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Formulas and Conversions

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Power Quality, Power Systems Protection and Substation Automation

Volume 4 – ELECTRONICS

Personal Computers, Digital Signal Processing and Analog/Digital Conversions

5.3.7 Conditions of Equilibrium .........................................................65

Table of Contents 5.3.8 Gravity .....................................................................................66

5.3.9 Vibrations & Waves .................................................................66

Chapter 1 5.3.10 Standing Waves.......................................................................66

5.3.11 Beats........................................................................................66

Definition and Abbreviations for Physical Quantities ...........1 5.3.12 Temperature and Heat.............................................................67

5.3.13 Ideal Gases..............................................................................67

5.3.14 Elastic Deformation..................................................................68

5.3.15 Temperature Scales ................................................................68

Chapter 2 5.3.16 Sensible Heat Equation ...........................................................68

Units of Physical Quantities .................................................3 5.3.17 Latent Heat ..............................................................................68

5.3.18 Gas Laws.................................................................................68

5.3.19 Specific Heats Of Gases..........................................................69

5.3.20 Efficiency of Heat Engines .......................................................70

Chapter 3 5.3.21 Heat Transfer by Conduction ...................................................71

5.3.22 Thermal Expansion of Solids ...................................................72

System of Units ..................................................................23 5.3.23 Chemical Heating Value of a Fuel ...........................................72

5.4 Fluid Mechanics ................................................................... 77

5.4.1 Discharge from an Orifice ........................................................77

Chapter 4 5.4.2 Bernoulli’s Theory ....................................................................78

5.4.3 Actual pipe dimensions ............................................................78

General Mathematical Formulae........................................27

4.1 Algebra................................................................................. 27 Chapter 6

4.2 Geometry ............................................................................. 29 References.........................................................................80

4.3 Trigonometry ........................................................................ 39 6.1 Periodic Table of Elements .................................................. 80

4.4 Logarithm ............................................................................. 40 6.2 Resistor Color Coding .......................................................... 81

4.5 Exponents ............................................................................ 42

4.6 Complex Numbers ............................................................... 42

Chapter 5

Engineering Concepts and Formulae ................................44

5.1 Electricity.............................................................................. 44

5.2 Applied Mechanics ............................................................... 57

5.2.1 Newton's laws of motion ..........................................................57

5.2.2 Linear Velocity And Acceleration .............................................60

5.2.3 Force........................................................................................61

5.2.4 Centripetal (Centrifugal) Force.................................................62

5.2.5 Stress, Strain And Modulus Of Elasticity..................................64

5.3 Thermodynamics.................................................................. 64

5.3.1 Laws of Thermodynamics ........................................................64

5.3.2 Momentum...............................................................................65

5.3.3 Impulse ....................................................................................65

5.3.4 Elastic and Inelastic collision ...................................................65

5.3.5 Center of Mass ........................................................................65

5.3.6 Angular Motion.........................................................................65

Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions

**Symbol Prefix Factor by which unit is
**

Chapter 1 multiplied

k Kilo 103

Definition and Abbreviations for Physical Quantities h Hecto 102

da Deca 10

Symbol Unit Quantity d Deci 10-1

m meter Length c Centi 10-2

kg kilogram Mass m Milli 10-3

s second Time µ Micro 10-6

A ampere Electric current n Nano 10-9

K kelvin Thermodynamic temp p Pico 10-12

cd candela Luminous intensity

**Quantity Unit Symbol Equivalent Quantity Electrical Symbol Derived
**

unit unit

Plane angle radian rad -

Potential Volt V W/A

Force newton N kg · m/s2

Resistance Ohm Ώ V/A

Work, energy heat joule J·N·m

Charge Coulomb C A·s

Power watt W J/s

Capacitance Farad F A·s/V

Frequency hertz Hz s-1

Electric field - V/m -

Viscosity: - m2/s 10 c St strength

kinematic (Centistoke)

Electric flux - C/m2 -

Viscosity: - Ns/m2 103 cP density

Dynamic (Centipoise)

