Hydraulics and Hydrology (CIVL2004/2104

)

Hydraulic Machinery

Introduction

Hydraulic machines can be broadly classified into two types; namely, Pumps and
Turbines. Pumps convert mechanical energy into fluid energy thereby increasing the
energy of the fluid (increase of pressure or increase in velocity). Turbines convert the
fluid energy into mechanical energy thereby decreasing the energy of the fluid.

A “compressor” is a pump with a primary function to increase the pressure of a gas.
“Fans” and “blower” are machines used only for producing movement of gases.

Types of Hydraulic Machines

Depending on the principle of action, hydraulic machines can be classified into:
(1) mechanical action of displacing fluids – “Positive displacement machines”; and
(2) momentum principle of flowing fluids – “Turbo-machines”.

The operation of a positive displacement type machine depends only on mechanical
and hydrostatic principles. Only a few principles of fluid dynamics are involved.
Some examples of positive displacement pumps are shown below:

Gear pump Double-screw pump Sliding vane pump

Turbomachines

Turbo-machines are also known as the “rotodynamic” type. In this type of machines,
the conversion of energy occurs in a rotating part of the machine (known as the
“rotor”). Inside the rotor, there is a transformation between pressure and velocity
heads. A significant change of velocity occurs across the rotor. The casing and other
parts of the machine are called the “stator”. If the valves in a rotodynamic machine
were closed, there will only be an increase in temperature. The casing will not burst.

Depending on the direction of fluid flow through the rotor in relation to the rotation
axis of the rotor, turbo-machines are classified as:
(1) axial flow type;
(2) radial flow type; and
(3) mixed flow type.

1

the flow is mainly in the radial direction through the spaces between the impeller blades.Another type of classification is based on the location of momentum change: (1) reaction type. Velocity triangle analysis The flow through the impeller can be analysed with the (angular-) momentum equation. Pumps Centrifugal pumps They are so called because of the fact that the centrifugal force or the variation of pressure due to rotation is an important factor in their operation. The three velocities in each velocity triangles are: s. For a blade in the impeller. absolute velocity of the fluid at the tip. The thickness of the impeller may vary from the inner inlet side to the outer outlet side. U. The casing of the pump is also known as the “volute”. fluid velocity relative to the moving blade tip. and (2) impulse type. the fluid approaches and leaves the blade smoothly. where the fluid action occurs all over the rotor. At design conditions. where the fluid action occurs on one part of the rotor. Flow enters the inside of the impeller from the top but inside the impeller. It has a spiral form so proportioned as to produce an equal velocity of flow all around the circumference and also to gradually reduce the velocity of the water as it flows from the impeller to the discharge pipe. The pump consists of an “impeller” or “rotor” rotating within a casing. and UR. velocity triangles can be drawn at the inlet and the outlet tips. Centrifugal pumps are “radial-flow” pumps and the flow is radially outwards. the velocity of the blade at the tip due to rotation ω of the impeller. This means that UR1 and UR2 will have directions the same as the geometric angles of the blade at 2 .

3 . This component is denoted by Uf. the rotating blades exert a torque on the flow. radial in radial- flow machines or axial in axial-flow machines.e. This component is called the whirl component or the “velocity of whirl”. Uf is uniform along the circumference of the impeller. i.e. the blade angles are set so that Uw1 = 0 and the power is maximised. Uw. UR: have directions set by the blade angles. so that Q = Uf × circumference of impeller × thickness of impeller For optimum design. i. In radial-flow machine. s=ωr. Thus. (ii) along the direction of the main flow pass the blade. s: in the direction of blade movement.the entry and exit tips. The entry direction of the flow can always be guided by a set of stationary guide vanes. tangential to the impeller rotation. Power is delivered to the flow by the pump: Torque = ρQ (r2Uw2 − r1Uw1) Power = Torque × ω Power = ρQ (s2Uw2 − s1Uw1) = ρQ ∆(sUw) The flowrate through the impeller is given by the product of Uf with the flow area. U: can be resolved into two components: (i) along the direction of blade movement. The torque leads to a change of angular momentum of the fluid in the whirl direction. Optimum design conditions: 2 Entry 1 For a pump.

