S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t , April - June, 2 0 1 3 5

Marketing Firms vs. SCM-led Firms:
DCM Comparatistics
Prof. Pankaj Madhani

A The paper discusses the issues of the marketing led firms and the supply chain management (SCM) led firms. This paper aims to investigate
b
between the renewed emphasis and interests in integration of marketing and SCM in the form of demand chain management (DCM). The
s
t prior literature on marketing and SCM integration is reviewed and an evaluation framework is presented which shows the benefits of DCM

r and provides a basis for further empirical validation. In many firms, the SCM still seems to be disconnected from the demand side as it has
a only a faint idea of the drivers behind customer demand. Firms that have integrated their marketing and SCM and developed DCM
c
capabilities are more successful in bringing often-conflicting objectives more closely together.
t

Key words: Demand chain, Demand chain management, Marketing, Supply chain, Supply chain management,
Customer value proposition

A
supply chain is defined as “the integration of key
business processes from end users through original
suppliers that provide products, services, and
information that adds value for customers and other
stakeholders” (Lambert et al, 1998). The supply chain
involves “all activities associated with the flow and
transformation of goods from the raw material stage, through
to the end user, as well as the related information flows”
(Handfield and Nichols, 1999). Here, a supply chain includes
all the value chain processes from suppliers to end customers.
It is imperative that each supply chain participant adds value
from the perspective of the end customer in the supply chain.
This assumes integration of both supply and demand side
activities in the value chain (Jeong and Hong, 2007).
Prof. Pankaj Madhani, Associate Professor,
ICFAI Business School (IBS), IBS House,
Supply Chain Management (SCM) refers to all of the
Near GNFC Tower,
SG Road, Bodakdev, Ahmedabad 380054, processes, technologies, and strategies that together form the
Gujarat, India basis for working with internal as well as external sources of
Email :- pankaj@ibsindia.org supply. SCM requires integration and coordination of
business processes throughout the supply chain for the
purpose of satisfying and responding to changes in the

A Quarterly Journal

order to create enhanced value in the final market place at less championing reduced costs. April . Supply chains satisfaction by reducing costs and therefore prices is not capable of implementing and executing an integrated and necessarily an adequate model by itself. 1996). et al. independent better than their rivals (Lee. Collaborative behaviour is based on as a model which combines the strengths of marketing and cooperation (willingness). 2004). Achieving that the integration and coordination of marketing strategies A Quarterly Journal . to demonstrate individuals from interdependent departments to build how DCM can leverage the strengths of marketing and SCM meaningful relationships (Tjosvold. and how this customer-perceived value (Walters. 1998). needs. marketing seeks to optimize demand. SCM efficiency by itself focused. 2004a). seems SCM focuses on the efficient matching of supply with demand somewhat inappropriate to those who are influenced by the it does not help the firm to find out what the customer notion that marketing was the dominant corporate philosophy perceives as valuable. Cost efficiency is the most cited goal in SCM can be translated into customer value propositions. whereas. (Lambert and Cooper. Its success is contingent upon the ability of customer centred supply chains. 2000). and how this customer-perceived value can be translated into whereas. Demand is how well departments work together when their jobs require Chain Management (DCM) can leverage the strengths of them to do so. and involves the ability to work seamlessly across the “silos that have characterized organizational structures” The objectives of this paper are. Marketing is revenue customer value propositions. but also on the demand chain. To be successful. downstream relationships with suppliers and customers in 2000). 1995. coordinated marketing strategy at the supply chain level focused on the ultimate customers of the supply chain will High-speed. better levels of customer service requires working together SCM can be defined as “the management of upstream and across different departments or functions of a firm (Ellinger. even adversarial directions. unexpected changes in demand or supply. The notion of the SCM as the new corporate mantra. The result is the marketing and Providing customer service in the value chain is largely the SCM efforts move in independent.June. rather than on compliance SCM by shifting the focus to the customer and designing (requirement). SCM is cost focused. and meet the challenges of customer value creation in today’s fast changing and highly competitive marketplace and thirdly. SCM focuses on the entities. Gundlach et al. and deals with production and distribution. Hence. low-cost supply chains are unable to respond to gain competitive advantage (Min and Mentzer. satisfying and responding to changes in consumer demand. Supply chain efficiency also instead of solely focusing on SCM decisions. and involves identifying and responding to customer will not increase customer value and satisfaction. one important strategic issue that needs efficient matching of supply with demand but does not help more research is the integration of marketing and SCM the firm to find out what the customer perceives as valuable. Literature Review The efficiency of supplier relationship is influenced by nature and frequency of information sharing among functional areas As customers are increasingly becoming more demanding. collaborative integration supply chain. Generally. Hence. In short. Efficient supply chains often become uncompetitive because they do not adapt Thus. domain of two functional areas – marketing and SCM. Bowersox. activities. Marketing is necessary. collaboration between departments is marketing and SCM and meet the challenges of customer value often needed to ensure delivery of high quality services to creation in today’s marketplace.S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . improving efficiencies. and cost to the supply chain as a whole” (Christopher. Undoubtedly. the business organization not only needs to focus on the Mentzer and Kahn. 2000). SCM seeks to optimize supply. Marketing combined with dynamic SCM provides greater Collaborative integration between a firm’s marketing and SCM flexibility to satisfy customer demand based on the needs of functions is necessary to fully capitalize on potential service individual customers and their value to a firm. secondly. 1993. SCM requires integration and coordination of business to suggest a conceptual framework for measurement of benefits processes throughout the supply chain for the purpose of envisaged on DCM for further empirical research. Hence. improvements (Christopher. 1988). 6 demands of ultimate customers (Vokurka and Lummus. Thus. 2 0 1 3. 1996). (2006) argue firms place more emphasis on customer service. according to Wang and Wei (2007). customers. to introduce DCM (Liedtka. The notion that an effective supply chain efficiency by itself will not increase customer supply chain alone will ensure adequate end customer value and satisfaction (Rainbird. but it is not enough to ensure that firms will do and SCM often operate as self-optimizing. it is essential to understand the marketing perspective to changes in the structures of markets. 2000). firstly. 2006). As rewarding end customers with reduced prices.

