these three ideas then there will be: 1) no acts of war. It is a well-ordered voluntarily chosen death which is not inspired by any passion and is the result of conscientious gradual withdrawal from the taking of food in such a manner as would never disrupt one's inner peace and dispassionate mindfulness. political parties. 2) you will not trample others thoughts and 3) you will not trample nature. These principles can bring contentment. This elevates the soul to a higher spiritual level. They promote ecological conservation through the values of self-restraint. Non-violence (Ahimsä) which strengthens autonomy of life everywhere.

with all sincerity and zeal. no sorrow. strict codes of vegetarianism... calm and composed. Following is the summary of Angbähya Ägam Sutras which were accepted as scriptures by various Jain traditions: · 14 texts according to the Digambar tradition · 34 texts according to the Shwetämbar Murtipujak tradition . They provide further explanation of Ang Ägams. and opposition to war.aspirant. It is also called the death with equanimity. Sanllekhanä is thus a spiritual process of emaciating one's passions and body by internal and external austerities. These scriptures are known as Jain Ägam or Ägam Sutras. wickedness etc. no fear. and asking for forgiveness. The scriptures were not documented in any form but were memorized by ascetics and passed on by oral tradition to future generations of ascetics. one should allay the innermost passions by scriptural words. anguish. The twelfth text is called Drstiwäd. These Sutras are divided into two major groups: Ang Ägam Sutras Ang Ägam Sutras contain direct preaching of Lord Mahavir. there is no dissatisfaction. Angbähya Ägam Sutras Angbahya Sutras were compiled by Shrut Kevali monks who possessed the total knowledge of 12 Ang Ägams. and with pure mind. They consist of 12 texts. forgiving one's kinsmen and others. Casting aside grief. They were compiled within 160 years after Lord Mahavir’s Nirvän. fear. enmity. the mind is cool. attachment to possessions etc. Jain Scriptures Lord Mahavir's preachings were orally compiled into many texts (number of scriptures) by his disciples. no dejection. It involves giving up love. asceticism. 6. compassion. which includes 14 Purvas. No dispute exists among various Jain traditions with regards to the names and the contents of Ang Ägam Sutras. nonviolence. They were compiled by immediate disciples of Lord Mahavir (known as Ganadhars) immediately after Lord Mahavir's Nirvän (death). the heart is filled with the feeling of universal love and compassion. no sinfulness. The Ägam Sutras teach great reverence for all forms of life.

and Shudra) including untouchables prevalent in the society. princes and priests. while Digambar Jains have not. nuns (Sädhvi). some were modified. The fundamental views on ethics and philosophy are identical in both traditions.· 21 texts according to the Sthänakväsi and Teräpanthi traditions In the course of time. Kshatriya. In the absence of authentic Ägam Sutras. namely monks (Sädhu). Followers and Major Traditions Mahavir attracted people from all walks of life: rich and poor. while the Shwetämbar monks wear white clothes. . In the Digambar tradition monks wear no clothes. This order is known as Jain Chatuvidha Sangh. into a four-fold order. men and women. 7. The most significant contribution of Jainism in the social field was the establishment of social equality among the four classes (Brähman. Shwetämbar Jains have accepted the recorded Ägam Sutras (11 Ang Ägams and all Angbäyha Sutras) as an authentic version of Lord Mahavir's teachings. A few centuries after Mahavir's Nirvän. laymen (Shrävak). many of the Ägam Sutras were not remembered. They concluded that one thousand years later. both men and women are equal. and new Sutras were added. Mahavir organized his followers. Many women followed Mahavir's path and renounced the world in search of ultimate truth and happiness. and laywomen (Shrävikä). kings and commoners. At that time Drstiwäd. the twelfth Ang Ägam text was lost as no monk had memory of this Ägam. Vaishya. About one thousand years after Lord Mahavir’s Nirvän the memorized Ägam Sutras were recorded on leafy papers (Tadpatris). Digambars follow Shatkhand Ägam and Kasay Pahud as their main texts and four Anuyogs (which include about 20 texts) written by great ascetics from 100 BC to 1000 AD as their basis to follow and practice the Jain religion. touchables and untouchables. Digambar and Shwetämbar were established. Mahavir proclaimed that in matters of spiritual advancement. two major traditions. no monks remembered the true original Ägam Sutras (which include all Ang Ägams and Digambar Angbäyha Ägam Sutras).

