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**School of Electrical Sciences
**

Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

The Genetic Algorithms (GA)

Based on the mechanics of biological evolution.

**Initially developed by John Holland, University of Michigan
**

(1970’s)

To understand processes in natural systems.

To design artificial systems retaining the robustness and

adaptation properties of natural systems.

Provide efficient techniques for optimization and machine learning

applications.

It is a stochastic algorithm.

It does not use gradient information.

Widely used in business, science and engineering.

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Genetic Algorithms: Basic idea

Start with a population of candidate solutions.

**Variation: Introduce variation by applying two
**

operators: crossover and mutation.

**Survival of the fittest: Use a fitness criterion to
**

bias the evolution towards desired features.

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Genetic Algorithms Techniques

**GAs are a particular class of evolutionary algorithms.
**

The techniques common to all GAs are:

•Inheritance - offspring acquire characteristics

•Mutation - change, to avoid similarity

•Natural Selection -variations improve survival

•Crossover - recombination

**GAs are best used when the objective function is:
**

•Discontinuous

•Highly nonlinear

•High dimension

•Stochastic

•Has unreliable or undefined derivatives

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Biological Terminology

Gene – a single encoding of part of the solution space,

i.e. either single bits or short blocks of adjacent bits that

encode an element of the candidate solution 1

**Chromosome – a string of genes that represents a
**

solution 1 0 1 1 0

**Population – the number of chromosomes available to
**

test

0 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 1

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Mapping: Nature vs. computer

NATURE COMPUTER

POPULATION SET OF SOLUTIONS

INDIVIDUAL SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM

FITNESS QUALITY OF SOLUTION

CHROMOSOME ENCODING FOR A SOLUTION

GENE PART OF ENCODING OF A SOLUTION

REPRODUCTION CROSSOVER

7/29/2013 6

Features of Genetic Algorithms

Not too fast but cover large search space

• Capable of quickly finding promising regions of the search

space but may take a relatively long time to reach the optimal

solution.

**Good heuristics for combinatorial problems
**

Usually emphasize combining information from good

parents (crossover)

Different GAs use different

• Representations

• Mutations

• Crossovers

• Selection mechanisms

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Representation

GAs on primarily two types of representations:

• Binary Coded

[0110, 0011, 1101, ….]

• Real Coded

[13.2, -18.11, 5.72, …]

** Binary-Coded (genotype) GAs must decode a chromosome into a
**

real value (phenotype), for evaluating the fitness value.

** Real-Coded GAs can be regarded as GAs that operate on the actual
**

real value (phenotype).

• For Real-Coded GAs, no genotype-to-phenotype mapping is

needed.

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Selection

A proportion of the existing population is selected to

bread a new bread of generation.

Parents with better fitness have better chances to produce

offspring.

Rank selection

Rank selection first ranks the population and then every chromosome

receives fitness from this ranking.

• Selection is based on this ranking rather than absolute differences

in fitness.

• The best will have fitness 1, second best 2 etc. and the worst will

have fitness N (number of chromosomes in population).

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Tournament selection

Runs a "tournament" among a few individuals chosen at random

from the population and selects the winner (the one with the best

fitness) for crossover

• Two entities are picked out of the pool, their fitness is compared, and

the better is permitted to reproduce.

• Selection pressure can be easily adjusted by changing the tournament

size.

• Deterministic tournament selection selects the best individual in each

tournament.

Chromosomes Fitness

0 0 1 0 1 1 1 38 Winner chromosome

0 0 1 0 1 1 1

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 45 Select minimum

fitness value

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Roulette-wheel selection

•Assign each individual part of the wheel according to proportion of

fitness value.

The probability that a individual will be selected is given by the ratio of

its fitness to the sum of fitness of all individuals of the current population.

P(hi )

f (h )

f (hi )

N

j 1

j

**where hi is the i th individual of current population and size of
**

population is N .