**Pressure - Pa or N/m2 pascal, Pa Quantity Magnetic Symbol Derived unit
**

unit

**Symbol Prefix Factor by which unit is Magnetic flux Weber Wb V·s = N·m/A
**

multiplied Inductance Henry H V·s/A = N·m/A2

T Tera 1012 Magnetic field - A/m -

G Giga 109 strength

**M Mega 106 Magnetic flux density Tesla T Wb/m2 =
**

(N)/(Am)

-1- -2-

Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Chapter 2 Multiply Name To convert from To Divide by by Density lb·s2/in4 kg/m3 1.3557 0.305 meters Energy Ft·lbf J 1.40 1.260E-04 7937 Density lbm/in3 kg/m3 2.187E+15 2.34 pounds Energy KW·hr J 3.711E-03 Density g/cm3 kg/m3 1000 1.294E-02 10.478E-04 Conversion Factors (general): Energy cal J 4.069E+07 9.000E-07 1.746 kilowatts Force Dyne N 1.243E-02 Mass flow rate lbm/hr kg/s 1.397E-04 Area acre m2 4047 2.242E+18 1 foot = 0.085E+16 3.3048 3.6786 0.560 square feet Energy erg J 1.5968 1 pound per square inch = 2.241E-17 Area ft2 m2 9.4484 0.357E-08 Units of Physical Quantities Density slug/ft 3 kg/m 3 515.388E-13 1 gallon = 8.2810 Length in m 2.471E-04 Length parsec m 3.022E+26 Area hectare m2 1.3700 Multiply Name To convert from To Divide by by Length mile m 1609 6.000E-03 Mass slug kg 14.685E-12 1% = 10.452E-04 1550 Mass lb·s2/in kg 1200.496E+11 6.7376 1 gallon = 3.602E-19 6.778E-07 1 grain per gallon = 17.2050 Area in2 m2 6.3048 3.187E+12 2.000E+05 1 million gallons per day = 694 gallons per minute Force Lbf N 4.1 mg/L Energy Megaton TNT J 4.79 liters Energy kiloton TNT J 4.000 mg/L Length ft m 0.2389 1 acre = 43.767E+04 3.000E+04 1.214E-04 2 2 Acceleration ft/sec m/s 0.388E-16 1 horsepower = 0.1761 Degrees Fahrenheit = (Degrees Celsius) (9/5) + 32 Length AU m 1. -4- .600E+06 2.000E-04 Mass lbm kg 0.540E-02 39.31 feet of water Heat capacity BTU/lbm · °F J/kg·°C 4188 2.000E-05 1.7600 Mass amu kg 1.59 6.661E-27 6.02 6.32) (5/9) Heat transfer coefficient BTU/hr·ft2·°F W/m2·°C 5.2810 Length Nautical mile m 1853 5.853E-02 Density lbm/ft3 kg/m3 16.00 5.388E-04 Degrees Celsius = (Degrees Fahrenheit .1859 0.940E-03 Energy BTU J 1055 9.4535 2.2248 1 pound = 0.614E-05 -3.2780 3.5 gallons Energy eV J 1.000E+07 1 cubic foot = 7.454 kilograms Force Ozf N 0.

