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Paper Title
The Removal of Random Valued Impulse Noise Using Contrast Enhancement and Decision Based Filter
Authors
Bharathi S. L, N. Reshmi, A. Murali
Abstract
Digital images are trans…Full description

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**Volume: 4 Issue: 6 146 - 150
**

______________________________________________________________________________________

The Removal of Random Valued Impulse Noise Using Contrast Enhancement

and Decision Based Filter

Bharathi S. L N. Reshmi A . Murali

Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Associate Professor,

Dept. Of Ece Dept. Of Ece Dept. Of Ece

Panimalar Engineering College Lords Engineering College Research Scholar, K.L University, India &

Chennai, India Hyderabad, India Raghu Engineering College

E-Mail:Sl.Bharathi18@Gmail.Com E-Mail:Reshiminandoori@Gmail.Com Visakhapatnam, A.P, India

E-Mail:Amurali3@Gmail.Com

Abstract— Digital images are transmitted in noisy environment and it will frequently affected by impulse noise .To remove this noise from the

image is a fundamental problem of image processing. There are various types of noise in an image especially salt and pepper noise and random

valued impulse noise. This paper introduces a new filtering scheme based on contrast enhancement filter and decision based filter for removing

the random valued impulse noise. The application of a nonlinear function to increasing the difference between noise pixels and noise-free and

results in efficient detection of noisy pixels. As the performance of a filtering system, in general, depends on the number of iterations used, the

effective stopping criterion based on noisy image characteristics to determine the number of iterations is also proposed. This proposed method

removes only the corrupted pixel by its neighboring pixel values. As a result of this, the proposed method removes the noise effectively and

preserves the edges without any loss up to 80% of noise level.

**Keywords: CBEF, Decision-based filter, Random valued impulse noise, and nonlinear filter
**

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

**I. INTRODUCTION varies from 2 to 6, depending upon the noise level and
**

The median filter is the most popular choice for image characteristics. As a result of this, the proposed

removing the impulse noise from images because of its method removes the noise effectively up to 50% of noise

effectiveness and high computational efficiency[1]. level.

However, when the median filtering is carried out for every

pixel across the image, it modifies both noisy as sell as Decision based filter is proposed for restoration of

noise-free pixels. Consequently, some desirable details are images that are highly corrupted by random valued impulse

also removed from the images. In order to overcome this noise[5].

drawback of median filter, many filtering algorithms with an II. LITERATURE SURVEY

impulse detector have been proposed. The performance of Digital Image, a digital remotely sensed image is

these filters is dependent on the capabilities of the detectors typically composed of picture elements (pixels) located at

employed in the filtering schemes. In case of random valued the intersection of each row i and column j in each K bands

impulse noise, the detection of an impulse is relatively more of imagery. Associated with each pixel is a number known

difficult in comparison with salt-and-pepper impulse noise. as Digital Number (DN) or Brightness Value (BV) that

Hence, the performance of most of the filters is not good depicts the average radiance of a relatively small area within

when the impulse noise is random-valued. a scene (Figure 1). A smaller number indicates low average

radiance from the area and the high number is an indicator

Images are often corrupted by noise in the process of high radiant properties of the area. The size of this area

of image acquisition and transmission. Hence, an efficient effects the reproduction of details within the scene. As pixel

denoising technique is very important for the image size is reduced more scene detail is presented in digital

processing applications[3], [4]. Recently, many image representation.

denoising methods have been proposed to carry out the

impulse noise suppression. Some of them employ the

standard median filter or its modifications, to implement

denoising process. However, these approaches might blur

the image since both noisy and noise-free pixels are

modified.

