Colegiul National “ Mihai Eminescu “ Petrosani


A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts
and other objects of artistic,cultural, historical or scientific
importance and some public museums makes them available
for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or
temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities
throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities,
towns and even in the countryside. Museums have varying
aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to
serving the general public. The goal of serving researchers is
increasingly shifting to serving the general public.

Museums have always represented true historical and cultural
values of a country,no matter where they are located.The
museums help us to improuve our culture and our knolleadge .
Every museum that we visit creates us beautiful memories wich
we will never forget.Some of the most beautiful museums are in
U.K. and U.S. This museums surprise people from all points of


Introduction 2. 2.K. Famous museums in U.3 Museums from Wales 2 .2Museums from Scottish 2.S Table of Contents 1. and U.1 Museums from England 2. Museums in U.K.

Museums from California 4.1. Conclusions 5.3. 3.S. Museums in U.Museums from New York 3.2. Bibliography 3 .

United Kingdom of Great Britain has a very rich past in historical events and a remarkable culture. and culture. I. The historical monuments and British Museums have an excellent quality. Chapter I Museums in U. nor king. tended to reflect his scientific interests. The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library. located in the Bloomsbury area of London. freely open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection. illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present.1 Museums from England The British Museum is a museum dedicated to human history. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national. art. The British Museum was established in 1753. belonging to neither church.K. Its permanent collection. largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. while including a vast miscellany of objects. This county has an enormous list of museums that has worth being visited by tourists. 4 . numbering some 8 million works it is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence and originates from all continents.

The original 1753 collection has grown to over thirteen million objects at the British Museum. 70 million at the Natural History Museum and 150 million at the British Library. more space was available for antiquities and ethnography and the library could further expand. and the books and manuscripts it once held now form part of the independent British Library. In 1885. This was a time of innovation as electric lighting was introduced in the Reading Room and exhibition galleries. now the Natural History Museum. The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington. the contents of the Patent Office Museum were transferred to the South Kensington Museum. the museum no longer houses collections of natural history. The Museum nevertheless preserves its universality in its collections of artefacts representing the cultures of the world. London. It included a collection of machinery which became the Museum of Patents in 1858 and the Patent Office Museum in 1863. Some objects in the collection. It was founded in 1857 and today is one of the city's major tourist attractions. in 1887.Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was largely a result of an expanding British colonial footprint and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions. the Science Collections were renamed the Science Museum and in 5 . This collection contained many of the most famous exhibits of what is now the Science Museum. ancient and modern. The natural history collections were an integral part of the British Museum until their removal to the new British Museum (Natural History). are the objects of controversy and of calls for restitution to their countries of origin. Today. In 1883. With the departure and the completion of the new White Wing (fronting Montague Street) in 1884. the first being the British Museum (Natural History) in South Kensington in 1881. most notably the Elgin Marbles from the Parthenon.

Histories of science and biographies of scientists were kept at the Imperial College Library in London until February 2014 when the arrangement was terminated. suspended from the ceiling is a giant metallic ring. run in conjunction with the Library of Imperial College. I. It was. Wiltshire. the area is mostly filled with iconic steam engines of various sorts.1893 a separate director was appointed. in Wroughton. A new Research Centre with library facilities is promised for late 2015. which includes original scientific works and archives. joining the rest of the collection. It is located on The Mound in central Edinburgh. Up in the air. Museums from Scottish The Scottish National Gallery is the national art gallery of Scotland. The gallery 6 . which eventually became the Victoria and Albert Museum. stretching up through three floors. for a number of years. Strengths include Clinical Medicine. the inside of which is covered in white LEDs which form patterns and display messages typed into kiosks by visitors in the Energy gallery. Biosciences and Public Health. Medicine and Technology. The Imperial College library catalogue search system now informs searchers that volumes formerly held there are "Available at Science Museum Library Swindon Currently unavailable". in a neoclassical building designed by William Henry Playfair and first opened to the public in 1859. The Art Collections were renamed the Art Museum. and is used by scholars worldwide. including the oldest surviving James Watt beam engine. On the ground. makes the Museum a leading world centre for the presentation of contemporary science to the public. the shelves were cleared and the books and journals shipped out. 2. It holds runs of periodicals. The East Hall is the first area that most visitors see as they enter the building. but in 2007 the Library was divided over two sites. The new Wellcome Wing with its focus on Bioscience. which together tell the story of the British industrial revolution. but is unlikely to have book stacks nearby. The Science Museum has a dedicated library and until the 1960s was Britain's National Library for Science. early books and manuscripts. The Science Museum's medical collections have a global scope and coverage.