•Spin wheel (N) times to select (N) individuals

**Ex. Fitness values of chromosomes are:
**

f ( a ) 4;

P(a) = (4/10)*100 = 40%

f (b) 3;

P(b) = (3/10)*100 = 30%

f (c ) 2;

P(c) = (2/10)*100 = 20%

f ( d ) 1;

P(d) = (1/10)*100 = 10%

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Crossover

Crossover is a genetic operator that combines (mates) two individuals

(parents) to produce two new individuals (Childs).

• The idea behind crossover is that the new chromosome may be

better than both of the parents if it takes the best characteristics from

each of the parents.

Single-Point Crossover

•Choose a random point

•Split parents at this crossover point

•Create children by exchanging tails

•Probability of crossover is typically in range (0.6, 0.9)

Parents Children

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Two-Point Crossover

•Choose two random points

•Split parents at these crossover points

•Create children by exchanging middle portion

Parents Children

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

Uniform Crossover

•Randomly generated mask

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1

•Create children by exchanging genes according to mask

Parents Children

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Real value Crossover

•Choose two parents randomly from the selected candidates.

•Generate a random number (r) for each dimension of parents.

•Create children by combining the weighted portion of both parents.

1

r 0.5

2 * r 1 if

b 1

1

r 0.5

2 * 1 r

1

if

**child 1 ( j ) 1 b * parent1 ( j ) 1 b * parent2 ( j )
**

1

**child 2 ( j ) 1 b * parent1 ( j ) 1 b * parent2 ( j )
**

2

1

2

where

• is a crossover operator

• r is a random number {0,1}

**• child ( j ) represent j th dimension of child.
**

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Mutation

Mutation is a genetic operator used to maintain genetic diversity

from one generation of a population of chromosomes to the next.

It is analogous to biological mutation.

** Mutation Probability determines how often the parts of a
**

chromosome will be mutated.

**Bit-reversal Mutation
**

•Alter each gene independently

•Choose a random point

•Create children by altering the gene of choosen point

•Mutation probability is typically in range

{(1/population_size), (1/chromosome_length)}

(0 – 1)

Parents Children

1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0

(1 – 0)

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Polynomial Mutation

•Select one parent randomly from the selected parents.

•Generate a random number (r) for each dimension of parent.

2 * r 1 1

1

r 0.5

d

if

1

r 0.5

1 2 * 1 r 1 if

child ( j ) parent ( j ) d

where

• is a mutation operator

• r is a random number {0,1}

• child ( j ) represent j th dimension of child.

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Fitness Function

A fitness function quantifies the optimality of a solution

(chromosome) so that that particular solution may be

ranked against all the other solutions.

It depicts the closeness of a given ‘solution’ to the

desired result.

Watch out for its speed.

Most functions are stochastic and designed so that a

small proportion of less fit solutions are selected. This

helps keep the diversity of the population large,

preventing premature convergence on poor solutions.

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Termination

A solution is found that satisfies minimum criteria

Fixed number of generations found

Allocated budget (computation, time/money) reached

** The highest ranking solution’s fitness is reaching or
**

has reached

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Issues with Genetic Algorithms

Choosing parameters:

•Population size

•Crossover and mutation probabilities

•Selection, deletion policies

•Crossover, mutation operators, etc.

•Termination criteria

Performance:

•Can be too slow but covers a large search space

•Is only as good as the fitness function

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

The Basic Genetic Algorithm

{ % Generate random population of chromosomes

Initialize population;

% Evaluate the fitness of each chromosome in the population

Evaluate population; [Fitness]

% Create, accept and test a new population:

while Termination_Criteria_Not_Satisfied

{ % Select according to fitness

Select parents for reproduction; [Selection]

% With a crossover probability perform crossover or copy parents

Perform crossover; [Crossover]

% With a mutation probability mutate offspring at each position in chromosome

Perform mutation; [Mutation]

Accept new generation;

Evaluate population; [Fitness]

}

}

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Minimize f ( x) sin( x),

where 0 x (2 * )

x

2.620

Initialize population : 4.526

**• Search space is of single dimension (given). 0.001
**

1.900

• Let population size (N) = 10 0.922

0.580

• Initialize population with 10 chromosomes

1.170

having single dimensioned real value.

