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Plastic Bending

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E , dla < Re

uniaxial state of stress

Re

Bernoullis hypothesis of plane cross-sections.

We use the conditions of equilibrium:

dA N ,

zdA M

The stages of the cross-section work are:

a) b) c) d) e)

Re Re Re Re

-Re -Re

elastic range, the principle of superposition is valid due to linearity of equations

yielding of the first extreme fibers, it is elastic limit of the cross-section bearing capacity,

one-sided yielding in elastic-plastic range,

two-sided yielding, the elastic-plastic range,

full yielding with the plastic hinge arising, it is plastic limit of the cross-section bearing

Re Re

E

o centralna E

z0 z0

0

-Re

capacity.

The elastic-plastic range calculations are the most complicated. The problem consists on

determination of two process parameters from the equations of equilibrium. There are two

regions in the cross-section: elastic and plastic, divided by the plasticity front. The position of

the front, the integral limits, is unknown.

From Bernoullis hypothesis, we have:

0 z .

Two parameters determine the strain distribution: the bar axis strain and its curvature.

Sometimes, it is easier way to apply other parameters, like:

position of neutral axis

1

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

0

( z0 ) 0 z0 ,

- position of the plastic front

Re 0

0 z p Re E z p ,

E

- range of the elastic zone

Re

E Re

E

Only two parameters are independent.

Elastic limit capacity of the cross-section is the set of cross-section forces causing yielding

of the (first) extreme fibers.

For simple bending, the value of the bending moment causing the first yielding can be easily

calculated from the equation of elastic range (Hookes equations).

Plastic limit capacity of the cross-section is the set of cross-section forces causing full

yielding of the whole cross-section.

For simple bending the plastic limit value can be calculated from rectangular distribution of

the normal stress. From the first condition of zero normal force we have:

dF 0, Re dF ( Re )dF 0, A1 A2

A1 A2

so, the neutral axis halved cross-section (divides cross-section into two equal areas).

From the second condition we get that the plastic limit value of the bending moment is equal

to the sum of static moments of the cross-section halves.

M zdF R zdF R zdF R ( S

e e e A1 S A 2 ) Re S A1 S A 2 .

A1 A2

The condition of equilibrium is valid in every coordinate set. If one axis is the principal

central axis the static moments differ only by their sign, so the formula may be rewritten:

M 2 Re S 0 A1, A 2 .

Similarly to elastic cross-section factor we introduce the plastic cross-section factor as:

W 2 S 0 A1, A 2 .

Examples

triangular cross-section bh

bh 3 3 bh 2

Wel

36 2h 24

h b

the neutral axis: A1 2 A 4 bh h1 , b1

1 1

, so:

2 2

2 2

W 2 S A1 2 12 b1h1 23 h 23 h1 bh 2

6

bh 2 8 2 bh 2

elastic limit M M max Re 81 ql q 27

64

Re

24 l2

plastic limit M M max Re

2 2 2 8 2

6

bh 81 ql q 16 27 bh 2

2 2 2 R ,

l

2

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

q

proportion: 2.34

q

I section

7a

a

10a

a

a

5a

position of the central and neutral axis:

zc 6.5a, z0 7 a , W 90a 3 R

There are two symmetry axes. The neutral axis agrees with the central axis: 0 z0 0 .

bh 2 bh 2

Elastic limit is: M ReWspr Re , and plastic limit: M Re , it means an increase of

6 4

the cross-section capacity of 50%. For the bending moment less than plastic limit and greater

than elastic limit, M M M , we have:

h

2

h2 1 2 h2 M

M b Ez dz 2 b Re zdz bRe

2

3 , so: 3

4 4 bRe

The function = (M) is the plastic front equation.

3

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

Introduction

Analyzing the structure, we seek:

limit value of the load that begins the plastic mechanism

stress field corresponding to the equilibrium state and the static boundary conditions

appropriate displacement field or the rate of this field which fulfills kinematic boundary

conditions.

The exact solution fulfills the principle of virtual work.