Lummus et al. 2006). in many businesses. These activities. more integrated emphasis on value business environment is largely dependent on the degree to creation. Martin and Grbac developments within SCM such as strategic procurement and (2003) claimed that SCM is very critical to the responsiveness marketing logistics (Christopher. spanning boundaries in the actions. Murphy and demonstrated that not only do SCM actions affect marketing Poist. and the supply chain operation is on different lines. inventory stock outs or huge inventory pile up (Sarangi and and distribution of ideas. supply chain includes the coordination and collaboration of processes and efficiency is mistaken for effectiveness. and lack of communication rather than by collaborative integration. product offerings. SCM price as a major determinant of satisfaction. Sales and marketing makes sales forecasts are not in line with the actual demand trend decisions on salesforce deployment. Marketing is a boundary- demand (Jüttner et al. 2008). the supply side still seems to (American Marketing Association). customer interface and pricing. The integration of the supply chain (Lummus & Demarie. In fact. relationships to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. According to Kampstra et al. term emphasis on cost reduction at the expense of broader SCM is the integration of these activities through improved and long-term business goals (Walters and Rainbird. The guiding principles governing the sales / marketing and the SCM department are significantly different. demand management and customer service) al. 2 0 1 3 7 across the supply chain offers “continued opportunity” for coordination is not possible without an adequate cross-disciplinary research. (2003) and logistics managers have tended not to consult and examined the impact of marketing initiatives on the SCM and coordinate with each other (Cespedes. This marketing costs. SCM evolved from a traditional focus on purchasing and It has been suggested that success in today’s competitive logistics to a broader. 2007).June. Mentzer (2004) concludes that spanning function.. 2004). As a result. place and managers have only a faint idea of the drivers behind customer promotion) elements of marketing. the primary objective of the A Quarterly Journal . The sales and marketing function is responsible for the direct with both entities operating on local optima. marketing/logistics but also that marketing actions can have a significant impact interdepartmental relations tend to be characterized by conflict on supply chains. 1990). The scope of SCM have widened over time from having an 2008). Despite strong arguments for an integrated exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives approach. Supply chain SCM is an integrated philosophy. 2004). Successful SCM initiatives require cross-functional activities (Sahay and Mohan. Marketing is the process of deviation from demand reality leads to scenarios with planning and executing the conception. unnoticed by marketing. 1988. While the sales Marketing and SCM: Key Differences team tries to meet volume and revenue targets. coordinate becomes paramount in satisfying the demands of the ultimate customers of the supply chain (Green et al. Usually. April . should always be aligned with the business strategy organization and crossing departments without regard to the of the firm and include upstream (i. leading firms which firms are able to integrate across traditional functional increasingly view SCM excellence as more than just a source boundaries to provide better customer service (Cespedes. usually be disconnected from the demand side and supply chain regarded as marketing mix (product. Stock.e. promotion. 1997). of cost reduction – rather. and budgets. the SCM operations constantly strive to increase capacity utilization. 2005) remained largely to customer needs. Many researchers argue that SCM creates competitive values through the active involvement of supply Ryals and Rogers (2006) pointed out that substantial chain entities (Jeong and Hong. goods. and services in order to create Srivatsan. with undue short. order processing) and functional silos that have existed for many years (Parente et downstream (i. 2003) in order to facilitate the integration and marketing must play a critical role. Johannessen et al. intra-organizational focus on logistics to becoming focused on inter-organizational issues including ‘all key processes and As customer needs are ultimately seen spinning around reduced functions’ of the organization (Dubois et al. 2009). they see it as a source of competitive 1996. The ability to integrate and understanding of demand. 2007). price. 2000).e. pricing. challenge is to determine how to successfully accomplish this The limited studies that were identified indicate that marketing integration (Lambert and Cooper.S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . 1994. linking the organization with buyers and many firms have failed to realize that supply chain channel intermediaries.. activities across different functional areas of the organization. Integration of marketing and SCM decisions should be a prime concern for firms. advantage. (2006).