3200 Pressure microns mercury Pa 0.89 2.61 Power BTU/hr W 0. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Multiply Multiply Name To convert from To Divide by Name To convert from To Divide by by by Mass flow rate lbm/sec kg/s 0. mercury Pa 3377 2.020E-05 Viscosity – absolute lbm/ft·s N·s/m 1.2810 Power tons of refrigeration W 3516 2.2370 2 2 Pressure dyne/cm Pa 0.639E-05 6.S.807E+04 1.60 Torque In·ozf N·m 7.4881 0.8000 A.1442 6.82 4.6720 Pressure lbf/ft2 Pa 47. gallons m3 3.450E-04 Viscosity – kinematic ft /sec m /s 9.62 Centimeter 0.0000 Viscosity – absolute centipose N·s/m 1.000E+05 1.8510 Torque in·lbf N·m 0.389E-03 LENGTH Thermal conductivity cal/ft·hr·°F W/m·°C 6.867E-03 145.00 1.7376 Moment of inertia in·lb·s2 kg·m2 0.294E-02 10.5778 Conversions Thermal conductivity BTU·in/hr·ft2·°F W/m·°C 0.60 2.000E+06 2 2 2 Pressure lbf/in Pa 6897 1. water Pa 248.844E-04 Velocity Km/hr m/s 0.2050 Time sidereal year S 3.4120 Velocity ft/min m/s 5.2931 3.71 1.90 Power hp W 745.1000 10.7307 0.000E-03 1000 Pressure std atm Pa 1.03280840 foot Time day S 8. -6- .1000 10 2 2 Pressure in.102E+04 Pressure mm mercury Pa 133. DISTANCE (Length) Thermal conductivity BTU/hr·ft·°F W/m·°C 1.3557 0.87 2.000E-03 1000 Pressure in.5556 1.7600 Pressure mbar Pa 100.501E-03 Volume Liters m3 1.9340 Multiply By To obtain Thermal conductivity cal/cm·s·°C W/m·°C 418.785E-03 264.169E-08 2 2 Moment of inertia ft·lb·s kg·m 1.4470 2.156E+07 3.2778 3.389E-04 Volume flow rate U.157E-05 Centimeter 0.389E-04 Volume flow rate ft3/min m3/s 4.019E-03 Viscosity – absolute lbf/ft ·s N·s/m 47.S.088E-02 Viscosity – kinematic centistoke m2/s 1.062E-03 141.1130 8.719E-04 2119 Specific heat cal/g·°C J/kg·°C 4186 2.000E-02 Volume ft3 m3 2.341E-03 Velocity ft/s m/s 0.869E-06 Volume U.6000 Pressure bar Pa 1.079E-03 196. gallons/min m3/s 6.309E-05 1.013E+05 9.000E-05 Velocity miles/hr m/s 0.20 Specific heat BTU/lbm·°F J/kg·°C 4186 2.4535 2.831E-02 35.7376 Torque ft·lbf N·m 1.1130 8.961E-04 Viscosity – absolute g/cm·s N·s/m2 0.062E-03 141.000E-06 1.3 7.8504 Moment of inertia oz·in·s2 kg·m2 7.089E-02 2 2 Pressure kgf/cm Pa 9.585E+04 Temperature °F °C 0.501 Volume in3 m3 1.3557 0.3048 3.640E+04 1.1333 7.3937008 inch -5.

54 Cables Yards 240 Inches Millimeters 25.280840 Foot Feet Kilometers 0.168 * mile(USstatute) 1. (Surveyor's) Feet 66 Kilometer 0. (Surveyor's) Meters 20.0254* micrometer(micron)(µm) Feet Centimeters 30.48 micrometer(micron) 39.37008 Microinch Furlongs Statute Miles 0. -8- .0328084 * Foot 304.0292 meter(m) Hands (Height Of Horse) Inches 4 Yard 0.6213712 mile(USstatute) Fathoms Meters 1.8288* meter(m) Centimeters Meters 0.0003048 Meter 0.4 -7.093613 Yard Feet Yards 0.344* meter(m) Furlongs Meters 201.0006213712 mile(USstatute) Feet Inches 12 Microinch 0.3937008 Inch 0.01 Foot 0.3048* meter(m) Centimeters Yards 0.00018939 Meter 3.609.02777778 Cables Fathoms 120 Inches Feet 0.01093613 Foot 30.9144* meter(m) Hands (Height Of Horse) Centimeters 10.0254* meter(m) Chains.4 millimeter(mm) Chains.125 mile(USstatute) 1. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Multiply By To obtain To Convert To Multiply By Fathom 1.54 centimeter(cm) Chains.8288 Meter 39.1988388 Rod Feet Meters 0.3048 Meter 1.3333333 Meter 0.1168 * Inch 25.37008 Inch Fathoms Feet 6 Meter 0.48* centimeter(cm) Centimeters Feet 0. (Surveyor's) Rods 4 * Inch 2.08333333 Cables Meters 219.0254 To Convert To Multiply By Inches Yards 0.456 Inches Centimeters 2.0397008 Inch Furlongs Inches 7920 * Rod 5.16 Inches Meters 0.003280840 Foot Furlongs Feet 660 millimeter 0.8 millimeter(mm) Centimeters Inches 0.54680066 Fathom Feet Statute Miles 0.609344 kilometer(km) Furlongs Yards 220 millimeter 0.