000 works on paper from the early Renaissance to the late nineteenth century and the reference-only Research Library. In 1826. as well as some archival material relating to the collections. The origins of Scotland's national collection lie with the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland. This includes 7 .houses the Scottish national collection of fine art. slides. the Scottish Academy was founded by a group of artists as an off shoot of the Royal Institution and in 1838 it became the Royal Scottish Academy (RSA). A key aim of the RSA was the founding of a national collection. journals. including Scottish and international art from the beginning of the Renaissance up to the start of the 20th century.000 volumes of books. At the heart of the National Gallery's collection is a group of paintings transferred from the Royal Scottish Academy Building. It began to acquire paintings and in 1828 the Royal Institution building opened on The Mound. exhibitions and history of the National Gallery. founded in 1819. The research facilities at the Scottish National Gallery include the Prints and Drawings Collection of over 30. and microfiches. It began to build up a collection and from 1835 rented exhibition space within the Royal Institution building. The Research Library covers the period from 1300 to 1900 and holds approximately 50.

There is a gallery devoted to 8 .Salvator Rosa and two works by Nicolas Poussin: The Funeral of Phocion and The Finding of Moses (the latter owned jointly by the Museum and the National Gallery. 3. The museum is part of the wider network of Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. These works prefigure the career of the Welsh-born Richard Wilson. In 1979 four cartoons for tapestries illustrating scenes from the Aeneid were bought as works by Peter Paul Rubens. Wales.Gaspard Dughet. called "the father of British landscape painting".masterpieces by Jacopo Bassano. but the attribution is now disputed. The collection of Old Master paintings in Cardiff includes. Van Dyck and Giambattista Tiepolo. The National Gallery did not receive its own purchase grant until 1903. London). I. A collection of landscape paintings in the classical tradition includes works by Claude . Museums from Wales National Museum Cardiff is a museum and art gallery in Cardiff. The Virgin and Child between Saint Helena and St Francis by Amico Aspertini. among other notable works.

Queen Victoria's favorite sculptor. In 2011 with funding from the Clore Duffield Foundation. The museum has collections of archaeology. Works by contemporary artists are on rotational display. in particular that of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn. the British Impressionist Wynford Dewhurst. and Johann Zoffany's group portrait of Henry Knight. The collection of 20th-century art includes works by sculptors Jacob Epstein. and major paintings by Augustus John and his sister Gwen John. formal and informal groups can also be accommodated but should book in advance.British patronage of the 18th century. Chapter II 9 . School groups. Included is a portrait of Williams-Wynn in Rome with fellow Tourists by Pompeo Batoni. including landscapes by Richard Wilson and the pioneering Thomas Jones . who was nicknamed 'the Welsh Medici' for his lavish spending on the arts. Frank Auerbach and Rachel Whiteread. one of his second wife by Sir Joshua Reynolds and his chamber organ designed by Robert Adam. which offers hands- on exploration of the museums 7. and zoology. the former Glanely Gallery was transformed into the Clore Discovery Centre. with his children. Ceri Richards is well represented. Lowry. Wales's most prominent contemporary painter. but seldom on display owing to the fragile nature of his works on paper. a Glamorgan landowner. botany. The artistic output of David Jones is well represented. also features in the collection. fossils and Bronze Age weapons. including the former's famous image of Dylan Thomas. L. Other paintings of note from this period is a portrait of Viscountess Elizabeth Bulkeley of Beaumaris as the mythological character Hebe by the 'sublime and terrible' George Romney. The art gallery has works by all of the notable Welsh artists. and Oskar Kokoschka. including insects.5 million items that are normally in storage. Sir Kyffin Williams (1918–2006). geology. There is a considerable body of work by John Gibson. including those by Lucian Freud. Herbert Ward and Eric Gill and painters including Stanley Spencer. Francis Bacon. fine and applied art. S.