· Das Lakshan: An annual ten-day celebration by Digambar tradition in August-September. and requesting forgiveness from others for any pain that may have been caused intentionally or unintentionally. granting forgiveness to others. taking certain vows to control senses. 8. Jainism advocates the performance of six essential daily observances by its followers: Six essential Observances of Shwetämbar-Tradition Sämayik- To remain calm and undisturbed in the state of equanimity for 48 minutes. attending religious discourses. However all sub- traditions include Svädhyäya and Dhyän. Later on some have introduced more rituals in similar fashions as Hindus worship their deities but without compromising the principles of Jainism. Spiritual Practices and Religious Holidays Spiritual practices and religious holidays are observed by celebrating the lives of Tirthankar (Jins). giving alms. Annual holidays are observed based on the lunar calendar (354 days in a year). The most important religious holidays are: · Mahavir Jayanti (Janma Kalyänak): the birthday celebration of Lord Mahavir in March-April. · Paryushan: An annual eight-day celebration by the Shwetämbar tradition in August-September.Temple). studying scriptures. while other traditions do not include worshipping Tirthankar idols.Each major tradition has several sub-traditions including those who include worshipping the image symbols of Tirthankars (Murtipujak . performing penances. reciting sacred texts. Both Paryushan and Das Lakshan celebrations conclude with a period of self- reflection. and realizing other acts of compassion. .

dietary restrictions. Jain Temples . 9.Chauvisattho- To pray and appreciate the qualities of the twenty-four Tirthankars. reproach. some Jains observe certain practices that involve special rituals. and fasting to develop self-control and detachment from worldly matters. Kayotsarg- Non-attachments to the body (standing or sitting motionless for various lengths of time) Pratyäkhyän or Pachchhakhän- Taking religious vows renouncing certain activities and certain foods for some time to discipline one's self Six essential Observances of Digambar-Tradition: Devapujä- Paying respects to Tirthankars Gurupasti- Devotion and service to ascetics Swädhyäy- Studying of Scriptures Samyam- Self restraint Tap- Penance Däna- Charity Furthermore. Vandanä- Devotion and service to ascetics Pratikraman- To repent. and reflect upon past wrong thoughts and deeds.

and suffer (pains or pleasures) in these three worlds. Jain Symbols The comprehensive Jain symbol consists of a crescent of the moon. the Swastika or Om. heavenly beings. They renounced all their wealth for the benefit of society. human. The Swastika is a sacred symbol in Jainism. The four sides of Swastika symbolize the four forms of existence of the worldly (non-liberated) souls. and death in these four . and Right Conduct (Samyak Chäritra). birds. Each individual symbol is also separately used in Jainism. Tiryanch (which includes animals. and an outline figure encompassing all symbols. and took vows of complete non-possession. and the middle region which includes earth. yet did not find happiness in such material possessions. Primarily two types of Tirthankar images exist in the Jain temples. the palm of a hand with the wheel (Chakra) inset. three dots. This symbolizes Tirthankars were kings possessed such royal wealth. 10. Shwetämbars also decorate the Tirthankar images luxuriously.More than 80% of Jains from both the Shwetämbar and Digambar traditions believe in worshiping Tirthankar images in temples. Right Knowledge (Samyak Jnäna). The meditative image (in which the eyes are depicted as semi-closed) is adopted by the Digambar tradition and the preaching image (in which the eyes are depicted as open) is adopted by the Shwetämbar tradition. The crescent of the moon represents the region known as Moksha. suffering. The three dots represent the Jain path of liberation (Jain trinity): Right Faith (Samyak Darshan). which together lead to liberation. This region is beyond the three worlds and it is the permanent place where the liberated souls reside. Both Digambar and Shwetämbar Jain temples are famous for their unique intricate art and elaborate architecture. and plants). and hellish beings. All worldly (non-liberated) souls take birth. These dots also represent the three worlds: the lower region including hells. It reminds us that worldly souls undergo a continuous cycle of birth. The four forms are. live. die. the upper region including heavens.