moved. and SCM because of these contrasting performance indicators. 2006). However. In general.June. missing the fact that the customers. the main business goal of Effective DCM maximizes value to the ultimate customers of any firm is to create and maximize shareholders value. while the production and distribution activities among the different demand chain focuses on market demand. markets and their customers. For example. while the DCM A number of organizations have focused their efforts on attempts to analyze and understand overall demand for developing sophisticated supply chains such that their markets within the firm’s current and potential product range managerial focus became myopic. in most firms. 1997). 2005. A demand chain entities comprising the supply chain network. to operate most effectively. and many lost sight of their (Langabeer and Rose. product pricing and promotional efficient supply chain alone provides only half the solution. According to Blackwell and Blackwell (1999). keep low stock levels. time basis followed by rapid response to it. April . manage. conflicts arise between marketing chain management (SCM).S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . is fundamentally different from managing a supply chain as it 2002). switched their DCM is a new business model aimed at creating value in loyalties (Walters. An Nevertheless. to the suppliers of the supplier. market response. as the task of managing and coordinating the supply chain 2001). Integrating marketing and outcome (Jüttner et al. and other economic relatively low total cost of the product and/or service. 2 0 1 3.. tendency to over-promise to lure customers and a push on comprises all the supply processes necessary to fulfil operations to move beyond an internal focus on reducing costs customer demand (Gibson et al. SCM’s focus is on the synchronization of The supply chain focuses on supply of materials. which the supply chain in terms of both satisfaction as well as a actually is a function of revenues. 2006). as well as slow and inefficient Several authors have highlighted the conflicting goals of product delivery. 2001). Hence. Demand Chain Management SCM focuses on moving products and services downstream towards the customer (Walters. its activities must production and logistics processes. cost. decisions are typically made by the sales and marketing. while supply chain managers strive to through the entire chain. 2007). Shapiro. 1997. the essence of The demand chain is defined as “The complex web of business DCM is to define and understand customer demand on a real- processes and activities that help firms understand.. and supply chain competencies (Jüttner et al. complete solution is suggested to be having an effective little regard of the impact of these decisions on the supply demand chain also that encourages a strategic approach to chain performance. On the other hand. 2007). 2010). since all the demand processes necessary to understand. The supply chain. Mentzer et al. thus improving (1998). with hence. while a supply chain strength that is not marketing and supply chain managers (Eliashberg and linked to a demand chain strength could result in sub-optimal Steinberg. 2008. DCM starts with the customers. Marketing managers prefer high stock levels to in customer demands. and is managed within demand chain marketing and logistics results in a dampening of marketing’s management (DCM). 8 marketing function is maximizing revenues by satisfying consumer as the starting point. the tension between and Rainbird. there is a natural tension between these two functional areas and stimulate customer demand (Charlebois. by contrast emphasizes effectiveness in the business. while the demand chain be co-ordinated with the other functional areas of the firm. working backward revenue generation. organizations need to focus today’s marketplace and combining the strengths of marketing on demand chain also along with supply chain. 2008). Baker (2003) emphasizes that managing a demand chain from the customer to the supplier (Frohlich and Westbrook. 2004). Lummus and Vokurka. without a clear understanding of end-consumer needs (Laínez 1999. rather than its ultimate customers through the products and services offered. on the other hand. Supply chains emphasize the efficiencies in the Specifically. The main strength that is not linked to a supply chain strength may objective is typically to minimize the total supply chain cost. Walters (Bozarth and Berry. Hence. one classical conflict between these two DCM provides competitive advantage to the firm by enhancing functions is the one associated to the management of its supply chain’s ability to focus on and respond to changes inventory. or handled across supply chain should be in response to a known customer requirement. Demand chain design is based on a thorough market requires turning the supply chain on its top. destination. and taking the A Quarterly Journal . 2001). According to Vollmann and Cordon guarantee that customer orders are always met. factors. DCM is defined and ultimately create consumer demand (Langabeer and Rose. At best. and is managed within supply et al. everything that is produced. create. The demand chain comprises logistics is a challenge in any business organization. failing to realize their expectations. result in a high-cost base.

