Basic approaches to assessment of educational results

in engineering education

Rosa Z.Bogoudinova Guzel R.Garafutdinova
Department of Engineering education and psychology Department of education
Kazan National Research Technological University Kama State engineering and economical Academy
Kazan, Russia Chistopol, Russia

Abstract— The article is devoted to the process of evaluation he makes a significant conclusion about its role and
assessment of the results of educational activity, estimation of noncoincidence between students self-evaluation and marks
competences in professional training, goals, tasks, functions of given by their teachers.
assessment. Importance of evaluation is determined by substantial
Keywords – assessment, measuring, assessment model, qualitative consideration of learning results and its comparison
competences, assessment functions, defining the value of achieved
with goal. Ability to correlate educational goals and
educational results form the base of evaluation.
Evaluation of educational results plays a specific role
I. INTRODUCTION in the system of quality control. If evaluation if objective it
Assessment of educational activity results is one of allows determining the level of development of the students’
the problems that is actively discussed, argued and not yet necessary skills and acquirements, revealing knowledge gaps
solved. It is related to constantly altering social requirements to and thinking over the necessary changes in the teaching
educational results and development of educational science, methods, education content, forms and means used in the
psychology and qualimetry. educational process, etc.
Strong connection between the term “assessment” and Competences evaluation in the context of introduction
the basic category “education” is set forth in the Act of Russian of new Federal State Educational Standards of higher
Federation “On education” [1]. This Act defines the standard professional education in Russia is becoming an urgent and
concept “education” as “goal-oriented process of upbringing important task. Institutions of higher education have to solve it
and training to the benefit of person, society, and state, in the near future by establishing evaluative instruments taking
attended by statement of the citizen’s (student’s) attaining the into account peculiarities of the main educational programs
educational levels (educational qualifications) established by delivered by an institution. It is dictated by the fact that
the State”, i.e. by estimating the educational results. alongside with designing of the main educational programs it is
necessary to plan ways and instrument of evaluation of
II. CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT educational results in the terms of competences, and to develop
monitoring mechanisms for optimum designing and regular
Complexity and multidimensionality of the category improvement of educational process and adjustment of the
“educational assessment” is revealed in the variety of its main educational programs.
definitions. Assessment is considered as a regular process of Assessment of the level of competences demands
determining the quality of conformance of real knowledge, establishing innovative technology of comprehensive
skills and attainments to the those preliminary planned; and assessment of the total of the acquired knowledge and skills, as
highlight the following process components: defining well as social, personal and professionally relevant
educational goal, choosing the test tasks to examine the characteristics that form the competences of future engineers.
achievement of the goal, marks or another way to show the The most important factors in the new educational context are
examination results. Mark in educational activity may be the following: competences as educational results; educational
regarded as “an indicator of degree of correctness and accuracy technologies as means of their development; assessment
in the fulfilled task, independence and activity of a student instrument as means to show that the results states in the main
while doing it” [2]. Quality assessment may be understood as educational program are attained.
evidence of successful or not successful performing of a task. To improve the evaluation objectiveness it is
B.G. Ananiev is the author of one the first Russian necessary to meet the following requirements: regularity of
researches devoted to the problem of educational evaluation: assessment, and its repeatability, involving all the participants
“Psychology of educational estimation” [3]. Basing on the of educational process into creative activity.
analysis of psychological subject matter of marks and

978-1-4799-0153-1/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE 25-27 September 2013, Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Russia
2013 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL)
Page 36

