# Hydraulics and Hydrology (CIVL2004/2104

)

Hydraulic Machinery

Introduction

Hydraulic machines can be broadly classified into two types; namely, Pumps and
Turbines. Pumps convert mechanical energy into fluid energy thereby increasing the
energy of the fluid (increase of pressure or increase in velocity). Turbines convert the
fluid energy into mechanical energy thereby decreasing the energy of the fluid.

A “compressor” is a pump with a primary function to increase the pressure of a gas.
“Fans” and “blower” are machines used only for producing movement of gases.

Types of Hydraulic Machines

Depending on the principle of action, hydraulic machines can be classified into:
(1) mechanical action of displacing fluids – “Positive displacement machines”; and
(2) momentum principle of flowing fluids – “Turbo-machines”.

The operation of a positive displacement type machine depends only on mechanical
and hydrostatic principles. Only a few principles of fluid dynamics are involved.
Some examples of positive displacement pumps are shown below:

Gear pump Double-screw pump Sliding vane pump

Turbomachines

Turbo-machines are also known as the “rotodynamic” type. In this type of machines,
the conversion of energy occurs in a rotating part of the machine (known as the
“rotor”). Inside the rotor, there is a transformation between pressure and velocity
heads. A significant change of velocity occurs across the rotor. The casing and other
parts of the machine are called the “stator”. If the valves in a rotodynamic machine
were closed, there will only be an increase in temperature. The casing will not burst.

Depending on the direction of fluid flow through the rotor in relation to the rotation
axis of the rotor, turbo-machines are classified as:
(1) axial flow type;
(3) mixed flow type.

1

the flow is mainly in the radial direction through the spaces between the impeller blades.Another type of classification is based on the location of momentum change: (1) reaction type. Velocity triangle analysis The flow through the impeller can be analysed with the (angular-) momentum equation. Pumps Centrifugal pumps They are so called because of the fact that the centrifugal force or the variation of pressure due to rotation is an important factor in their operation. The three velocities in each velocity triangles are: s. For a blade in the impeller. absolute velocity of the fluid at the tip. The thickness of the impeller may vary from the inner inlet side to the outer outlet side. U. The casing of the pump is also known as the “volute”. fluid velocity relative to the moving blade tip. and (2) impulse type. the fluid approaches and leaves the blade smoothly. where the fluid action occurs all over the rotor. At design conditions. where the fluid action occurs on one part of the rotor. Flow enters the inside of the impeller from the top but inside the impeller. It has a spiral form so proportioned as to produce an equal velocity of flow all around the circumference and also to gradually reduce the velocity of the water as it flows from the impeller to the discharge pipe. The pump consists of an “impeller” or “rotor” rotating within a casing. and UR. velocity triangles can be drawn at the inlet and the outlet tips. Centrifugal pumps are “radial-flow” pumps and the flow is radially outwards. the velocity of the blade at the tip due to rotation ω of the impeller. This means that UR1 and UR2 will have directions the same as the geometric angles of the blade at 2 .

3 . This component is denoted by Uf. the rotating blades exert a torque on the flow. radial in radial- flow machines or axial in axial-flow machines.e. This component is called the whirl component or the “velocity of whirl”. Uf is uniform along the circumference of the impeller. i.e. the blade angles are set so that Uw1 = 0 and the power is maximised. Uw. UR: have directions set by the blade angles. so that Q = Uf × circumference of impeller × thickness of impeller For optimum design. i. In radial-flow machine. s=ωr. Thus. (ii) along the direction of the main flow pass the blade. s: in the direction of blade movement.the entry and exit tips. The entry direction of the flow can always be guided by a set of stationary guide vanes. tangential to the impeller rotation. Power is delivered to the flow by the pump: Torque = ρQ (r2Uw2 − r1Uw1) Power = Torque × ω Power = ρQ (s2Uw2 − s1Uw1) = ρQ ∆(sUw) The flowrate through the impeller is given by the product of Uf with the flow area. U: can be resolved into two components: (i) along the direction of blade movement. The torque leads to a change of angular momentum of the fluid in the whirl direction. Optimum design conditions: 2 Entry 1 For a pump.

Flow Exit Entry As in a centrifugal pump. The effective flow area is from the hub to the tips of the blades. the torque and power delivered to the flow are: Torque = ρQ (r2Uw2 − r1Uw1) Power = ρQ (s2Uw2 − s1Uw1) = ρQ ∆(sUw) The flowrate through the axial-flow pump is obtained by integration because Uf varies along the blade: blade _ end Q=∫ U f ⋅ 2πrdr hub The optimum design condition is Uw1 = 0 and U1 = Uf1.Axial-flow (Propeller pump) pumps The “rotor” or “impeller” of an axial-flow pump is in the form of a propeller. The flow though the rotor is largely parallel to the axis of rotation. 4 . There are a number of blades attached on the hub.