Globalization of world economy. DCM attempts to and supply chain (including production.” 3. unnecessary quarterly variability in (Fassoula and Neoset. with customer needs 5. the SCM.S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . where customers have real-time access to information related to their accounts. This is partly due to the great amount of effectively meet differing customer needs. supplier/manufacturer and working forward (Heikkila 2002). innovation. supporting. Similarly. isolated. The view of the should work alongside back-end operations of supply chain consumer as an integral part of the chain is perhaps the most and how marketing data should flow from the marketing important issue in the shift from SCM to DCM. A firm cannot reach its full potential in terms of Customer needs and expectations are becoming more and more developing. effective integration of marketing please customers (Rainbird. the customer’s Similarly. 2. department to these departments and back for enhancing Traditional supply chain processes focus on efficiency to customer value proposition. According to information available to the customers in this digital age. Customer’s backwards to suppliers”. inventory and capture the proposed synergies between marketing and SCM logistics) is very important. instead of starting with the marketing and SCM more critical. while traditional demand chain processes life cycles. refining. DCM is defined as “A practice that response to this. Product lifecycles becoming shorter. The situation requires that the traditional organizations brisk sales for the most of the quarter followed by slack sales aim to gain customer satisfaction and that a continuous in the quarter end. “The alignment of demand creation and demand fulfilment processes across functional. or delivering products and unstable and difficult to identify as customers have many services without using marketing insights to shape and refine choices. To meet the competitive dispatch of products in the market causes either sluggish sales pressure it is no longer enough only to have efficient supply for the most of quarter followed by end of quarter surge or chain. 2 0 1 3 9 understanding and has to be managed in such a way as to informed and active. As a Vollmann et al. (2000). The main stimulus behind move Expectations of consumers about quality. Increased level of competition by starting with the specific customer needs and designing and shorter product life cycles make the link between the chain to satisfy these needs. For products with short product sustain lower costs. the market has transformed from mass manages and coordinates the supply chain from end customers production to more customer-focused products. These phenomena are caused by marketing improvement is required to gain their loyalty. Products and services become more alike and standardized. downstream to upstream. away from supply chains towards demand chains and DCM 24X7 services and also have increased manifold. quality.K Prahlad and Venkat Ramaswamy (2004). electronic gadgets. From being meets the unique needs of customers – cost. unaware and passive. organizational. It is necessary has been the shift in power away from the supplier towards that organizations think again about how front-end marketing the customer (Soliman and Youssef. Hilletofth et al (2009) defined it as 1. Increased competition. variety. the process moves from upstream to downstream. being estimated from the firm perspective. The Need for Marketing and SCM Integration: An Such integrated approach of DCM seems mandatory in today’s Effective DCM marketplace. Likewise. frequently similar in terms of quality and price. difference between DCM and SCM is that in SCM. and service – if the underlying support capabilities A Quarterly Journal . personal focus on effectiveness and revenue generation with the aim to computers and automobiles. Increased needs and requirements of the customers. DCM is conceptualized needs and requirements have grown more complex and as “A set of practices aimed at managing and coordinating the expectations of customers have increased manifold. while DCM takes In today’s business environment customer retention has the opposite approach and moves the process from become very difficult in the face of fluctuating market demand. starting from the end customer and working backward to raw material supplier” (Selen and Following are major drivers for DCM: Soliman. such as fashion apparel. For example. customers have gone more delivery. 2004b). organizational boundaries. 2006). 2007). From the above definitions it can be said that. prices. According to strategies that are misaligned with SCM (Slone et al. and inter. it’s difficult to execute a marketing strategy that position has experienced a dramatic change. The deleterious results of not integrating marketing and SCM efforts or not deploying DCM are becoming increasingly DCM: Key Environmental Drivers evident. 2001). 2002). April . C. whole demand chain. the main 4.June. leading to higher thrust to lower prices.