000 objects from the 18th century to the present. educational programming. Some of the most important museums from United Strates are known by the people from all over the world. The Museum of Early American Folk Arts.Museums from New York American Folk Art Museum The American Folk Art Museum is an art museum in the Upper West Side of Manhattan. at 2. the museum showcases the creative expressions of individuals whose talents developed without formal artistic training. celebrating the nation’s centennial. and outreach. The American Museums take us on a journey through the history of America . The museum’s collection was launched in 1962 with the gift of a gate in the form of an American flag.1. as it was known initially.Museums in U. from its early sttlers to the tweenty century. The gift 10 . These works span both traditional folk arts and the work of contemporary self-taught artists and European Art Brut. Lincoln Square. It is the premier institution devoted to the aesthetic appreciation of folk art and creative expressions of contemporary self-taught artists from the United States and abroad. With its remarkable collection and folk and decorative arts. Columbus Avenue at 66th Street. II. The museums show the divers and complex nature of American traditions.S. In its ongoing exhibitions. Its collection holds over 7. held its first exhibition in a rented space on 49 West 53rd Street in 1961.

In February 2014. Mary T. A version of Edward Hicks's famed The Peaceable Kingdom entered the collection. and west. Judith Scott. The museum continues to add to its growing collection. Martín Ramírez. and weathervanes to works by acclaimed masters such as Thornton Dial. and Samuel Addison Shute and Ruth Whittier Shute. Offering a more inclusive vision. south. Morris Hirshfield.reflected the museum’s early focus on eighteenth and nineteenth-century vernacular arts from the northeast America. In doing so. Notably. quilts and schoolgirl needlework. 11 . Mother Symbolically Represented/The Kathredal. after receiving a permanent charter. Ammi Phillips. was also donated to the museum. the museum began to champion idiosyncratic and individualistic artwork from the fields of traditional and contemporary folk art.” Under his direction. utilitarian.” Founding curator. In 1966. The 1990s brought new focus to the diversity and multiculturalism of American folk art. furniture. “expanded the notion of folk art beyond traditional. the museum expanded its name and mission. As the Museum of American Folk Arts. east. Its exhibitions and collection began to reflect “every aspect of the folk arts in America – north. Smith and Bill Traylor. Achilles Rizzoli’s (1896-1981) architectural portrait. the museum ushered in a new era in the field of twentieth-century folk art. Herbert W. remained with Hicks's descendants for many years. Director Gerard C. it announced the acquisition of both traditional folk art and works by the self-taught. this painting. and communal expressions. Asa Ames. which Hicks gave to his daughter. the museum began to present African American and Latino artworks in their exhibitions and permanent collections. Hemphill Jr. The collection ranges from early portraits by Sheldon Peck. Wertkin announced American folk art’s common heritage as “promoting an appreciation of diversity in a way that does not foster ethnic chauvinism or racial division.. it looked beyond the traditional definitions of American folk art.

New York City is one of the largest museums in the world. Though today the phrase "natural history" is restricted to the study of animal life. animal. and the universe. in addition to a planetarium and a library. vegetable and mineral. The entire museum spans 4 city blocks and consists of some 25 interconnected buildings. interpreting the role of the "iron horse" connecting California to the rest of the nation. and disseminate—through scientific research and education—knowledge about human cultures. USA. The American Museum of Natural History is the largest natural history museum in the world with a mission commensurately monumental in scope. 12 . 2. Museums from California The California State Railroad Museum is a museum in the state park system of California. the museum complex comprises 27 interconnected buildings housing 45 permanent exhibition halls. It is located in Old Sacramento at 111 I Street. Located in park-like grounds across the street from Central Park. The mission statement of the American Museum of Natural History is: "To discover. interpret. the natural world.American Museum of Natural History The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH)." II. located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. the museum was founded in 1869 on the heels of discoveries by Darwin and other Victorians—uses it in its original sense: that is the study of all natural objects.