The work (the power) of stress on the displacements (or their rates) ie equal to the work

(the power) of external forces on the displacements (or their rates).

p u

AT

j j dA F j u j dV

v

v

ij ij dV

Neglecting mass forces, we can write the equation by a coefficient of external forces. The

coefficient has an exact value for true forces.

m p j 0 u j dA ij ij dV

AT v

Lemma

If the limit plastic state is reached and displacements increase under constant load, the

stress remains constant and only plastic (not elastic) strain increases.

Proof: (rate form of principle of virtual work)

A q i u i dA Au q i u i dA V F i u i dV V ij ij dV

l l l l l l l l

For the limit load, left side of the equation vanishes, from the definition:

F il 0 in volume V,

q il 0 at A,

u il 0 at Au.

We decompose the strain rate into elastic and plastic parts:

l l

l e

p

V ij ij dV V ij ijl ij l dV 0

From the associated flow rule for perfectly plastic material follows that the vector ij is

tangent to the flow surface, if the plastic strain appears. So:

l e

V ij ijl dV 0 ,

and as consequence, the stress is constant and the rate of elastic strain is zero. For the limit

load only the plastic strain exists. The elastic properties of material are not important.

In this way, the model of perfectly elastic-plastic material is equivalent t the model of

perfectly plastic material.

The stress field is statically admissible, if the following conditions are fulfilled:

the equations of internal equilibrium

static boundary conditions

4

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

the yield criterion in the form of weak inequality (and in particular, the stress does not

exceed the plasticity limit).

In such case, the multiplier will be different:

m s p j 0 u j dA *ij ij dV

AT v

Subtracting the above equations, we get:

AT V

From the Druckers stability postulate follows that the sign of the integral on the right side is

nonnegative and:

ms m .

The structure does not undergo destruction, or, at the most is in the state of limit equilibrium,

if the statically admissible state of stress balances the actual loading.

In other words, the structure does not collapse if the external loading can be balanced by the

statically admissible state of stress. The real bearing capacity is at least as the balanced load

and it is the lower bound estimation.

The field of displacement rates is kinematically admissible if the following conditions are

fulfilled:

kinematic boundary conditions and compatibility equations

the condition of nonnegative work (power) of external forces:

D z m p j 0 u kj 0

A

Applying the principle of virtual work to an arbitrary kinematically admissible field of

displacements, we have:

k k k

mk p j 0 u j dA ij ij dV .

AT v

Subtracting the above equation from this of real state, we get:

mk

m p j 0 u kj dA ijk ij ijk dV

.

AT V

5

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

From the Druckers stability postulate follows that the integral on the right side is

nonnegative. The integral on the left is positive (positive work of internal forces) and the

multiplier of kinematically admissible displacement field is not less than real (exact) value:

mk m .

The structure collapses (becomes a mechanism) or, at least is in limit equilibrium state if for

kinematically admissible field of displacements the total work (power) of external forces is

not less than the work (power) of internal forces.

In other words, if the structure collapses under external load, its bearing capacity is less or

equal to the applied load (upper bound estimation).

Comparing the theorems, we have:

ms m mk .

If the statically admissible state of stress is associated at the same time with kinematically

admissible field of displacements, the solution is exact to the real value of limit capacity. The

theorems are very attractive because, in most cases, the upper and lower estimations can be

found very easy. Many satisfactory engineering solutions were found for bar structures, plates

and soil.

Example

Find the limit bearing capacity of the truss, where A1 3 cm2, A2 2 cm2, A3 5 cm2,

0 400 MPa.

3 1 3

1 2 3 5 N1 N2 N3

P P

Statically indeterminate truss and the node equilibrium

Static approach

We calculate the bearing capacity of the bars:

N 1 120 kN, N 2 80 kN, N 3 200 kN

The structure becomes a mechanism if two bars reach yield point. There are three

possibilities:

a) N 1 N 1 , N 2 N 2

from the sum of projections, we have:

3 1 3

X 0: 120

34

80

26

N3

34

N 3 150.5 kN

5 5 5

Y 0 : P 120

34

80

26

150.5

34

310.4 kN

6

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

N3

we verify 3 A3

301 MPa 0 (statically admissible scheme)

b) N1 N 1 , N3 N 3

from the projections sum on x axis, we have:

3 1 3

X 0: 120

34

N2

26

200

34

0 N 2 209.9 kN N 2

c) N2 N 2, N3 N 3

from the projection on horizontal axis we have:

3 1 3

X 0: N1

34

80

26

200

34

0 N 1 169.5 kN N 1

Actually, we have only one scheme statically admissible and the lower bound estimation is

310.4 kN.