and marketing can’t well as the supply chain. is increasingly offerings. customer satisfaction real time. marketing of DCM is to both reduce or if possible eliminate buffers of insight is combined with the SCM side of supply efficiency. April . The firm then pays the carrying costs environments with increasing diversity in customer needs of inventory and – sometimes years later – the cost of the and requirements. while taking into consideration Marketing initiative doesn’t provide information production constraints. optimizing inventories. But if the SCM can’t and delivery of standard and enhanced products in deliver on marketing promises. Marketing and SCM have not always been seen to be closely linked in many firms Many firms have overhauled the ‘back end’ of their businesses (Rainbird. 2000. 10 of SCM can’t deliver. Sisodia.June. Reduced lead times from better visibility of demand result in: for products. He also argues that the better marketing or out-of-stock situations. firms must rapidly adjust their supply to inevitable markdown. effectively integrate. Increased sales from being able to confirm availability and raise customer expectations. Improved customer service and retention resulting 1. According to customer service and inventory (Slone et al. Hence. as well as up and down the external the supply chain and competing against supply chains that supply and marketing channels. DCM: A Research Framework for Marketing and SCM supply chain costs strongly impact marketing success of Integration product and ultimately firm profitability. As in DCM. the marketing are less well integrated. is significant barriers to identifying and responding to customer demand. sharing on cost transparency with SCM results in delivering products or services that are unprofitable. Influence of SCM in areas which strategy that profitably increases the scope of its were originally domain of marketing. These benefits derived from chain and at the same time deliver what the customer DCM include: demands. the need to link both sides has implement new product or market development already been emphasized. instituting new SCM processes that have lowered costs and reduced cycle times in manufacturing. 2001. 2007). 2 0 1 3. 3. leading Piercy (2002) to conclude Without marketing and SCM integration. effective marketing strategy servicing the customer base. The integration between marketing and SCM has been widely acknowledged (e. the influence of marketing activities on SCM. the SCM function should be meet demand. Lost share of customer opportunities 2000. As data and information is not demands sound SCM because it includes the distribution part effectively shared. the SCM that their better coordination could define competitive can’t capitalize on the customer needs information advantage in new ways.g. 3. Marketing is focused on the demand chain and addresses the distribution. Reduced level of inventory from having precise sales and marketing promotions. has to be understood and coordinated. The argument for integrating strengths of held equally accountable with the marketing function for marketing and SCM is strong and compelling. They argue that in carrying that inventory. 5. Ellinger. Tackling one independently of the other. Soonhong and Mentzer. In many cases. inventory between the different organizations in the supply a number of benefits emerge. and procurement. Svensson. Increased responsiveness by working across various 2. it also leads to either excessive inventories of a marketing strategy. 2002). marketing and SCM that is not effectively tied to each other 2. and declines. Other firms have focused on sell-side of the enterprise while SCM is focused on the supply the ‘front end’ through marketing initiatives that have boosted chain and deals with the buy-side of the enterprise. leads to A Quarterly Journal . recognized. Over delivering sales channels. Sheth. Within the marketing literature as that marketing uncovers. and vice versa. Lee.S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . According to Madhani (2011) information of inventory availability. Lee (2001) emphasizes the problems of SCM The failure of DCM and inability of marketing and SCM to acting independently of marketing. Similarly. Under delivering from an improved ability to meet delivery on time. Marketing processes increase customer interactions 4. over the last decade. Poor collaboration leads to this strategies of the future will be more fully integrated across situation internally. 2004b). The goal customer retention and profitability. and According to Flint (2004). and Sharan will not use markdowns to move obsolete inventory because (2000) emphasise the need for customer-centric marketing the firm has allowed sales metrics to exclude the costs of approach to be in charge of SCM. Similarly. SCM should be core component of 1.

