# ENEE 205 Lab #1: Basic DC Measurements

Post-Lab Report

Name: Nikhil Uplekar

Partner: Cameron Taylor

Teaching Assistant: Xiechen Zheng

Section: 0101

Lab date & time: 1/31/17 12:00 pm – 1:50 pm

......7 5...................................................................1 Breadboards and Ohmmeters................................................................................................................................................................................5 4..................4 Resistive bridge circuit Post-lab Questions.........................................11 Page 2 of 17 ..........4 Current-voltage data on a resistive bridge circuit...................................9 5..............................4 4....4 4...........3 Resistance from I-V data Post-lab Questions...........................1 Weaknesses......................................................5 Wheatstone Bridge...8 5... and Improvements................. 4 4.............................................................................1 Breadboards and Ohmmeters Post-lab Questions..................3 Resistance from I-V data......10 6.... Limitations......6 5.........................................................................................Post-lab Questions....................................3 4 Experimental procedure..............9 6 Conclusion and Evaluation.....................3 3 Background/Theory..................4 4...........................3 2 Variables and Materials...........................................................2 Resistance Variations ......................................................................................... ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Table of Contents 1 Abstract..............................................................................10 7 Appendix..........................................................................2 Resistance Variations...................................6 5...................5 Wheatstone Bridge Post-lab Questions.............. 5 5 Results and Analysis..............................................................................................................................

By constructing. resistance is measured in unit ohms (Ω). ammeters. R. and analyzing simple resistive circuits. v . v ∝i The constant of proportionality for a resistor is defined to be the resistance. ohmmeters. Goal of lab 2 Variables and Materials  2 1kΩ Resistors  10 2kΩ Resistors  3. The resistance of an element designates its ability to resist the flow of electrical current. flowing through the resistor. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements 1 Abstract This lab was performed to familiarize participants with the fundamentals of electric circuitry: how to use and understand solderless breadboards. the set of experiments provide a necessary understanding Ohms Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws. across a resistor is directly proportional to the current. i . voltmeters. and DC voltage supplies. measuring.3kΩ Resistor  10kΩ Variable Resistor (Potentiometer)  Wires & Solderless Breadboard  Elenco #XP-660 Triple Power Supply  Fluke 8808A Digital Multimeter (DMM)  NI myDAQ DMM 3 Background/Theory Ohm’s law states that the voltage. v =i∗R Page 3 of 17 .3kΩ Resistor  3.

Use the ohmmeter to record the resistance between points designated ‘A’ and ‘B’ on the 3 circuit combinations in the figure above. 4.1 Breadboards and Ohmmeters 1. Use the solderless breadboard. To measure the variation among supposed identical resistors. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Kirchhoff’s current law states that the algebraic sum of current entering a node (a point of connection on the circuit between two or more branches) is zero. to construct the above circuit combinations. Kirchhoff’s voltage law states that the algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path/loop is zero. wires. 4 Experimental procedure  Watch lab video tutorial https://vimeo. 4.com/72364400 (password = ENEE205) 4.3 Resistance from I-V data Page 4 of 17 . use the digital ohmmeter to record the resistance of ten 2 kΩ resistors.2 Resistance Variations 1. 2. and the necessary resistors.

Next. 4. connect the resistive bridge circuit to the solderless breadboard using the circuit diagram above. 2. Record the voltages at nodes A. as shown in (b) above.4 Current-voltage data on a resistive bridge circuit 1. (referencing the above figure). Simultaneously measure the current through the resistor (using the Fluke 8808A DMM) and voltage across the resistor (using the NI myDAQ DMM). as shown in (a) above. V s . 4. Remove the 2 kΩ resistor from the circuit. 3. Vs values should be equally distributed across 0-5 volts. Measure current and voltage for ≈ 15 different values of V s . and record the voltage and current. set Vs to 5 V. C and D. across the resistor using the Elenco Power Supply. 6. B. 5. Apply a DC voltage. with respect to the GND (ground) using the Fluke DMM. Connect the ammeter (in series) and voltmeter (in parallel) with the resistor. Page 5 of 17 . Record the resistance of a 2 kΩ resistor using an Ohmmeter. 2. Measure and record the resistances of the 6 resistors shown in the figure above (labeled R1 through R6) using the ohmmeter. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements 1.