the radially inward flow is turned into axial flow at the centre of the runner. the fluid energy is in the form of pressure. The energy in the fluid. water flows out of the turbine. The “Pelton wheel” is a common example of an impulse turbine whereas “Francis and Kaplan turbines” are reaction type of turbines. engineer J. The runner rotates and does mechanical work against a load (e. There is a torque developed on the runner. In gas turbine it is the gas pressure produced by chemical energy.Turbines Turbines extract energy from a flow and change it into mechanical form. is reduced on passing through the turbine. The setting of the stationary guide vanes deflects the flow by the desired angle according to design. static pressure decreases as the fluid passes through the runner which is enclosed. In an impulse turbine. there is no change in static pressure across the runner which is open and at atmospheric pressure. in head or velocity. “tail race”. Francis in 1800’s. After leaving the runner blades.g. The flow path and the principle of the Francis turbine is exactly the opposite of a centrifugal pump. it is the steam pressure produced by heat. for driving a generator to produce electricity). Afterwards. In water turbines.B. In reaction turbines. The flow through the runner is mostly horizontal and is in the radial inward direction and this is why Francis turbine is also called an inward-flow turbine. For any turbine. Fluid passes through a runner having a number of blades. Water passes through a spiral passage and there are guide vanes which turn the water flow radially inwards into the runner. “head race” and the downstream water level. 5 . In steam turbines. The flow is driven by a head difference between the upstream reservoir. it is the difference between the upper and lower levels that gives this pressure. The momentum of the fluid in the tangential direction is changed and so a tangential force on the runner is produced. usually with no whirl component..S. Francis Turbine It is a radial-flow turbine developed by a U. The energy change is from kinetic to mechanical. The cross sectional area of the spiral decreases along the fluid path in such a way as to keep the fluid velocity constant in magnitude. Most turbines work on fluid principles.

the flow is always outward for a pump and always inward for a turbine. The flowrate through the runner impeller is given by the product of Uf and the flow area. the flow has no whirl velocity at the exit of the blade. which is related to the loss of angular momentum in passing the blade: Torque = ρQ (r1Uw1 − r2Uw2) Power = Torque × ω Power = ρQ (s1Uw1 – s2Uw2) = ρQ ∆(sUw) It becomes obvious now why in radial-flow machines. At the same time. The power developed by the runner is equal to the power lost by the flow. A larger power results when the inlet has a larger radius.Inside the runner. Under the optimum design condition. the angular momentum of the fluid is changed. Velocity triangle analysis of the flow is shown in the diagram. 6 . For a turbine. the power is related to the difference of ∆(sUw) in subtracting the outlet value (2) from the inlet value (1). the flow exits a torque on the blades.

It is equivalent to an axial flow pump in reverse.Kaplan Turbine The Kaplan turbine is developed by an Austrian engineer. Water first flows into a spiral passing where stationary guide vanes turn the flow towards the center of the turbine. Kaplan in the late 1800’s. Uw2 =0: 7 . The runner is in the form of a propeller and mechanical power is developed when the flow turns the runner. V. Then the flow is turned into axial flow through a vertical tube where the runner is located. Velocity triangle analysis is shown in the diagram below for the optimum design condition.

would be obtained if the fluid is deflected through 180 degrees. Efficiencies are around 90% for large machines.Mixed-flow Turbine There are also mixed-flow turbines where the flow enters the turbine runner radially but leaves with a substantial axial flow component of velocity. But in practice. Usually they are mounted on vertical shafts (runner rotating on a horizontal plane) and operate on low-head. All reaction turbines run full of fluid. this deflection is around 165 degrees to prevent the fluid leaving one bucket striking the back of the next. 8 . The buckets are split in half at the centre and the incoming jet divides into two equal halves upon impinging. 15 to 30m). and hence the maximum force. The rotor consists of a number of buckets attached to its periphery. One or more nozzles are mounted so that they discharge a jet along a tangent to the circle through the centre line of the buckets. high-flow situations (e.g. The notch in the outer rim of each bucket prevents the jet to the preceding bucket being intercepted too soon. particularly in hydroelectric schemes in mountain areas.. Pelton Wheel Turbine The Pelton wheel is a turbine used in high-head systems. The maximum change of momentum.

The velocity of the water jet is related to the net available head H (i. The net energy or head available to the runner is called the “net” or “effective head”. There is some unused or waste energy in this water. Energy and Efficiency Turbines and pumps convert energy between the fluid form (pressure. Analysis of the flow principle is made with the help of velocity triangles. The effect in the buckets can be represented by a coefficient k in relating the magnitudes of the relative velocities in the inlet and outlet points of the bucket: UR2 = kUR1 (k<1). The elevation difference is the “gross head” which represents the largest head available for use. The are energy losses in the processes and it is important to analysis the energy conversion. It is possible to consider some non-ideal effects such as frictions in flow past the nozzle and the buckets.e. Turbines In a turbine installation. there are the head race and the tail race. The effectiveness of the turbine runner in converting the head available to it into this mechanical power is measured by the “Hydraulic efficiency”. where Cv is the coefficient of velocity. Various efficiencies are defined for these processes. there is friction loss in this “penstock”.e. Eventually.e. As water flows through a pipe or tunnel to the turbine. the Pelton wheel rotates in a vertical plane. Heff. in a horizontal shaft. i. ηh: 9 . head or velocity) and the mechanical form.e. Heff = Gross head − penstock loss − k. loss at exit Power available to runner = ρQgHeff The mechanical power developed by the runner is ρQ ∆(sUw). Normally.The pressure of the fluid after it has left the nozzle is constant at atmospheric. after allowing for frictional losses inside the transporting pipe) by U1 = Cv 2 gH . water flows out of the turbine or out of the “draft tube” with some velocity (k.).