Processes are focused more on planning .Optimal (Source: Compiled by author) A Quarterly Journal . the marketing and SCM organization goals.Revenue is the key driver .Key success area: . Cost is the key driver. .Respond quickly to customer needs . Fig. Key success area: Economy of Scale .Processes are focused on efficiency and effectiveness . link organizational and inter-organizational units to improve together.Overall outcome: Optimal Marketing SCM .Deliver total solutions .Key success area: (Economy of Scale + Economy of Scope) . Evidently. In the DCM. self-optimizing – even together and formulate an effective DCM in order to achieve adversarial – entities. Overall outcome: Sub . It is relatively common to find discrete functions are not separate rather they are intertwined as functional excellence in marketing side by side with SCM. 1: DCM: Marketing and SCM Integration for Optimal Outcome (Source: Compiled by author) The integration between the objectives of the marketing explained in Fig. 2. Processes are focused on execution .Customer Value Proposition . marketing is more concerned with customers and generate a profit) and the concept of SCM (to revenue by focusing on the demand side of the firm.Best-in-class products and services at lowest price DCM .S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . Short term oriented. 1. they determine the firm’s profitability.Quick response to customer needs .Effectiveness focus . Low cost approach . 2: DCM: Enhancing Customer Value Proposition through Marketing and SCM Integration .June.Overall outcome: . Marketing and SCM must work They frequently operate as separate. levels of service and reduce costs) is key concept of DCM as Fig.Optimal Sub .Efficiency focus . and concept (to mobilize total organizational effort to satisfy tends to be cost-orientated. SCM focuses on efficient supply. April . explained below in Fig. 2 0 1 3 11 sub-optimal solutions. Economy of Scope .

June. DCM in terms of marketing and SCM integration is hence between those that define demand with ZARA those who fulfil it. or most advanced products explained in the financial matrix. 12 According to Sawhney and Piper (2002). These firms increase profitability through customer value. Customer value is created through well. systematic use of market knowledge to shape flexible logistic and supply chain systems. served as a tool for comparing organizations and evaluating time information on the needs and changing tastes of an organization’s behaviour over time (Holmberg. a unit of Spain’s Inditex integration of marketing and SCM perspective. 2000). Here. Marketing managers are typically responsible for net integrated SCM and marketing initiatives by following DCM income. responsiveness and concentrates on the efficient use of resources in implementing flexibility by tightly linking customer and supply initiatives. It is through DCM as This paper supports the emerging view that marketing and well as effective marketing and SCM integration that customer SCM are highly connected (Madhani. Rather than offering products at between revenue to net income address virtually all expenses the lowest price by holding costs down. 1. all line items of income available at most affordable price. Zara uses the internet to gather real. marketing and SCM (Madhani. April . while supply chain managers are accounted for costs. A consumers – changes that are dictated by fashion shifts as look at this evaluation framework reveals that the line items well as seasonal transitions. 2012). Zara’s performance improvement caused by DCM (Table 2). Importance of financial metrics is highly recognized as it and speed of response. has successfully be true. Marketing is. Zara brings new fashion design from sketch to store shown in evaluation framework (Table 2). delivery accuracy. An evaluation framework more customer focused .S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . of marketing as well as Illustration SCM. planned. that may well SA and a global player in fast fashion segment. Application of this rack in as little as two weeks and represents strong marketing evaluation framework is explained in following illustration A Quarterly Journal . all the line items of income statement are segregated according to performance drivers. from the Spanish ladies’ apparel maker Zara. This paper develops a financial matrix for measuring To manage the competition in fast fashion retail. As having the newest. such as Dell in the computer industry or Zara in the fashion industry (Margretta. 2 0 1 3. Walker.they deliver great service at lower for measuring performance improvement across the various cost and a key ingredient of their success is strong collaboration line items of income statement of a firm integrating marketing between marketing as well as SCM where all are focusing on and SCM and developing DCM capability is provided in Table the customer value proposition as explained in Fig. As a resultant impact of DCM capability. and are value is achieved. unique. net income and efficiently through effective SCM – is the cornerstone of increases. firms with a high and SCM capability and collaborative efforts. Indeed. marketing decisions. For Zara. Bovet. approach. while SCM is inwardly focused and product availability. There are examples of successful firms following the Research Methodology principles of DCM. traditionally. Zara operates in a rapidly changing market characterized by fast response and short-product lifecycles. supply chains are much prerequisite for an effective DCM. One could argue that marketing and SCM functions are pervasive in a business. Zara has made customer value focus achieve a higher level of business significant operating and financial improvements by better performance outcomes than those that show weaker customer matching supply and demand through better integration of value emphasis. business model is focused on high availability of products. Zara concentrates on of a business incurred by marketing and SCM processes. externally focused and creates & Martha. 2. 2000). asset utilization decreases and ROA increases as success. strong market statement are segregated in marketing and SCM performance research and the ability to bring products to market quickly drivers. 1998. In such initiatives. 2010).