” The wheel of dharma (Chakra) with 24 spokes represents the religion preached by the 24 Tirthankars consisting of nonviolence (Ahimsä). Hence one should follow the true religion and be liberated from suffering. compassion. 'do not be afraid'. Hence the Om represents the salutation to the five revered personalities in the Jain religion. u. This represents the Jain description of the shape of the . It includes Tirthankars who have established religious order) · The second "a" represents A-shareeri (A-shareeri means without physical body. a. Anekäntvaad. Aparigraha and other virtues. The outline figure looks like a person standing with their feet apart and arms resting on both hips. ä. and m: · The first letter "a" represents Arihants (human beings who have eradicated all four Ghäti Karma. The palm of the hand signifies the assurance.forms. Another meaining is “stop and think before you act to assure that all possible violence is avoided. indicating that human beings suffering due to karmic bondage do not need to be disheartened. liberated soul or Siddha or perfected being) · The third letters "ä" represents Ächärya (Ascetic who is the head of congregation) · The fourth letter "u" represents Upädhyäy (Ascetic teacher) · The fifth letter "m" represents Muni (Sädhu/Sädhvi or monks/nuns who are initiated (who have taken Dikshä) by taking five Mahävrat (great vows)). a. The Sanskrit word Om is made up of five sounds and letters. and equality of all the souls. Om is a short form of the Namokar Mahämantra.

Jain Prayer The sacred prayer is the Namaskär. Upädhyäya (ascetic teachers). 12. Ächarya (head of Jain congregation). “Parasparopagraho Jivänäm" translates as "Living beings (souls) render services to one another". This will bring auspiciousness to themselves. minimize suffering to others.universe. The overall symbol depicts the belief that living beings of all the three worlds (heaven. Greetings The usual greeting is Jai Jinendra meaning Honor to the Supreme Jin. and Right Conduct as expounded by the Tirthankars. Namo Arihantänam Namo Siddhänam Namo Äyariyänam Namo Uvajjhäyänam Namo Loe Savva Sähunam Eso Panch Namukkäro . Right Knowledge. Navkär or Namokär Mahämantra in which homage is paid to the five worshipful personalities: Arihanta (enlightened human beings). The JAINA symbol replaces swastika with OM because Swastika is not viewed as a pious religious symbol by the western world. They can follow the path of true religion. and earth) suffer from the miseries of transmigratory existence. and all Sädhu (all ascetics). Michchhä Mi Dukkadam is a request for forgiveness usually spoken after performing the annual forgiveness and repentance day (Samavantsari Pratikraman) ritual. after which they will live forever as perfected beings. and help them to obtain perfection. It should also be spoken (forgiveness should be asked) as soon as one realizes his/her own mistake. hell. The text underneath the symbol. which is Right Faith. Siddha (liberated souls). 11. The main Jain symbol was adopted by Jain communities at large during 2500th Nirvän year (1974) celebration of Lord Mahavir.