Flow Exit Entry As in a centrifugal pump. The effective flow area is from the hub to the tips of the blades. the torque and power delivered to the flow are: Torque = ρQ (r2Uw2 − r1Uw1) Power = ρQ (s2Uw2 − s1Uw1) = ρQ ∆(sUw) The flowrate through the axial-flow pump is obtained by integration because Uf varies along the blade: blade _ end Q=∫ U f ⋅ 2πrdr hub The optimum design condition is Uw1 = 0 and U1 = Uf1.Axial-flow (Propeller pump) pumps The “rotor” or “impeller” of an axial-flow pump is in the form of a propeller. The flow though the rotor is largely parallel to the axis of rotation. 4 . There are a number of blades attached on the hub.

the radially inward flow is turned into axial flow at the centre of the runner. the fluid energy is in the form of pressure. The energy in the fluid. water flows out of the turbine. The “Pelton wheel” is a common example of an impulse turbine whereas “Francis and Kaplan turbines” are reaction type of turbines. engineer J. The runner rotates and does mechanical work against a load (e. There is a torque developed on the runner. In gas turbine it is the gas pressure produced by chemical energy.Turbines Turbines extract energy from a flow and change it into mechanical form. is reduced on passing through the turbine. The setting of the stationary guide vanes deflects the flow by the desired angle according to design. static pressure decreases as the fluid passes through the runner which is enclosed. In an impulse turbine. there is no change in static pressure across the runner which is open and at atmospheric pressure. in head or velocity. “tail race”. Francis in 1800’s. After leaving the runner blades.g. The flow path and the principle of the Francis turbine is exactly the opposite of a centrifugal pump. it is the steam pressure produced by heat. for driving a generator to produce electricity). Afterwards. In water turbines.B. In reaction turbines. The flow through the runner is mostly horizontal and is in the radial inward direction and this is why Francis turbine is also called an inward-flow turbine. For any turbine. Fluid passes through a runner having a number of blades. Water passes through a spiral passage and there are guide vanes which turn the water flow radially inwards into the runner. “head race” and the downstream water level. 5 . In steam turbines. The flow is driven by a head difference between the upstream reservoir. it is the difference between the upper and lower levels that gives this pressure. The momentum of the fluid in the tangential direction is changed and so a tangential force on the runner is produced. usually with no whirl component..S. Francis Turbine It is a radial-flow turbine developed by a U. The energy change is from kinetic to mechanical. The cross sectional area of the spiral decreases along the fluid path in such a way as to keep the fluid velocity constant in magnitude. Most turbines work on fluid principles.

the flow is always outward for a pump and always inward for a turbine. The flowrate through the runner impeller is given by the product of Uf and the flow area. the flow has no whirl velocity at the exit of the blade. which is related to the loss of angular momentum in passing the blade: Torque = ρQ (r1Uw1 − r2Uw2) Power = Torque × ω Power = ρQ (s1Uw1 – s2Uw2) = ρQ ∆(sUw) It becomes obvious now why in radial-flow machines. At the same time. The power developed by the runner is equal to the power lost by the flow. A larger power results when the inlet has a larger radius.Inside the runner. Under the optimum design condition. the angular momentum of the fluid is changed. Velocity triangle analysis of the flow is shown in the diagram. 6 . For a turbine. the power is related to the difference of ∆(sUw) in subtracting the outlet value (2) from the inlet value (1). the flow exits a torque on the blades.