5 Results and Analysis Page 6 of 17 . such as a voltage source or a resistor). ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements 3.5 Wheatstone Bridge 1. as shown above. and C- GND (a branch symbolizes a single element. 3. and then record the potentiometers resistance using the ohmmeter. C-D. Carefully remove only R6 (the potentiometer) from the circuit. Using the Fluke DMM. Adjust the potentiometer R6 until the voltage across R4 reaches ≈ 0 volts. 2. record the current through branches B-C. Replace R6 in the circuit from the previous section with a 10 kΩ variable resistor. 4.

3 6.1 Breadboards and Ohmmeters Post-lab Questions 1 Provide a side-by-side comparison showing (1) the circuit schematic (2) your photograph and (3) the corresponding wiring diagram from Fritzing. and compare your measured result with the actual measured value.3 3 Measured Resistance: 1.8 Measured Resistance: 2.Post-lab Questions 1 Calculate the mean and standard deviation of your measurements See Table 1 in the Appendix for mean and standard deviation computation.8 9.26 kΩ 5.45 kΩ Circuit (b) −1 −1 1 1 1 Expected Resistance : Req =( + ) +1=( ) +1=2.2 Resistance Variations .1 in Appendix for side-by-side comparison of circuit (a) See Figure.2 in Appendix for side-by-side comparison of circuit (b) See Figure.3 in Appendix for side-by-side comparison of circuit (c) 2 Calculate the expected resistance between points A and B.8 3.3 9.53 kΩ Circuit (c) −1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Expected Resistance : Req =( + + ) =( + + ) =1.28 kΩ 6. Circuit (a) −1 −1 1 1 1 1 Expected Resistance : Req =( + ) =( + ) =2. See Figure.3 2+1 6.55 kΩ 2 6. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements 5. based upon the nominal resistances in each circuit.8 3.8+ 2+ 1 3.8 Measured Resistance: 2. Page 7 of 17 .47 kΩ 3.

978 kΩ Standard deviation = σ =0.0249 kΩ Standard deviation = N ∑i=1 σ =√ ¿ Where N = Number of measurements (10) µ = Nominal value (2) x i = measured resistance StdDev Percent of Nominal= | Nomninalσ Value| * 100 |0.013 kΩ 2 Determine the standard deviation as a percentage of the nominal value (2 kΩ) See Table 1 in the Appendix for standard deviation computation. Page 8 of 17 . 5.0249 ¿ 2 kΩ | kΩ ∗100 ≈ 1. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Mean ¿ 1.3 Resistance from I-V data Post-lab Questions See Figure 4 in Appendix for Current vs Voltage data.245 %. x N 1 ∗ (¿¿ i−μ)2=0.245 3 How does your error compare with the stated precision (as marked by the color band on the resistors)? Our error calculated to ±1. The stated tolerance is ±5%. Our error is within the resistor’s tolerance.

the potential difference. we can calculate the preliminary value for the internal resistance of the battery. Page 9 of 17 . or voltage ( v ¿ . 5. of the battery is… v =V s−I r Rearranging the above voltage-equation results in… V s −v r= i With this equation and the experimental values of V s .4 Resistive bridge circuit Post-lab Questions See Table 2 for the measured resistances across resistors R1-R6. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Voltmeter internal resistance estimate Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Rules combine to provide the following relationship between the electromotive force ( V s ) and current ( i )… V s=iR+ir Where Vs = electromotive force i = current R = resistance of circuit r = resistance of battery (internal resistance) Thus. i . and v .

See Table 4 for the measured currents through branch B-C. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements See Table 3 for the measured voltages across resistors R1-R6 and nodes A.249mA _____________________________________________________________________________ Current of C-ground = 1. How does your calculated current compare with the ammeter measurement performed on branch BC? IBC = VBC/R2 = 1.237 V – 1. branch C-D.498v ICD = VCD/R4 = -. you must correctly Page 10 of 17 . with the measured resistance of R2 to compute the current IBC = VBC/R2.978 kΩ = 2.04 mA 3 Repeat these calculations for branch CD and branch C-GND VCD = VC-VD = 1.998 V / 0.29mA = 2. C. calculate the branch voltage VBC = VB – VC. 1 Based on the node voltages VB and VC (which were measured relative to ground). Vc-ground = R5*Icground = 2kΩ*1.29mA So we can get voltage at this point since we have a resistance R5 = 2kΩ. To receive credit.737v = -.56V ______________________________________________________________________ __ 4 Make a diagram of the circuit in your lab write-up that shows the measured currents in each branch of the circuit. VBC = VB – VC = 3.28mA = .28mA.58v ______________________________________________________________________ _ We’ve measured current of CD branch to be .498v/2kΩ = -0. Therefore. B.998 V 2 Use Ohms law. and branch C-GND. and D. we can get the voltage of this branch since we’re given the resistance R4 = 2kΩ: VCD_branch = R4*ICD_branch = 2kΩ*.239 V = 1.239v-1.