5 Meters Kilometers 0.852 Conversion Miles.280839895 Spans Centimeters 22. Statute Centimeters 160934.10 - . Statute Kilometers 1.00056818 Meters Centimeters 100 Yards Meters 0. Statute Meters 1609.370079 Yards Miles 0.1168 Rods Meters 5. Nautical Statute Miles 1. Statute Inches 63360 1 furlong = 40 rods 1 fathom = 6 ft -9. Nautical Kilometers 5. (Surveyor's) Inches 7.6093 km Miles. Statute Statute Miles 3 Paces (US) Inches 30 Leagues.0936 yd 1 yd = 0.001 Leagues.86 Meters Inches 39.609344 Length Miles.828032 Paces (US) Centimeters 76.92 Points (Typographical) Millimeters 0. (Surveyor's) Chains 0.5400 cm Miles.9144 Meters Millimeters 1000 Yards Feet 3 Microns Meters 0.01 Points (Typographical) Inches 0.1507794 Miles.6214 mile 1 mile = 1.3937 in 1 in = 2.344 1 m = 3. Nautical Nautical Miles 3 Mils Inches 0.9144 m Miles.621371192 Miles. Statute Yards 1760 1 m = 1.0254 Leagues.281 ft 1 ft = 0.3048 m Miles.013837 Links. Statute Kilometers 4. Statute Feet 5280 1 km = 0. . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions To Convert To Multiply By To Convert To Multiply By Kilometers Statute Miles 0. Statute Rods 320 1 cm = 0.093613298 Spans Inches 9 Meters Feet 3. (Surveyor's) Centimeters 20.556 Mils Millimeters 0.5 Meters Yards 1.001 Rods Feet 16.000621371 Rods Yards 5.000001 Yards Inches 36 Microns Inches 0.0292 Meters Statute Miles 0.039370079 Leagues.2 Links. Statute Furlongs 8 1 ft = 12 in 1 yd = 3 ft Miles.0000394 Yards Centimeters 91. Nautical Kilometers 1.44 Miles.3514598 Links.4 Kilometers Meters 1000 Millimeters Inches 0.

Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Conversion Conversion 1 statute mile = 8 furlongs 1 rod = 5.25 yd 1 mile2 = 640 acres AREA 1 cm2 = 0.1550003 inch2 Volume centimeter2 0.2642 gal.957 x 10-5 m3 1 stere = 1 m3 meter2 10. .4046856 hectare 1 km2 = 0.001076391 foot2 1 cm3 = 0.024 in3 1 in3 = 0.0929 m2 acre 0.590 km2 2 centimeter 0.4516 centimeter2 (cm2) 1 Litre = 1000.31 ft3 1 ft3 = 0.03042 centimeter2 (cm2) 1 Litre = 61.387 cm3 2 * foot 0.003 inch2 1 oz (US fluid) = 2.195990 yard2 1 gill = 4 fluid ounces 1 barrel = 31.5 yd Dry Volume 1 statute mile = 5280 ft 1 in = 100 mils 1 quart = 2 pints 1 quart = 67.540 x 10 m 1 bushel = 4 pecks 1 bushel = 2150.5 in3 Area B.4516 cm2 2 2 acre 4.5 gallons meter2 0.550.001550003 inch2 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 barrel (petrolum) = 42 gallons yard2 0.2 in3 1 nautical mile = 6076 ft 1 light year = 9.9081 qt.11 .1550 in2 1 in2 = 6.16* millimeter2 (mm2) 1 Litre = 0.903.764 ft 1 ft2 = 0.785 litres inch2 6.24 litres 2 0.00001076391 foot2 2 1 quart = 2 pints 1 tun = 252 gallons millimeter 0.046.856 meter2 (m2) 1 m = 10.0567 qt.06102 in3 1 in3 = 16.3861 mile2 1 mile2 = 2. Area 1 ft2 = 144 in2 1 acre = 160 rod2 Conversions 1 yd2 = 9 ft2 1 acre = 43.0284 bu (U.785 x 10-3 m3 inch2 0.) 1 gallon (US) = 3.S.S.0164 litre 2 foot 92.02832 m3 foot2 929. (U. (dry) meter 1.471054 acre 1 Litre = 0.09290304 meter2 (m2) 1 m3 = 35.0002471054 acre 1 pint = 4 gills 1 hogshead = 2 bbl (63 gal) millimeter2 0.00064516 meter2 (m2) 1 Litre = 1.32 litres hectare 2.0353 ft3 1 ft3 = 28.000 cm3 1 gallon (US) = 3.8361274 meter2 (m2) .560 ft2 2 2 Multiply By To obtain 1 rod = 30.12 - .) 1 yd3 = 0.04 millimeter2 (mm2) 1 Litre = 0.6 in3 -5 1 league = 3 miles 1 mil = 2. (liquid) or 1 bushel (US) = 35.7646 m3 inch2 645.461 x 1015 m 1 peck = 8 quarts 1 peck = 537.763910 foot2 2 Liquid Volume meter 1.