Namo Loe Savva Sähunam I bow to all ascetics (Sädhus and Sädhvis) who strictly follow the five great vows of conduct and inspire us to live a simple life. infinite vision.Savva Päva Panäsano Mangalänam cha Savvesim Padhamam Havai Mangalam Namo Arihantänam I bow to all Arihants (Tirthankars) who have reached enlightenment by eradicating all four Ghäti Karma. death and suffering. who are the heads of Jain congregations. and who preach the principles of religion and show the path of liberation. who have attained infinite knowledge. Namo Äyariyänam I bow to all Ächäryas. Namo Uvajjhäyänam I bow to all Upädhyäyas who are the ascetic teachers. Right Knowledge. perfect conduct. and Right Conduct. They study and teach or explain the Jain scriptures and show us the importance of the spiritual life over the worldly material life. and unlimited energy and have shown the path of Moksha (everlasting happiness) which brings an end to the cycle of life. Namo Siddhänam I bow to all Siddhas or liberated souls who have attained the state of perfection and immortality by liberating themselves of all karma. unobstructed bliss. . which is the unity of Right Faith.

. Savve Jivä Khamantu Me. My friendship is with all living beings. I ask forgiveness of all living beings. requesting forgiveness from others. Universal Forgiveness and Friendship Sutras Jains recite the following Sutras for confession of their sins. May all living beings grant me forgiveness. Khämemi Savve Jive Sutra Khämemi Savve Jive. Mangalänam cha Savvesim Padhamam Havai Mangalam Offering this praise is the foremost amongst all of the auspicious benedictions. Veram Majham Na Kenai. I have no enmity with anyone.Eso Panch Namukkäro To these five types of great souls I offer my praise. 13. Mitti Me Savve Bhuyesu. Jam Jam Manen Baddham Sutra: Jam Jam Manen Baddham. and desiring peace over entire universe to all living beings. Savva Päva Panäsano Such praise will help diminish my negative vibrations and sins.

Sarvatra Sukhi bhavatu lokah. Let the perfect souls witness that I truly bear no animosity toward any living being. Khamiya Khamä Via Sutra: Khamiya Khamä Via. May all beings engage in each other's well-being. Par-hit-niratä bhavantu bhutaganäha. Michä Mi Dukkadam Tass. Whatever wrong I have done by thought. Whatever wrong I have done by word. may they forgive me. Doshäha Prayantu Näsham.Jam Jam Väyen Bhäsiyam Pävam. Whatever wrong I have done by deed. May the whole Cosmos be blessed. Jam Jam Käyen Kayam. I ask for forgiveness. Mai Khamia Savvah Jiva Nikäya Siddha Säkha Äloyenah. . Shivmastu Sarva Jagatah Sutra: Shivmastu Sarva Jagatah. Mujjah Vaira Na Bhäva I forgive all Souls.

Upsargah Kshayam Yanti Sutra: Upsargäh Kshayam yänti. perfect knowledge. This realization is known as Keval-jnän or the perfect enlightenment. he had many worldly pleasures. May everyone everywhere be happy (healthy. unlimited energy. prosperous. All obstacles get removed. and unobstructed bliss. He remained calm and peaceful against all unbearable hardships. Pujya mähne jineshware. Chhidhyante Vighna-vallayah. and to eradicate all four Ghati Karma. The mind (heart) becomes full of joy. He carefully avoided harming other living beings including animals. All problems get resolved. sicknesses and faults diminish and vanish. Life of Lord Mahavir Lord Mahavir was a prince whose childhood name was Vardhaman. insects. . Manah prasanna tämeti. However at the age of thirty he left his family and the royal household. gave up his worldly possessions. Lord Mahavir spent majority of the following twelve and one half years in deep silence and meditation to conquer his desires. perfect conduct. his spiritual powers developed fully and he realized perfect perception.May all weaknesses. and suffering from life of all beings. comforts. During this period. Who has got in touch with inner higher self. and became a monk in search of a solution to eliminate pain. blissful. and services at his command. sorrow. and plants. and peaceful). 14. and attachments. As the son of a king. feelings. He also went without food for long periods of time. birds.