2.171

• These values are randomly distributed in

between [0,2 * ] .

2.493

3.385

chromosomes

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Evaluate function:

• Find out objective function values (fitness values)

for all chromosomes.

x f (x)

2.620 0.498

4.526 -0.983

0.001 0.001

1.900 0.946

0.922 0.797

0.580 0.548

1.170 0.921

2.171 0.825

2.493 0.604

3.385 -0.241

chromosomes fitness

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Tournament Selection:

**Run this loop N ( 10) times
**

x f (x) p

f (x)

2.620 0.498 2 random

positions

x p 1.170

4.526 0.946

-0.983 4.526

4 1.900

0.001 1.170

0.001 2.620

7 1.170

1.900 0.946 0.921 0.580

if f x1 f x2

0.922 0.797 4.526

select x1 ,

0.580 0.548 3.385

1.170 0.921 0.001

else

select x2 ,

2.171 0.825 2.620

2.493 0.604 4.526

3.385 -0.241 2.620

chromosomes fitness

parents

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Crossover:

Select Probability of Crossover Pc 0.8

Distribution index for Crossover (µ)= 20

**Run this loop Pc * N (0.8 *10 8) times
**

p cc

2 random

positions p cc

1.170

10 2.620 2.611

2.611

4.526

6 3.385 3.394

3.394

2.620

0.330

0.580 Generate random number – (r)

2 * r 1

4.196

1

r 0.5

4.526

if 2.625

b 1

1

r 0.5

3.385

1 4.521

if

0.001

1 b * p1 1 b * p2

2 * 1 r 1.146

cc1

2.620

1

4.526

cc 2 1 b * p1 1 b * p2

2

2.620

1

parents 4.469

2 children

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Mutation:

Select Probability of Mutation\ Pm 0.2

Distribution index for Mutation (η) = 20

**Run this loop Pm * Nc *V (0.2 *16 *1 4) times
**

cc

2.611 1 random

position cc cm cm

3.394

5 2.625 2.594 2.594

0.330

2.751

4.196

2.200

2.625 Generate random number – (r)

2 * r 1 1 if r 0.5

0.010

1

4.521

d

Mutated

**1 2 * 1 r 1 if r 0.5
**

children

1.146

1

4.469 cm cc d

children

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Selection of N chromosomes for next generation:

Combine chromosomes and children: Select first N (=10)

Intermediate population is

x

chromosomes for next

f (R) R

R cc

generation

-0.985 4.539 x

cm

-0.983 4.526 4.539

-0.982 4.521 4.526

-0.971 4.470 4.521

-0.912 4.291 4.470

Evaluate function

f ( x)

-0.870 4.196 4.291

f ( R) f (cc )

-0.418 3.572 4.196

f (cm )

-0.250 3.394 3.572

Sort in -0.241 3.385 3.394

ascending

order according 3.385

to fitness value 3.262

chromosomes

0.946 1.899

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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Initial State After 2 generation

After 5 generation After 10 generation

7/29/2013 27

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Applications of Genetic Algorithms

•Optimization–numerical and combinatorial optimization problems, e.g.

travelling salesman, routing, graph colouring and partitioning

•Robotics–trajectory planning

•Machine learning–designing neural networks, classification and prediction,

e.g. prediction of weather or protein structure

•Signal processing–filter design

•Design–semiconductor layout, aircraft design, communication networks

•Automatic programming–evolve computer programs for specific tasks,

design cellular automata and sorting networks

•Economics–development of bidding strategies, emergence of economics

markets

•Immune systems–model somatic mutations

•Ecology–model symbiosis, resource flow

7/29/2013 28

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Schematic Block diagram of an adaptive

identification system

n(k )

Nonlinear y(k )

x(k )

e(k ) y(k ) y' (k )

System

+

(a)

Model -

(aˆ )

y ' (k )

GA

**x - represents the random input sequence lie in between [-0.5,0.5]
**

y - represents the desired output sequence.

y ' - represents estimated output sequence.

n - is additive white Gaussian noise.

a - represent coefficients of system.