ways to process the 1. Diagnostic – assessment allows determining answers. availability. some personal peculiarities. It is necessary to evaluate factors needed by the information that should meet the following requirements: customer (employer. Organizational (informational) – in the determining quality of conformance of the results attained by educational process assessment is a students to the model goal. assumes gives information to its updates. Standardization establishes equal development of skills and competences. adequacy.e. Analytical – assessment of quality of Another assessment goal is to objectively compare the professional training serves the basis for attained and the initial or model results. accuracy. It is necessary to 978-1-4799-0153-1/13/$31. conditions for the assessment process providing possibilities for comparative analysis of its results. continuity and structuredness. and objective. usage advantages and disadvantages of various types of questions and of all the total of knowledge and skills while solving problems development of knowledge control methods. skills. FUNCTIONS OF ASSESSMENT competence assessment of different participants or separate groups may be compared only if assessment instrument is Within the system of educational measurements it is standardized by establishing consistent requirements to the very important to mark out the following assessment functions: tasks content. Basing marking out levels and determining the value of the achieved on the acquired information the attitude results. towards the result of professional training To carry out the evaluation procedure it is necessary should change and ways to achieve tis to define its main goals. Pedagogic – marks (evaluation results) the process of evaluation (statement of value) of the given influence the student’s self-esteem. fair professional activity. degree level or All this lifts up the requirements to assessment type of educational program evaluation instruments are accuracy and reliability. Therefore it should be adequate. More evaluation of competences will make it possible to get distinct requirements should be established to the quality of qualitative and quantitative data concerning the level of planned tasks. acquirements and competences. credibility. Representativeness is also very important in All the enumerated functions of assessment need assessment. Classificatory – result of professional information. Russia 2013 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) Page 37 . evaluation criteria and standards. conformance. understanding the teaching duty influence the assessment 6. It exhibits properties of diagnostic necessary management component and value. 4. The system of evaluation existing in the To enforce credibility of assessment of educational contemporary institutions of higher education is per se results as a condition of achieving the goals of improving knowledge-related. modeling answers and evaluation scales. Kazan. Kazan National Research Technological University. reliability and effectiveness of various tests. Pedagogic personalism is the main reason why 7. approach in the engineering education. revealing students’ competences development. easier to evaluate. interpretation methods. In the traditional analysis and correction of its process and system a teacher as an expert establishes the quality of result. training assessment may be the basis for It is extremely important that assessment activity of a separating various student groups and teacher is realized for benefit of socio-psychological recommendations concerning their development of a student.. Different level of professional competence of 5. set interpersonal teaching technologies of within the relations between a student and a teacher and specifics of framework of new educational standards. assessment procedure. Thus it is designed on different levels of complexity and uncertainty: necessary to consider qualitative and quantitative aspects of varying from having unambiguous task solution (answer) to assessment. availability and responsiveness. level. skill or competence. etc. credibility. Depending on the assessment goals. periodic and involving all the participants of particular in the context of introduction of competence educational process into creative activity. organization. assessment is a systemic process aimed at 2. informational and statistical methods of those having multiple solutions (answers). Thus. ambiguousness of role in designing innovative systems and evaluation criteria. In educational science measurement result should be reconsidered – method goals are often interpreted as getting numerical equivalents of and forms of educational process the levels of knowledge. in regular. educators prefer computer and test check. Aggregating – generalization of marks. knowledge. Implementation of many different methods of checking instruments using technical aids and computers. mastering technics. That is why determining interest and attitude to the subject.00 ©2013 IEEE 25-27 September 2013. professional society) and not what was completeness. measurement. it does not give the possibility to educational process it is very important that assessment is systemically evaluate the quality of professional training. given to the student during the educational period or what is timeliness. and the attained level of mastering knowledge. It should be taken into consideration that results of III. Prognostic . and fulfilling project works or in the conditions of uncertainty.this function plays the leading experts. validity of its criteria. relevancy. of value is one of the assessment components [4]. i. However assessment includes not only measurement but also 3. incompleteness of tests.

recognition of The existing national systems of education quality degrees and periods of studies. Quality assurance is inextricably connected with Internal expertize is considered as self-examination accreditation and recognition of qualifications in the shaping and as self-assessment although these terms (“self- European higher educational environment. Ministers in charge of Higher Education (2001) educational active marketization of higher education system as well as quality assurance is one of the key issues. it may include parameters defined by the educational international standards and criteria for programs and degrees to institution itself in accordance with the system of internal provide academic mobility of students by the common credit values and needs. educational managers or employers) university development. facilitate introducing joint adaptive. However analytical treatment of limited by a program accreditation or considered wider as an quality of education evaluation procedures in various institutional accreditation. and technology of assessment system and founded new agencies for quality evaluation of students’ professional competences in terms if assurance and accreditation (certification). degrees to the conventional basic quality descriptors for their Self-examination is a more deep procedure with more international recognition. Kazan National Research Technological University. not In case the university is governed by state the focus is given to detracting institutional uniqueness of universities. influence of internationalization and globalization. teachers. contribute to quality assurance events aspects referring content and forms. SELF-ASSESSMENT AND SELF-EXAMINATION The focus was given to the system of quality assurance alongside with the two-level system. they become barriers for motivation education quality assurance nowadays is shift in emphasis from and ability to introduce innovations. There are also differences between the systems of strengths and weaknesses of higher educational institutions education quality assessment for state and private institutions. The institution sets the self-examination structure world community to inform about quality assurance events to independently. kind of rehearsal of external assessment and in a greater degree financial assistance for students. demonstrate universities’ civil responsibility. provide further directions and tasks and not at recording the achieved availability of information resources for students and all the results. more flexible and to strengthen their independence.consider evaluation of educational results. of knowledge-based Beginning from the Prague meeting of European society. referring their social function and social responsibility. confirm compliance of programs and with parameters equal to those used by external experts. assessment considerably differ in terms of goals and tasks. for Higher Education the Bologna Process priorities were defined again. There are two Only educational institution itself can provide a main reasons for such situation: first – the concept of quality thorough and objective assessment of its activity using a wide itself is ambiguous. The meaning of the term “accreditation” may be institution’s performance. second – the main social groups that range of evaluation methods and techniques. therefore different requirements. Self-examination is aimed at defining the system and courses delivered by international lecturers. Accreditation is one of aspects of educational systems makes it possible to point out some quality management. the procedures of external quality control of educational Studies show that until nowadays there is no process and results on the basis of national attestation and commonly accepted definition for the term “quality of accreditation systems to internal self-evaluation of universities. add other Self-assessment prevenient to the visit of experts is a regulatory forms of quality assurance including funding. as development. participate in the educational process or evaluate and use its Internal expertize is also a motivation for the results (students.00 ©2013 IEEE 25-27 September 2013. although global and European educational society This approach leads to the situation when educational made several attempts to define the essence of this term and the institution itself takes full responsibility for its quality. governmental. cue criteria for the quality of higher education. In September 2003 searching compatibility of higher education systems set by the in Berlin at the Conference of European Ministers responsible Bologna declaration. ascertains its success. The Conference participants agreed to implement criteria and procedures. education”. One of the general trends in higher freedom for universities. It is a mechanism and a procedure of essential differences between these terms. social and professional quality assessment procedures that would allow revealing engagement. The ability of an educational have different representations about quality of education and institution to evaluate its goals. IV. assessment is the better an educational institution is prepared Since 1990-ies many European countries including for the visit of experts. Russia 2013 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) Page 38 . Thus quality and ways to results. This process was national system of educational quality assurance. The more strict and objective the self- programs and qualifications. promoted by such factors. Kazan. evaluation of conception and its realization. recognition of universities. Self-examination does not give Russia showed interest to the development of the quality assurances of full concurrence of proper conclusions and 978-1-4799-0153-1/13/$31. its developmental potency. It is absolutely examination” and “self-assessment”) are often used as evident that quality is the common denominator of the three synonyms mean reflexive evaluation procedure of an concepts. and defining conclusions and further tasks characterize achieve it may be understood differently. If quality efficiency of external evaluation by government bodies or civil assessment and accountability procedures do not give any society organizations. conditions for their realization. Self-assessment is usually understood as results of Accreditation in general should provide quality assessment of its own performance (formal data) in accordance standards compliance.