April . 2 0 1 3 13 Table 1 Key regression coeff.June. Table 2 below represents an evaluation framework for a hypothetical In a following hypothetical illustration of a firm. All figures are in millions of U. Functional Performance Improvement No.(4) .S.(9) Increase Marketing SCM • Increase in Net Income 11 Assets Decrease Marketing • Decrease in Assets SCM 12 Return on Asset (ROA) = Increase Marketing • Increase in ROA SCM DCM: An Evaluation Framework (Source: Compiled by author) Illustration: statement line items as well as asset utilization. A Quarterly Journal . SCM generates a 1% positive impact across various income dollars.S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . it is envisaged illustration of a firm (base case) as well as after positive that the DCM capability on integration of the marketing and impact of DCM (new case).(5) . Serial Model Net Summary ANOVA Income and ROA DCMUnstandardized Standardised regression coeff.(6) .(7) • Reduced working capital need with shorter 9 Interest Expense Decrease SCM operating cycle 10 Net Income = (8) . Calculation Impact Drivers 1 Sales Revenue Increase Marketing • Faster response to market • Increased availability of product according to taste and preference of customers • Optimized Labor & Material 2 COGS (Cost of Goods Sold) Decrease SCM • Better transparency and visibility 3 Gross Profit = (1) – (2) Increase 4 Depreciation Decrease SCM • Improved Asset Utilization 5 Selling Expense Decrease Marketing • Focused and customized promotion 6 G & A (General & Expense Administrative) Decrease Marketing • Reduced Transaction Expenses 7 Logistics Expense Decrease SCM • Optimized Transportation Expenses 8 Operating Profits -19 Increase • Better management of inventory = (3) .

01 3 Gross Profit = (1) – (2) 35 36.87 12 Assets Marketing/SCM 130 128.06 (10) / (12) 15 Increase in Return on Asset (ROA) (%) 17. April .95 -0.S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . Based upon the theoretical propositions and A Quarterly Journal . can lower prices on offerings Table 2. therefore.99 supply chain operations.93 -0. net income. decrease in various line items framework.June.28 11 Increase in Net Income (%) 15. new COGS is reduced to $ 64.23 1.96 -0. even a small cross-functional improvement due to that are of great value to the customer.97 -0. The argument for combining marketing and SCM strengths is COGS has increased to $ 65.03 7 Logistics Expense SCM 8 7. After considering. As COGS varies directly in proportion with sales. Net Income Calculation Base Case New Case Net No.05 10 Net Income = (8) . which effectively link their marketing and of 1% reduction in COGS.15 7.24 (Source: Calculated by author) With 1% improvement in sales revenue.65 M.92 -0. and research and the diverse perspectives needed to organize a increase ROA by 17%. impact compelling.21 1. to satisfy different customer needs with differentiated supply and ROA is shown in Table 2. Firms. gain competitive advantage by M.23 9 Interest Expense SCM 5 4.99 -0. as calculated in chain capabilities and. caused differentiating not only the products and services.(9) Marketing /SCM 8 9.07 6 G & A (General & Administrative) Expense Marketing 3 2. Standardised regression coeff. research agenda. but also by DCM approach with integration of marketing and SCM the underlying delivery processes. 2 0 1 3. Drivers of DCM Impact 1 Sales Revenue Marketing 100 101 1 2 COGS (Cost of Goods Sold) SCM 65 64. They have the capability and corresponding increase in operating profit.08 8 Operating Profits = (3) – (4) – (5) – (6) – (7) 13 14. Similarly.3 13 Decrease in Assets (%) 1. lift net income of a firm by approximately 16%.01 1.28 1. Taken together. 14 Table 2 DCM in a Hypothetical Illustration of a Firm: Impact of 1% Improvement in Key Functional Drivers Serial Model Summary ANOVA KeyUnstandardized Functional regression coeff. new sales become $ Discussion 101 M.04 5 Selling Expense Marketing 7 6.01 4 Depreciation SCM 4 3.00 14 Return on Asset (ROA) = Marketing /SCM 6. The major motivation DCM approach can have a profound effect on the bottom of this research is to address the challenge of interdisciplinary line.7 -1.