It is equivalent to an axial flow pump in reverse.Kaplan Turbine The Kaplan turbine is developed by an Austrian engineer. Water first flows into a spiral passing where stationary guide vanes turn the flow towards the center of the turbine. Kaplan in the late 1800’s. Uw2 =0: 7 . The runner is in the form of a propeller and mechanical power is developed when the flow turns the runner. V. Then the flow is turned into axial flow through a vertical tube where the runner is located. Velocity triangle analysis is shown in the diagram below for the optimum design condition.

would be obtained if the fluid is deflected through 180 degrees. Efficiencies are around 90% for large machines.Mixed-flow Turbine There are also mixed-flow turbines where the flow enters the turbine runner radially but leaves with a substantial axial flow component of velocity. But in practice. Usually they are mounted on vertical shafts (runner rotating on a horizontal plane) and operate on low-head. All reaction turbines run full of fluid. this deflection is around 165 degrees to prevent the fluid leaving one bucket striking the back of the next. 8 . The buckets are split in half at the centre and the incoming jet divides into two equal halves upon impinging. 15 to 30m). and hence the maximum force. The rotor consists of a number of buckets attached to its periphery. One or more nozzles are mounted so that they discharge a jet along a tangent to the circle through the centre line of the buckets. high-flow situations (e.g. The notch in the outer rim of each bucket prevents the jet to the preceding bucket being intercepted too soon. particularly in hydroelectric schemes in mountain areas.. Pelton Wheel Turbine The Pelton wheel is a turbine used in high-head systems. The maximum change of momentum.

The velocity of the water jet is related to the net available head H (i. The net energy or head available to the runner is called the “net” or “effective head”. There is some unused or waste energy in this water. Energy and Efficiency Turbines and pumps convert energy between the fluid form (pressure. Analysis of the flow principle is made with the help of velocity triangles. The effect in the buckets can be represented by a coefficient k in relating the magnitudes of the relative velocities in the inlet and outlet points of the bucket: UR2 = kUR1 (k<1). The elevation difference is the “gross head” which represents the largest head available for use. The are energy losses in the processes and it is important to analysis the energy conversion. It is possible to consider some non-ideal effects such as frictions in flow past the nozzle and the buckets.e. Turbines In a turbine installation. there are the head race and the tail race. The effectiveness of the turbine runner in converting the head available to it into this mechanical power is measured by the “Hydraulic efficiency”. where Cv is the coefficient of velocity. Various efficiencies are defined for these processes. there is friction loss in this “penstock”.e. Eventually.e. As water flows through a pipe or tunnel to the turbine. the Pelton wheel rotates in a vertical plane. Heff. in a horizontal shaft. i. ηh: 9 . head or velocity) and the mechanical form.e. Heff = Gross head − penstock loss − k. loss at exit Power available to runner = ρQgHeff The mechanical power developed by the runner is ρQ ∆(sUw). Normally.The pressure of the fluid after it has left the nozzle is constant at atmospheric. after allowing for frictional losses inside the transporting pipe) by U1 = Cv 2 gH . water flows out of the turbine or out of the “draft tube” with some velocity (k.).

From the pump outlet (3). is easily measurable by connecting a piezometer to the entry or exit point of the pump. The head difference from the sump to the pump is called the “suction head” and the head difference between the delivery and the pump is called the “delivery head”. from 0 to 3). Of course. The pump raises the (piezometric) head of the fluid. The total losses can be taken to be proportional to the square of the discharge Q. The corresponding power added to the flow is ρgQHm. 10 . as well as other device losses like valves and bends. The power that the impeller delivers is ρQ ∆(sUw) which is larger because some energy is lost in flow inside the pump casing and the impeller. water goes to the delivery point (d) through a delivery pipe. which is less than that developed at the runner. The overall “pump head” across the pump which the pump needs to add to the flow is: pump head = static lift + friction loss = suction head + delivery head + kQ2 d Points 1. water is pumped from a sump (s) through a suction pipe into the pump inlet (0). P.e. This head. The sum of these two is called the “static lift”. ρQΔ( sU w ) Δ( sU w ) ηh = = ρgQH eff gH eff The final output of the turbine is the mechanical power input available at the output shaft. the water is being lifted with flow/velocity and there is friction loss in the suction pipe and the delivery pipe. The overall efficiency of the pump is thus the ratio of this mechanical power output to the available power of the flow: P η= ρgQH m Pumps In the typical installation of a pump. It represents the height through which the flow needs to be raised. 2 across impeller 3 0 s The increase in pump head is usually measured by the increase in piezometric head across the pump (i. Hm.