Kinematic approach

As before, there are three possibilities of changing the structure into mechanism.We verify

only one of them that corresponds to yielding of bars 1 and 2. The system has an instant

centre of rotation at the end of the bar no 3.

N1 N2 N3

2 1

Comparing the work of external and internal forces, we have:

3

P N 1 1 N 2 2 P 1201 80 2

34

and from geometrical relations follows:

3 5 5

arccos 59.04 0 , arccos 30.96 0 , arccos 11.310

34 34 26

1 cos( ) 0.8823, 2 cos( ) 0.6726

so:

P 310.4 kN,

and the result is identical with the static approach result. We have exact solution for the

model.

Example

Find limit bearing capacity of the beam.

P 2P

D

A B C

2 1 1

Beam scheme

Static approach

7

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

We apply the method of consecutive plastic hinges. The plastic hinges carry on the limit

plastic bending moments, M , which direction correspond with the stretched fibers. To

determine the section of the first hinge we have to have the diagram of bending moments.

Due to its form of linear segments we consider three possible sections only.

a) For the hinge in the section A, we get the statically

M determined beam

P 2P

M M

D RA P , RD 2 P

A B C 4 4

2 1 1

M M

M B 2P , M C 2P

2 4

Because of MB < MC, we assume the next plastic hinge in section C. The limit load and the

bending moment in the section B will be:

P 58 M , M B 34 M M .

The scheme is statically admissible because the bending moment MB is less than plastic limit

moment.

b) For the first plastic hinge at the section B, we have:

P , R P M 2 , M 2M 4 P ,

M 2P RD P M 2 B A

A B C

D

MC P M 2

.

2 1 1 For two possibilities for second hinge we get, at the section A:

P 1 M , M 3 M M (admissible)

4 C 4

P M 2 , and M A 2M M (not admissible).

2P c) For the first hinge at the section C, we have:

P

M , R M , , .

RD M C M B 2M 2 P M A 4 M 8 P

D

A B C The next hinge at the section A, we have: P 5

8

M ,

2 1 1

MB 3 M M ,

4

From these lower bound estimations we chose the biggest value. So, the limit plastic bearing

capacity of the beam is equal to the maximum of lower bound estimations.

P max( 85 M , 14 M , 12 M ) 85 M .

Kinematical approach

The most probable sections of plastic hinges are the sections at the intervals ends. To obtain

the kinematic mechanism with one degree of freedom (DOF) we need two plastic hinges.

Only three sections are involved and, consequently, three kinematic schemes.

P 2P

2

P 2P

3

4

P 2P

2

Comparing the external and internal work, we get:

2P 2 P 3M P 1 0.75M

8

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

2P 2 P3 5M P 2 0.625M

2 P 3M P 3 1.5M

The kinematic approach is the upper bound estimation, so we chose the smallest value of

estimation (the beam collapses under the force P 1 , P 2 as well as P 3 ), so the best value is

P 0.625 M . The same result we got from the static approach, so, the result is exact.

Example

Find the limit bearing capacity of the statically undetermined beam.

q

1

l +1

b l-b

Beam and the kinematic scheme of collapse

Similarly as before, two plastic hinges will be necessary to create the kinematical mechanism

with one DOF. One hinge will be at the fixed end but the position of the second hinge is

unknown. We assume hypothetically the second hinge in the middle of the span,

b 12 l , 1 . We get:

0.5l

M

2 qxdx 3 M q 12 .

0 l2

From the static approach the hypothesis give us:

q

RB RC

l

The reaction in the upper beam is:

ql

RB M

4

and the bending moment at the fixed end of the lower beam is

ql 2

Mu 2M

4

and with the second hinge at the fixed and, we have:

M

M u M q 12 2 ,

l

so, the same value as from the kinematic approach.. Seemingly, the solution looks to be exact,

but it is not the case. When we calculate the reaction for the limit value found, we get:

M M M

RB 3 2 0,

l l l

and this signifies that in the on the right of the hinge the shear force change the sign and has a

zero-value point:

ql M M M

RB 6 5 .