Fornell. DCM has enabled Effective DCM has strong impact on productivity and firms to satisfy different customer needs with supportive profitability of firms. marketing department is able to know if the promotion plan met their return on Firms that effectively formulate DCM and integrate their investment (ROI) criteria and other objectives. internal issues like turf protection. influence of customer satisfaction on financial performance indicators of a firm. a conceptual framework is proposed DCM helps firms in building consumer-driven supply for performance measurement of DCM initiatives. There is a positive the issues of cross-functional processes will be increased. The overall goal of purchasing is due to satisfied customers being more marketing of providing superior customer service may be receptive to cross-selling efforts (Fornell. a firm generates benefits for itself beyond the present transaction by Research Implications and Recommendations satisfying a customer. If marketing and consumer experience at every opportunity while also SCM research is conducted from a standalone perspective. Some of this increased level of integrative behaviour in the form of DCM. April . Improvement in the top and bottom line market share and even customer satisfaction. Using an interdisciplinary research agenda. 1990). and Dickson (2002). Reichheld. It helps firms in creating the value supply chain capabilities. According to Gruca and Lopo (2005). Enhanced Return on Investment in the literature review. A Quarterly Journal . and blame game for errors further optimizing production runs and inventory. Reichheld benefits that may be associated with encouraging such and Sasser. The primary forces for driving this are cost customer requirements closely and adjust their product reduction and revenue generation achieved by superior offering based on an intimate understanding of total supply performance of cross-functional drivers. Firms with effective DCM are more likely to know how well retailers participated in promotions schemes and how DCM: Major Benefits consumers responded to it. In addition. Better operational efficiencies provision of overall customer value proposition may be lacking. Customer satisfaction is an frontiers of knowledge on marketing and supply chain will be important driver of a firm’s profitability (Luo. functional departments may divert In addition to matching resources with customer value. considerable attention and effort from serving customers to effective DCM can improve SCM’s planning phase. information and resources. 1996.” the coordination and communication that is crucial for the 2. trimming overall costs and the ability to respond to issues from a holistic view will not optimizing productivity.June. this paper suggests that DCM insight into demand – what orders will be placed and when – to facilitate this optimization will improve return on approach can help firms provide superior customer value by assets (ROA). Understanding the efficiency and effectiveness of team to resolve cross-functional problems of marketing and promotions SCM. (2001) emphasize that. sharing ideas. Thus. decreasing time to market. Effective DCM activities enhance be developed. 1992).S C M S J o u r n a l o f I n d i a n M a n a g e m e n t . 2 0 1 3 15 empirical results of marketing and SCM integration described 1. This paper chains that will enable them to sense consumer demand presents an interdisciplinary model of marketing and SCM and respond to it in real time and provides a superior research agenda to formulize DCM model. Moorman. In contrast. 4. of marketing and chain cost. such as return on investment (ROI) Marketing and supply chain managers will be helped by this and return on assets (ROA) (Anderson. and research by being able to both view and resolve supply chain Lehmann (1994) and Rust. These benefits arise from the The main objective of this paper is to gain a better positive influence of the satisfied customer ’s future understanding of the antecedents and consequences of shopping behaviour. as well as demand chain issues from a holistic perspective. For example. as economic assets of the firm that yield future cash flows. the customer satisfaction. developing a mutual understanding of responsibilities. profitability. Greater and shortfalls. 1993. “satisfied customers can be viewed When working relations between marketing and SCM are poor. and working together as a 3. Following are major benefits of DCM: SCM. Xueming expanded to develop DCM model and the ability to deal with and Christian Homburg (2007). as they are able to identify their they seek. satisfied customers are marketing and SCM collaboration to assess and measure more loyal and over time impact their purchase intention (Anderson and Sullivan. marketing and SCM activities are much more likely to achieve better corporate performance in terms of sales. Fornell jeopardized by a shortage of cross-functional collaboration.

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