006kΩ. the value matched the theoretical predication for a balanced Wheatstone Circuit. the practical applications the Wheatstone Bridge is used for the following:  Measuring low resistance values precisely Page 11 of 17 . ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements label the true direction of current flow in addition to the measured value. This value is very close to the standard theoretical value of 4K for a Wheatstone Bridge. Based on our measurement. The Wheatstone Bridge circuit is used up to this day. we obtained a value of 4.5 Wheatstone Bridge Post-lab Questions 1. For what practical applications is it used? Answer: From what research I’ve done. the value we obtained through the use of the potentiometer for the varying R6 resistor. 5 How closely do your measurements satisfy Kirchhoff’s current law at node C? 5. Does the value R6 match the theoretical prediction for a balanced Wheatstone Circuit? Answer: Based upon the measurements we obtained. 2.

But besides that issue. The only mistake my partner and I made was the polarity change on the actual circuit for the R4 resistor that gave us a negative current value. The only issue that we disliked during the lab was the unstableness of the Digital Multimeter. we’ll continue to help our skills grow in setting up circuits efficiently and properly. strain.The problem we had constantly with that was that it was very difficult to get stable readings whenever we measure voltage or current. light. inductance. what mistakes you’ve done. we’ll be used to working with those things in those conditions. 6. I think for future improvements. and Improvements The only weakness I saw we had just us as a team getting used to setting up the circuit on the breadboard. 7 Appendix Figure 1: side-by-side comparison of circuit (a) Page 12 of 17 . and impedance 6 Conclusion and Evaluation Talk about what you’ve learned during the lab procedure. and how’s the overall measurement comparing to the theoretical result? The overall lab was well constructed and made practical sense. We thought maybe the problem with that the Multimeter was going bad and maybe need new batteries perhaps. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements  Measure the physical parameters (such as temperature. etc)  Measure the quantities of capacitance. One of the limitations we have to get used to is working with the small resistors and other components on the breadboard. the measurements we obtained were very similar to the hand calculations we made as we were measuring the different components of the circuits. Even with that issue. Limitations. As the semester goes on. we managed to collaborate as a unit and get the experiment done in a reasonable amount of time while learning how to analyze errors in our measurements as we’re measuring.1 Weaknesses.

ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Figure 2: side-by-side comparison of circuit (b) Page 13 of 17 .

ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Figure 3: side-by-side comparison of circuit (c) Page 14 of 17 .

00022 7 1.011 0.956 -0.994 -0.00050 9 1. (Resistance - Resistance No.985 -0.981 -0.00194 2 1.020 0.978 kΩ Standar d Deviati on 0.00011 8 1.010 0.00074 Mean 1.018 0.00003 4 1.0249 Standard Deviation as a % of nominal value 1. Nominal Nominal (kΩ) Value Value)^2 1 1.957 -0.015 0.989 -0.006 0.044 0.00185 3 1. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Table 1: Resistance Measurements and Standard Deviation Resistance .027 0.043 0.013 kΩ Nominal Value 2 kΩ Standard Deviation with nominal value (kΩ) 0.00011 6 1.978 -0.00038 10 1.973 -0.00032 5 1.022 0.990 -0.982 -0.2% Page 15 of 17 .

965 R4 2 1.981 R2 1 0.978 R3 2 1.985 Page 16 of 17 . Voltage 0 0 f(x) = 0x 0 0 Current (A) Linear Trendline Current (A) 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Voltage (V) Table 2: Measured Resistances Resistor Nominal Resistance (kΩ) Resistance (kΩ) R1 1 0. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements Figure 4: Current vs.

719 Node A 5 Node B 3.237 Node C 1.04 Node C Node C – 0.998 Resistor R3 1.763 Resistor R2 1.941 R6 3.516 Resistor R4 0.3 3.280 Node D Node C .737 Table 4: Current through Branches Branch Current (mA) Node B . 1.239 Node D 1.238 Resistor R6 1.186 Table 3: Voltage across Elements/Nodes Element/No Voltage (V) de Resistor R1 1.490 Resistor R5 1.GND 1. ENEE205 Lab 1: Basic DC Measurements R5 2 1.290 Page 17 of 17 .