2 l l l

It means that there is extreme bending moment in the right span of the beam. This extreme

value must be greater than the value at the hinge due to convexity of the bending moment

9

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

diagram. The value exceeds the limit bending moment and the scheme is statically not

admissible.

Lets change the sequence of the hinges. For the plastic hinge at the fixe end, we have:

ql M

RB

2 l

and the shear force in the span:

Q( x) R A qx .

From the condition of zero-value of the shear force we get the position of the second hinge:

RA

Q( x) 0 xextr

q

and extreme value of the moment will be:

2

qx R2

M ( xextr ) R A x extr M extr A M

q 2q

Assuming the second hinge created we find the limit load of the beam:

2 2

q l2 M

M ( xextr ) M 3q M 2 0

4 l

We change the equation introducing a new variable:

ql 2

1

4 2 3 1 0 1 0.343, 2 11.66 .

M

Because the static approach gives the lower bound estimation we take the second core and the

corresponding limit load value:

M

q 11.66 .

l2

Similarly, we find from the kinematical scheme the exact value of load capacity. The position

of the hinge at the span we find from the principle of virtual work:

b l b

qxdx q x dx 1 1 1 M 2 1

0 0

b

1 ,

l b

we have:

2 M 2l b

q .

bl l b

We seek the extreme (minimal) value of load capacity:

min q

q

b

0 b 2 4bl 2l 2 0 b l 2 2 0.59l ,

4 M M

and finally: q 2

11.66 2

64 2 l l

Both solutions are identical.

Example

Find the limit load of the frame below.

10

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

Portal frame

1. Kinematically admissible schemes of collapse

We verify 3 schemes of collapse: beam type, frame type and mixed:

beam scheme

l

M

2 xqdx 4M q4

0 l2

frame scheme

M

ql l 4 M q4

l2

mixed scheme

l

M

ql l 2 xqdx M 2 M 2 M M q3

o l2

We get upper bound estimation for the smallest value from the mixed scheme.:

M

q 3

l2

2. We check is the mixed scheme statically admissible?

We calculate:

M

HA

l

ql M

RA

2 l

the shear force at spandrel beam from the left:

M ql M

Q R R A ql

l 2 2l

11

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

Calculation scheme

The shear force changes the sign, the extreme value of the bending moment exceeds

admissible limit value. The scheme is not admissible.

We look for the hinged section at the spandrel beam.

Calculation scheme

we calculate:

M ql 2M

RA , HA ql

l 2 l

and the shear force in the spandrel beam is:

M ql

Q( x) qx 0

l 2

so:

M l

x

ql 2

and:

M ( x ) R A x H A l M 12 qx 2

and in the same time

M ( x) M

so, after the transformations, we have:

2

9 2 M M

q 7q 2 2 0

4 l l

and finally:

M

q 2.96 .

l2

3. We verify the solution by kinematic approach, assuming the kinematic scheme of collapse

with the hinge at the spandrel beam is located at a, to the left from the middle:

l a la

la la

q l qxdx

2

l a qxdx 4M 2M l a

0 0

2M 3l a

q

l 2l a l a

We calculate the extreme:

q

0 2l a l a 3l a l 2a 0

a

we get the equation:

a 2 6al l 2 0

with the core:

a 0.162l

and finally:

12

Theory of Plasticity lecture 4, Adam Paul Zaborski

2M 3 0.162 M

q 2.96 2 .

l 2 2 0.1621 0.162 l

The result is the same as from the static approach..

Example

Find the limit load capacity of the beam with variable cross-section capacity: 2M from the

left and M from the right.

For the kinematical schemes we have:

M

1) 1 23 , 2 M ( 53 ) P0.4l P 13.33

l

M

2) 1 1,5 , 2 M 2.5M P0.4l P 11.25

l

The lower value is the solution from the kinematic approach.

13

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