**Contrast enhancement based filter is applied Figure1:Structure of a Digital Image and Multispectral
**

iteratively. The number of iterations required is decided by Image

the stopping criterion. In general, the number of iterations

146

IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 6 146 - 150

______________________________________________________________________________________

Color Composites, While displaying the different bands of a Noise reduction techniques are most often divided

multispectral data set, images obtained in different bands are into two classes‟ linear techniques, and nonlinear

displayed in image planes (other than their own) the color techniques. Linear processing techniques have been widely

composite is regarded as False Color Composite (FCC). used in digital signal processing applications, since their

High spectral resolution is important when producing color mathematical simplicity and the availability of a unifying

components. For a true color composite an image data used linear system theory make these techniques relatively easy

in red, green and blue spectral region must be assigned bits to analyze and implement.

of red, green and blue image processor frame buffer

memory. A color infrared composite „standard false color III. PROPOSED METHOD

composite‟ is displayed by placing the infrared, red, green in A. CEBF:

the red, green and blue frame buffer memory. CEBF is composed of three components; they are

Impulse Detection, Image Filtering, and Stopping Criterion.

Image Rectification and Registration Geometric

distortions manifest themselves as errors in the position of a

pixel relative to other pixels in the scene and with respect to

their absolute position within some defined map projection.

If left uncorrected, these geometric distortions render any

data extracted from the image useless. This is particularly so

if the information is to be compared to other data sets, be it

from another image or a GIS data set.

Figure 3: proposed method CEBF

Rectification is a process of geometrically

correcting an image so that it can be represented on a planar The first block just reads an image which is affected by a

surface, conform to other images or conform to a map. That Impulse Noise [6]. It could read any image format and

is, it is the process by which geometry of an image is made without affecting the characteristics of the image it is

plan metric. It is necessary when accurate area, distance and directed to the Image Removal Block.

direction measurements are required to be made from the

imagery. It is achieved by transforming the data from one B. Impulse Detection:

grid system into another grid system using a geometric The impulse detection is based on the assumption

transformation. Rectification is not necessary if there is no that a noise free image contains locally smoothly varying

distortion in the image. areas separated by edges. In an image contaminated by

random valued impulse noise the detection of noisy pixel is

Image Enhancement Techniques Image more difficult in comparison with fixed valued impulse

enhancement techniques improve the quality of an image as noise, as the gray value of noisy pixel may not be

perceived by a human[7]. These techniques are most useful substantially larger or smaller than those of its neighbors[8].

because many satellite images when examined on a colour

display give inadequate information for image In order to overcome this problem, we use a non

interpretation. There is no conscious effort to improve the linear function to transform the pixel values within filter

fidelity of the image with regard to some ideal form of the window in a progressive manner [10]-[12].

image. There exists a wide variety of techniques for

improving image quality. The contrast stretch, density C. Filtering:

slicing, edge enhancement, and spatial filtering are the more Image filtering is a process by which we can

commonly used techniques. Image enhancement is images. A weighted filter is used when different pixels need

attempted after the image is corrected for geometric and to be given different importance in calculating the image.

radiometric distortions. Since, a random valued noise is considered; a weighted filter

is used in this project.

Digital

D. Stopping Criterion:

Received

Image To Image The detection and filtering operations are

Image Filter Enhancement performed iteratively until the stopping criterion is satisfied.

The number of iterations required for optimum performance

Figure 2. Digital Filter Stage of an image depends upon the image statistics and the noise

147

IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 6 146 - 150

______________________________________________________________________________________

percentage. Thus the stopping criterion is based on some IMREAD

image parameters. The last block is used to show the output Read image from graphics file

image. The output image will be of same format and size of Syntax

the input image. The only difference is the removal of noise A = imread(filename,fmt)

in this block. This block gets the image from the FILTER Description

block only if the Stopping Criterion is satisfied. The imread function supports four general

syntaxes, described below. The imread function also

E. Impulse Detection and Filtering supports several other format-specific syntaxes. See

The impulse detection is based on the assumption Special Case Syntax for information about these syntaxes.