and artifacts from the museum's collection. This organization worked for years to promote the idea of a railroad museum. The Museum's first facility. when a group of railroad enthusiasts in the San Francisco Bay Area formed the Pacific Coast Chapter of the Railway & Locomotive Historical Society. The "Sierra Scene" shows a large scale mock up of a construction scene high in the Sierra Nevada representing Donner Pass circa 1867. influencing travel. Changing exhibits featuring photography. The museum has its origins in 1937. The museum features 21 restored locomotives and railroad cars. the Central Pacific Railroad Passenger Station. Stanford. commerce and daily life. Diesel locomotives 13 . add depth and incidental information to the overall story of railroad history. ephemera. some dating back to 1862. Rail town 1897 State Historic Park in Jamestown was added to the Museum complex during 1992. opened in 1976. Other exhibits show how the influence of railroads changed American society. costumed docents. The Railroad History Museum was completed in 1981. donating 30 historic locomotives and cars to the California Department of Parks and Recreation to be the nucleus of a State-operated museum in Sacramento. featuring the locomotive Gov. The Museum has an extensive educational program for elementary students from across the region to help them learn about railroad history using re-enactments. as well as the lives of railroaders and the diversity of people who work on railroads. Steam-powered passenger train service on the Sacramento Southern Railroad began in 1984. and including train and handcar rides. with the Central Pacific Railroad Freight Depot opening three years later.

a wealthy banker and landowner and Margaret Crocker began to assemble a significant collection of paintings and drawings during an extended trip to Europe just a year after their purchase of land on the corner of Third and O Street in the city of 14 . the Museum hosts one of the state’s premier collections of Californian art. and Oceanic art. The collection contains works dating from the Gold Rush to the present day. Located in Sacramento. In 1869. and collections of Asian.S. formerly the E. a collection of master drawings.Steam locomotives The Crocker Art Museum. Crocker Art Gallery is the longest continuously-operating art museum in the West. African. Crocker. one of the largest international ceramics collections in the U. California. Edwin B. European paintings. B.

the facility could not keep pace with the Museum’s burgeoning collection and the growing population of Sacramento and California's Central Valley Region.Sacramento. and Italian-Baroque painting. sculpture. the Crockers supported many social and civic causes. and features artists such as Thomas Hill. Judge Crocker served on the State Supreme Court. B. and Wayne Thiebaud. The collection also includes American art from the late-19th century to the present. and Margaret Crocker in the early 1870’s and has continued to grow over the years. The collection of European art was shaped by the Crocker family’s purchase of paintings during their grand tour of Europe between 1869 and 1871. the Crocker began a master planning process with Gwathmey Siegel & Associates and in 2002 commissioned the firm to design a major expansion of the Museum. Bernhard Reinhold (Young Mason Eating Lunch). Guido Cagnacci. Gerrit van Honthorst. In 2000. and Pop Art. This core collection focuses on Central European painting of the 19th century Dutch and Flemish 16th. Nicolaes Molenaer. Abstract Expressionism. Painters represented at this art museum include Antonio Joli. and craft media covering genres that include Impressionism. Nicolaes Maes. The core collection of early Californian art was assembled by Judge E. Pieter Quast (Quarreling Women). 15 .and 17th-century painting. The Californian art collection includes works dating from statehood to the present day. The expanded Crocker Art Museum opened on October 2010. While the Crocker Art Museum had undertaken a series of renovations and additions since it first opened as a public museum 125 years ago. Guy Rose. The Crocker now boasts 150 years of painting. As a prominent California family. Joan Brown.

The history of ceramics is also explored through a collection of 18th-century Meissen porcelain tableware and in the works of ancient cultures dating to the Neolithic period. South and Southeast Asia are well represented through the William and Edith Cleary gift of more than 600 Indian and Persian miniature paintings and drawings. and Margaret Crocker’s daughter Jennie Crocker Fassett in the 1920s. an expanded library and student and community exhibition galleries.B. The collection is also notable for Korean ceramics. The expanded Museum includes a new education center with four studio art classrooms. an art education resource room for teachers and docents. American. Since midcentury. which began with a gift by Judge E. and international ceramists such as Hamada Shoji and Lucie Rie. and Japanese armor and tea ware. as well as an auditorium and public gathering places. as well as Buddhist art from the region between Pakistan and Southeast Asia. The collection of Asian art is noted for its holdings of Chinese tomb furnishings and trade ceramics. the Museum has followed the development of notable Californian. These new facilities 16 .

Museums from United States and United Kingdam.On the other hand Bibliography https://en. It’s very important and interesting to visit museums because we can enrich our culture and knowledges media/ https://en.too are that type of museams that hide a lot of surprises._London 17 .visiting museums we will remain with beautiful and unforgetable memories.JPG https://en. Conclusions A museum is a wonderful place where we can learn more about lost civilazations . enabling the Museum to serve the community as never https://en.inventions and technology and we can spend our free time in a smart way.allow the Crocker to present expanded programming.