The overall efficiency of the pump is defined as: ρgQH m η= Pinput Performance of Pumps Characteristic Curve A pump will operate in a different manner under different sets of head and discharge. For a particular pump. ηmano. of course. The curve is called the “characteristic curve” of the pump or simply the “pump curve”. when a medium-size centrifugal pump is used to pump water up a large height. The efficiency curve of η vs. from the mechanical power input to the pump Pinput. the discharge will be small and the efficiency will be lower (point A). too. Q can also be plotted alongside the pump curve. there is a relationship between its pump head and the corresponding discharge that it can deliver. The resulting π groups for head. By dimensional analysis. When the same pump is used to pump water through a small height. This relationship is usually represented by plotting H against Q. discharge and power are: 11 .The effectiveness of energy/head conversion connected with the pump itself is measured by the “Manometric efficiency” ”. A η • H. the performance of a pump is affected by its size (measured by the diameter of the impeller D) and the speed of rotation N of the impeller. the head and discharge can be made non-dimensional by these parameters. = = ρQ∆( sU w ) ∆( sU w ) The power delivered to the impeller comes. The efficiency will be different. The curve usually shows a decrease in head with an increase in discharge. m H B gH/N2D2 • Q/ND3 Q.: ρgQH m gH m η mano. For example. m3/s Of course. the discharge will be high but the efficiency will not be high (point B).

The pump head is: pump head = static lift + friction loss Hload = Hlift + kQ2 The operating point of the pump refers to the particular values of discharge and head that the pump delivers in the installation. i. pumps of the same family.e. H=Hlift +kQ2 H Hlift Q For the best performance. the same design. The operating point is determined by the intersection of the load curve and the pump curve. such as shapes and angles of blades. When plotted in the non-dimensional forms. 12 . The same dimensional analysis can be carried out for a turbine. and the viscosity (Reynolds number): µ π4 = π5 = η ND 2 ρ The π groups are useful when comparing pumps of different designs. Q gH P π1 = π2 = 2 2 π3 = 3 5 ND 3 N D N Dρ There are also the efficiency which is already non-dimensional. the load to the pump is discussed before. the pump should operate at a discharge which gives the maximum efficiency. Operating Point When a pump is installed in an application. will have the same pump curve.

the point with minimum pressure is at the inlet to the pump impeller. water flows through the draft tube to the tail race. In reaction turbines. This occurs when the pressure is lowered to the vapour pressure at the temperature considered. These pressures. Therefore. This is the point most likely for cavitation to occur. Release of energy and pressure wave of high intensity resulting in (a) Pitting and erosion of metal surfaces (b) Noise and vibration of machine (c) Loss of energy and efficiency Although cavitation may not be formed on solid surfaces. For a pump. pressures can reach low values according to Bernoulli’s equation.Cavitation Cavitation is caused by • Vapourisation of the liquid and/or release of dissolved air at low pressure – When the velocities and elevations are high. intense in magnitude act only for a short time. the point of minimum pressure is at the outlet end of a runner blade. 13 . • Collapse of the bubbles (vapour cavities) due to high pressure – Vapour is condensed to liquid again. we have: pmin V 2 + + ∆z = hsump ( sump head ) ρg 2 g Again. When the cavity collapses. In order to prevent cavitation.e. • Movement of the vapour into a high-pressure region – The bubbles are carried along by the flow. This is why a pump is preferably located near the sump rather than near the delivery. we have: pmin V 2 + + ∆z = hL ( frictional losses in draft tube) ≈ 0 ρg 2 g To keep pmin as large as possible. ∆z should be small to prevent cavitation. The purpose of the draft tube is to slow down the flow so that the k. From this point. reaches almost zero. But they act repeatedly at high frequencies. it is required to maintain some value of pressure there. pressure waves from nearby cavities can affect them. a turbine is always installed near the tail race. Applying the energy equation between there and the sump. it is required to make ∆z (elevation of turbine above the tail race) as small as possible. causing the metal to fail by fatigue. liquid from all directions rush to the centre of gravity of the cavity giving rise to very high local pressure. Applying the energy equation between the turbine outlet and the tail race (where the pressure is atmospheric).