that a noise free image contains locally smoothly varying

areas separated by edges. Let the image of size M x N has 8- MSE

bit gray scale pixel resolution, that is, I € [0,255]. In a Mean squared error performance function

(2L+1)x(2L+1) window W(x)(i,j) at location (I,j), the center Syntax

pixel value is denoted as x(I,j), and L is an integer[9]. We perf = mse(E,X,PP)

assume the following impulse noise model, with noise perf = mse(E,net,PP)

probability p: info = mse(code)

Description

oij, with probability 1-p mse is a network performance function. It measures

x(i,j) = { nij, with probability p

of

the network's performance according to the mean

squared errors

**Where oij and nij denote the pixel values at location (I,j) in IMSHOW
**

the original uncorrupted image and the noisy image, Display image

respectively. The noisy pixel value, nij, is uniformly Syntax

distributed between the minimal (0) and maximal (255) imshow(I)

possible pixel values. imshow(I,[low high])

imshow(RGB)

F. Decision based filter: imshow(BW)

The proposed algorithm processes the corrupted Description

image by first detecting the random valued impulse noise. imshow(I) displays the grayscale image I.

The detection of noisy and noise free pixels is decided by imshow(I,[low high]) displays the grayscale image

checking whether the value of a processed pixel element lies I, specifying the display range for I in [low high].

between the maximum and minimum values that occur The value low (and any value less than low) displays as

inside the selected window. If the value of the pixel black; the value high (and any value greater than

processed is within the range, then it is a noisy pixel and is high) displays as white. Values in between are

replaced by its neighborhood values. displayed as intermediate shades of gray, using the

default number of gray levels. If you use an empty

IV. CODE IMPLEMENTATION USING MATLAB matrix ([]) for [low high], imshow uses [min(I(:))

A. SYNTAX max(I(:))]; that is, the minimum value in I is

MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical displayed as black, and the maximum value is

computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic displayed as white. imshow(RGB) displays the

engine, allowing access to symbolic computing capabilities. truecolor image RGB.

An additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-

domain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic A. PARTIAL CODE

and embedded systems. NOISE ADDITION

function output_image = randomnoise(

FPRINTF

input_image, spdensity )

Write formatted data to file

PEPPER_VALUE = 0;

Syntax

SALT_VALUE = 255;

[count, errmsg] = fprintf(fid, format, A, ...)

Image Processing Toolbox User's Guide

I = rgb2gray(input_image);

Deblurring with the Lucy-Richardson Algorithm

[j k] = size(I);

148

IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 6 146 - 150

______________________________________________________________________________________

n_pixels = j*k; ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 3.165532

n_noisy_pixels = round(n_pixels * spdensity); Iteration : 3

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.877210

NOISE FILTER Iteration : 4

function[A,RI] = ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.722850

imgMaskMed(src_matrix,dim_matrix) Iteration : 5

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.671018

copy_matrix = src_matrix; Iteration : 6

[X, y] = size (copy_matrix); ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.644844

a = dim_matrix; REACHED MAX THRESHOLD

b = dim_matrix;

C. Enter the file name of an image : pears.png

for j = 1:b Iteration : 1

[a_temp, b_temp] = size (copy_matrix); ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 29.977351

copy_matrix = vertcat (copy_matrix, copy_matrix Iteration : 2

(a_temp, :)); ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 2.521047

copy_matrix = vertcat (copy_matrix (1, :), Iteration : 3

copy_matrix) ; ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.269237

copy_matrix = horzcat (copy_matrix, copy_matrix Iteration : 4

(:, b_temp)); ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.121000

copy_matrix = horzcat (copy_matrix (:,1), Iteration : 5

copy_matrix); ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.071832

end Iteration : 6

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 1.0444339

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

To assess the performance of proposed scheme, the

standard gray-scale test images used in our expeiments have

distinctly different features. The tested images are highly

corrupted with random valued impulse noise. To evaluate

the image restoration performance, PSNR is used as the

criterion. The noise density in the noisy images is varied

from 60% to 80%.