7/29/2013 29

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Genetic Algorithm For System

Identification

Coefficients of the model (aˆ ) are initially chosen from a population

of M - chromosomes.

**Each chromosome constitutes (Q * L) number of random binary bits
**

where each sequential group of L - bits represent one coefficient of the

adaptive model, where Q is the number of parameters of the model.

L Q

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 aˆ11 aˆ12 aˆ31

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 aˆ12 aˆ22 aˆ32

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 M aˆ13 aˆ23 aˆ33

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 aˆ14 aˆ24 aˆ34

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 aˆ15 aˆ25 aˆ35

Chromosomes Model Coefficient

7/29/2013 30

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Noise

vector N

~

a1 a2 a3 * X Y

System Coefficient Time delay Desired

Input matrix Output vector

aˆ 1

aˆ 1

aˆ

1

* ~ Y1 ' E1

1 2 3 X

aˆ12 aˆ22 aˆ32 * ~ Y2 ' E2

X

aˆ13 aˆ23 aˆ33 * ~ Y3 ' E3

X

aˆ14 aˆ24 aˆ34 * ~ Y4 ' E4

X

aˆ15 aˆ25 aˆ35 ~ Y5 ' E5

* X

Model Coefficient Time delay Estimated Mean Square

Input matrix Output vector Error (MSE)

x1 xK Y [ y1, y2 , y3 ,, yK ]

X 0 xK 1

x2 x3

N [n1, n2 , n3 ,, nK ]

~

x1 x2

0 0 x1 xK 2 Em mse e1m , e2m ,, eKm

7/29/2013 31

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Simulation & Results

Input Signal (x) :- zero mean uniformly distributed random sample lying

between [-0.5,0.5]

Noise (N) :- White & Gaussian distributed random samples

Coefficients of the FIR filter (Q):- 3

Number of input signal samples (K) :- 500

**Binary coded GA is used
**

•Number of chromosomes taken (M) :- 60

•Number of bits in each chromosome (Q*L) :- 60

•Using one point cross over

•Using Tournament selection

•Probability of Crossover (Pc) :- 0.8

•Probability of Mutation (Pm) :- 0.1

7/29/2013 32

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Systems

Linear System

A( z ) 0.3040 0.9029 z 1 0.3040 z 2

NSR 30dB & NSR 20dB

Nonlinear System

For simulation purpose the Nonlinear system can be obtained by

passing the output of the linear system through various nonlinearity

functions.

•EXP : - 1

Y tanh(Y ),

•EXP : - 2

Y Y 0.2Y 2 0.1Y 3

7/29/2013 33

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Comparison of output response of

(Exp-1) at -20dB NSR & -30dB NSR

NSR = -20dB NSR = -30dB

7/29/2013 34

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Comparison of output response of

(Exp-2) at -20dB NSR & -30dB NSR

NSR = -20dB NSR = -30dB

7/29/2013 35

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Overview of a Digital

Communication System

Transmitter

sk

Data Source Encoder Modulator

Physical Channel Noise

Decision

Demodulator Equalizer

rk Device

Receiver Decoder

s 'k-d

Block Diagram of a Digital Communication System

7/29/2013 36

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Digital Channel Equalizers

**Located in the front end of the receivers (in series with
**

the channel )

Inverse system of the channel model (Transfer function

of the equalizer is inverse to the transfer function of the

channel )

Use to reduce : -

•Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)

•Inter User Interference in the form of Co-channel

Interference (CCI )

•Adjacent Channel Interference ( ACI ) in the presence of

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).