celibacy (Brahma-charya). The ultimate objective of his teaching is how one can attain total freedom from the cycle of birth. shape. are equal and we should love and respect them. . He became a Siddha. Lord Mahavir's message of nonviolence (Ahimsä). a liberated soul. and how spiritually developed or undeveloped. 15. This is the last day of the Jain calendar year. infinite power (Anant-virya).Lord Mahavir spent the next thirty years traveling barefoot throughout India preaching the eternal truth he had realized. This is also known as liberation. Lord Mahavir said that. His teachings reflect the internal beauty and harmony of the soul. misery. non-stealing (Achaurya). or Moksha. living forever in a state of complete bliss. Mahavir's message reflects freedom and spiritual joy of the living being. irrespective of their size. Lord Mahavir emphasized that all-living beings. and non-possession (Aparigraha) is full of universal compassion. On the evening of his Nirvän. life. a pure consciousness. infinite knowledge (Anant-jnäna). truth (Satya). Lord Mahavir attained Nirvän and his purified soul left his body and achieved complete liberation. Lord Mahavir taught the idea of supremacy of human life and stressed the importance of a positive attitude towards life. and death. form. "A living body is not merely an integration of limbs and flesh but it is the abode of the soul which potentially has infinite perception (Anant-darshana). At the age of 72 (in 527 BC). people spiritually celebrated the Festival of Lights (Dipävali) in his honor. Nirvän. pain. and achieve the permanent blissful state of one's self. he preached the universal love. absolute freedom. Significant points from the Teachings of Lord Mahavir Lord Mahavir made religion simple and natural. and infinite bliss (Anant-sukha). free from elaborate rituals. In this way.

The Holy Book of Jains Jainism has two main divisions: Digambar and Shvetambar. Rayansaar 4.without like or dislike. One time Lord Mahavir was asked what is the religion from a realistic point of view.. and a destroyer of the universe.Lord Mahavir taught that the true nature of reality is timeless. the major Holy Book can be named as: 1. In both there are lot of holy books in which many are comman. with no beginning or end and rejected the concept of God as a creator... For Digambar . and 4) all situations should be viewed with equanimity . Kalpasutra and many many more .. 2) every living soul has right to put self-effort to improve itself and should not to be stripped of that right." If one adopts only one of these four.. Niyamsaar 3. Lord Mahavir said. other three will automatically be adopted. Pravachansaar For Shvetambar . the major 5 Holy Book can be named as: 1. . Samaysaar 2. He also taught that worshiping heavenly gods and goddesses. Ashtpahud 5.. “ the realistic religion consists of four parts: 1) equality of all living ones. 3) no one should rule over other living beings. a protector. as a means of material gain and personal benefits is contrary to the path of liberation.

For one the only religions that I really heard about were Christianity.HTM (5)Article of Dr.ORG (4)WWW. They are humans who achieve enlightenment via asceticism.COM/INTRO-JAINISM. It is read in the eight day long festival called Paryushan Conclusion Jainism is probably the most peaceful religion that I know or heard of. Now that I know about it I realize the people of Jainism are very nice people. former Vice Chancellor.P.) .JAINBELIEF.HTM (2)WWW.DRSOHANRAJTATER. Ravindra renowned Indologist. BIBLIOGRApH (1)WWW. Judaism.COM/ARTICLES/57 (3)WWW. Its opened my eyes so much to see where people in different parts of the world see.COM/JAINBOOKS/AHIMSA/PHILOJAIN. It includes the biographies of Jain thirthankaras. It has changed my view on religions as a whole. and Islam.JAINA. I would like to meet a Jainism monk and get to know someone of Jainism beliefs. University of Meerut (U.JAINWORLD. This has also really made me want to go to India and live the life of a Jain. Before this project I didn’t even know what Jainism was.The Kalpa Sutra is the holy book of the of Jainism religion.

Ladnun (Raj. Oxford : Oxford University Press. October 2002. (7) Britanica Encyclopedia – XI edition.) (7) Cort. 2000 (8) Karma Philosophy by Muni Nyayavijai.V. History of India 1907.(6) An introduction to Jainism – Sadhvi Vishrutvibha. XV. Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India. William. John E. Jain Vishva Bharti. Vol. IX. Vol. (9) A.A close analysis of this brief  .