**A. Enter the file name of an image : Onion.png
**

Iteration : 1

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 30.739968

Iteration : 2

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 3.359775 Figure 4 CEBF and DBF for noise level 60%

Iteration : 3

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 2.267606

Iteration : 4

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 2.115950

Iteration : 5

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 2.060594

Iteration : 6

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 2.028553

REACHED MAX THRESHOLD

**B. Enter the file name of an image : peppers.png
**

Iteration : 1

Figure 5 CEBF and DBF for noise level 70%

ROUGHNESS INDEX OF AN IMAGE : 30.369915

Iteration : 2

149

IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 6 146 - 150

______________________________________________________________________________________

[8] V.Senk and Z. Trpovski, ”Advance impulse detection

based on pixel-wise MAD”,IEEE signal process. Lett.,

vol. 11, no7, pp.589-592 ,jul .2004.

[9] S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, “A new impulse detector for

switching median filters,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett.,

vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 360–363, Nov. 2002.

[10] Z. Wang and D. Zhang, “Progressive switching median

filter for the removal of impulsive noise from highly

corrupted images”, IEEE Trans .circuits syst., vol. 46,

no.1, pp.78-80 ,jan. 1999.

[11] Y.Dong and S.Xu, “A new directional weighted median

filter for removal of random –valued impulse noise”,

IEEE signal process .Lett., vol. 14, no.3, pp193-196,

Mar. 2007.

[12] W.Luo, “An efficient algorithm for the removal of

Figure 6: CEBF and DBF for noise level 80%

impulse noise from corrupted images”, Int .J. electron.

Commun. (AEU), vol.61, no.8, pp.551-555, sep, 2007.

VI. CONCLUSION

A Contrast enhancement based filter is applied

iteratively. The number of iterations varies from 2 to 6,

depending upon the noise level and image characteristics.

As a result of this, the proposed method removes the noise

effectively up to 50% of noise level. A Decision based filter

has been proposed for restoration of images that are highly

corrupted by random valued impulse noise. Results reveal

that the proposed filter exhibits better performance and

higher PSNR value .The proposed filter uses a small 3x3

window having neighbors of the pixel that have higher

correlation; this provides more edge details, leading to better

edge preservation up to 80% noise level.

VII. REFERENCES

[1] T. Chen, K.-K.Ma and L.H. Chen, ”Tri-state median filter

for image denoising”, IEEE Trans. Image process.,

vol.8,no.12, pp.1834-1838, Dec.1999.

[2] G.R.Arce and M.P.McLoughlin,”theoretical analysis of

the MAX/Median filter”,IEEE trans. Acoust. Speech,

signal process.,vol.ASSP-35,no.1,pp.60-69,jan.1987.

[3] D. Florencio and T. Schafer, “Decision-based median

filter using local signal statistics,” in Proc. SPIE Int.

Symp. Visual Communications Image Processing,

Chicago, IL, Sep. 1994.

[4] K.S. Srinivasan and D.Ebenezer, ”A New Fast and

Efficient Decision–Based Algorithm for Removal of

High-Density Impulse Noises”, IEEE signal process

.Lett., vol.14, no.3,pp189-193,Mar.2007.

[5] T.Chen and H.R.Wu, “Space varient median filters for the

restoration of impulse noise corrupted images”, IEEE

Trans. cicuites sust.II, vol. 48,no.8,pp.784-789,Aug.2001.

[6] A.S.Awad and H.Man,” High performance detection filter

for impulse noise removal in images”, Electron . Lett.,

vol. 44, no.3, pp.192-194, Jan.2008.

[7] S.-J.Ko and Y.-H.Lee, “Center weighted median filters

and their application to image enhancement”, IEEE

Trans. Circuits Syst.,vol.38,no.9,pp.984-993,sep.1991.

150

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_______________________________________________________________________________________

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