7/29/2013 37

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Block Diagram For

Channel Equalization

Channel

Noise

n (k)

Random

Binary +

Input Digital + Channel y (k) d (k)

Channel ∑ Equalizer _ ∑

Aˆ ( z )

+

x (k) A(z )

e (k)

Adaptive

Algorithm

Delay

z-m

7/29/2013 38

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Simulation & Results

**Binary coding is used
**

Number of chromosomes taken (M) :- 60

Number of bits used for each parameter (L) :- 20

One point cross over is used

Tournament selection is used

Probability of Crossover (Pc) :- 0.8

Probability of Mutation (Pm) :- 0.1

Experiments on Nonlinear Channel

7/29/2013 39

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Nonlinear Channels

Linear System

A( z ) 0.3040 0.9029 z 1 0.3040 z 2

NSR 10dB

Nonlinear System

For simulation purpose the Nonlinear system can be obtained by

passing the output of the linear system through various nonlinearity

functions.

•EXP : - 1

r (k ) r (k ) 0.2 * r 2 (k ) 0.1* r 3 (k ),

•EXP : - 2

r (k ) r (k ) 0.2 * r 2 (k ) 0.1* r 3 (k ) 0.5 * cos( * r ),

7/29/2013 40

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Comparison of BER of Nonlinear

Channel NCH1 between LMS & GA

based Equalizer at -10dB noise

7/29/2013 41

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Comparison of BER of nonlinear

Channel NCH2 between LMS & GA

based equaliser at -10dB noise

7/29/2013 42

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

References

• Mishra, S.K.; Panda, G.; Meher, S.; Majhi, R.; Singh, M., "Portfolio management

assessment by four multiobjective optimization algorithm," Recent Advances in

Intelligent Computational Systems (RAICS), 2011 IEEE , vol., no., pp.326,331, 22-24

Sept. 2011

**• Baghel, V.; Panda, G.; Srihari, P.; Rajarajeswari, K.; Majhi, B., "An efficient multi-
**

objective pulse radar compression technique using RBF and NSGA-II," Nature &

Biologically Inspired Computing, 2009. NaBIC 2009. World Congress on , vol., no.,

pp.1291,1296, 9-11 Dec. 2009

**• Sahoo, A.K.; Panda, G.; Pradhan, P.M., "Generation of Pulse Compression Codes
**

Using NSGA-II," India Conference (INDICON), 2009 Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.1,4,

18-20 Dec. 2009

•

Sahoo, A.K.; Panda, G.; Pradhan, P.M., "Efficient design of pulse compression codes

using multiobjective genetic algorithm," Nature & Biologically Inspired Computing,

2009. NaBIC 2009. World Congress on , vol., no., pp.324,329, 9-11 Dec. 2009

7/29/2013 43

References

• Acharya, D.P.; Panda, G.; Lakshmi, Y. V S, "Constrained genetic algorithm based

independent component analysis," Evolutionary Computation, 2007. CEC 2007.

IEEE Congress on , vol., no., pp.2443,2449, 25-28 Sept. 2007

Books:

**• “The design of innovation : lessons from and for competent genetic algorithms “
**

by David E. Goldberg

**• “Opti izatio for Engineering Design : Algorithms and Examples “ by Kalya oy
**

Deb

7/29/2013 44

Thank You

7/29/2013 45

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR

Civil Engineering

• Parameters Identification of Coupled Seepage

and Stress Field Based on Genetic Algorithms

• An Adaptive Chromosome Technique of

Genetic Algorithms to Identify Structural

Damage

• Vehicle Velocity Recognition by Bridge

Responses with a Pattern Search Algorithm

• Improved Seismic Control of Structure with

Variable Friction Dampers by GA

7/29/2013 46

Mechanical Engineering

• A hybrid genetic algorithm for constrained

optimization problems in mechanical

engineering

• Genetic algorithm and gradient-based

algorithm optimization of vehicle turning

mechanism

• Robot path planning using genetic algorithms

• Intelligent Learning Algorithms for Active

Vibration Control

7/29/2013 47

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