Self- examination procedure as well as intramural control is a constant.I. 2. 15th International open for external expertise and more ready and able to function Conference on Interactive Collaborative learning. Kolomietz S.. – Pg. but applied on a different qualitative and organizational basis. It includes all the contemporary existing forms of intramural control. It facilitates psychological cohesiveness of the university staff provided that administration and structural sub- departments are fully engaged. 3.A. Considerable differences in content. However if self-examination procedure is Ananiev B. –4. Kazan National Research Technological University.M. competent. CONCLUSION An institution of higher education is a complicated object for not only external. Self-examination is a process of self-organization and self-regulation of an educational institution. Educational institution others – Moscow. by presence of technologies of information collecting the process of attestation. Educational quality control in experts. competence-based approach.Bodalev and general more prepared for accreditation. [5] Boyarskiy E. – Pg. –288 pg. // 2012. Organic connection between self-examination and activity management in general. [4] that use to carry out self-examination on a regular basis is more Gorodetskaya I.M.R. 1980. results are regularly discussed in public. Approaches to evaluation of freshers’ competenses examination procedure is greatly influenced by analytical // Higher education in Russia. However those differences determine the variety and multitude of educational services that provide development of the educational system as a whole. Moscow. REFERENCES [1] The Law of the Russian Federation on Education [2] Garafutdinova G. informed and systemic it makes the institution in pedagogical writings: V.A. evaluation model depending on the further tasks – taking into –  11. [6] account immediate or constant helpfulness. Efficiency of self. functions and resources make it really difficult to give standardized evaluation of a university performance. Kazan. and analysis necessary for self-examination as an element of monitoring and quality management. Psychology of pedagogical evaluation // Selected regular. V. and there is an atmosphere of openness and mutual trust. – Pg. Efremova N.G. 251 – 259. Self-examination is an impetus for internal development. –  7.F. [7] methods that do not copy the techniques of external panel of Zvonnikov V. petrochemistry and biotechnologies”// Reporter of the Kazan Technological University – 2011. 2009.II. – 2010. – 272 p. Chelyshkova M. but also internal control. and selection of content for self-examination in accordance to the institution’s goals and tasks.31 – 35.. 978-1-4799-0153-1/13/$31. Evaluation of general An institution itself decides about this or that competences of university graduates // Higher education today – 2007.00 ©2013 IEEE 25-27 September 2013. / Under the editorship of A. [3] external expertize. Taking into consideration the existing professional and public associations when making the self- examination groups. Efficiency and usefulness of this procedure depend on the following conditions: 1. keen and enthusiastic employees are revealed and new purposes and tasks are set. Russia 2013 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) Page 39 . ICL 2012. 43-48.B. Article in a dialogical mode to solve inner challenges and problems of number 6402121 interaction with state and society. cyclic process rated at a long period. Socio-psychological aspects of lifelong education and professional re-training. Technology of qualimetric evaluation of professional competences of university undergraduates and graduates with the major in “Power-resource-saving processes in chemical engineering. Internal motivation of the university staff.