31466 foot3 Grams Kilograms 0.06255 VOLUME (including CAPACITY) Drams.785412 liter Grains Avoirdupois Pounds 0. Troy Scruples 3 gallon (UK liquid) 0.06479891 3 meter 264. Troy Troy Ounces 0.001 meter3 1. .2199692 gallon (UK liquid) Grains Avoirdupois Drams 0. Mass and Weight Conversions . Troy Grams 3.8879346 gallon (UK liquid) 4.307951 yard3 Grams Avoirdupois Pounds 0.032150747 millimeter3 0.00208333 inch3 0.14 - .432361 D.47989E-05 gallon (US liquid) 3. Avoirdupois Avoirdupois Ounces 0.03657143 Liter 0.05 meter3 219.00006102376 inch3 Grams Avoirdupois Ounces 0.03531466 foot3 Grains Scruples 0.387.13 . Avoirdupois Grains 27.0166 Liter 0.7718452 centimeter3 0.344 foot3 0.06 millimeter3 (mm3) Grains Troy Pounds 0. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions C.004546092 meter3 (m3) Drams.035273961 Yard3 0.001* meter3 (m3) Grains Troy Drams 0.38706 centimeter3 (cm3) Grains Troy Ounces 0.00228571 Liter 0.125 foot3 28.* liter Grams Troy Pounds 0. Avoirdupois Grams 1. Troy Grains 60 gallon (US liquid) 0.00001638706 meter3 (m3) Grains Avoirdupois Ounces 0.028311685 meter3 (m3) Drams. Volume Conversions To Convert To Multiply By Metric Conversion Factors: Volume (including Capacity) Carat Milligrams 200 Multiply By To obtain Drams.06102376 inch3 Drams.9692 gallon (UK liquid) Grains Grams 0.546092 litre Drams.1720 gallon (US liquid) Grains Milligrams 64.003785412 meter3 (m3) Grains Kilograms 6.79891 meter3 35.31685 liter Drams.00017361 inch3 16.002204623 meter3 1000.76 inch3 Grams Troy Ounces 0.023.00014286 inch3 16.042 Liter 0.7645549 meter3 (m3) Grams Avoirdupois Drams 0.2641720 gallon (US liquid) Grains Pennyweights 0.56438339 Grams Grains 15.00267923 meter3 61.

1034768 Hundredweights.359237 Ounces. Avoirdupois Troy Ounces 0.8228571 . Short Metric Tons 0. Troy Pennyweights 20 Hundredweights.0009842 Pennyweights Troy Ounces 0. Avoirdupois Metric Tons 0. Long Metric Tons 0. . Short Kilograms 45.273962 Pounds.679229 Pounds. Avoirdupois Grams 453.097143 Hundredweights.204622622 Pounds. Troy Avoirdupois Pounds 0. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions To Convert To Multiply By To Convert To Multiply By Grams Milligrams 1000 Ounces.373241722 Ounces.802345 Ounces. Avoirdupois Avoirdupois Drams 16 Hundredweights.15 .0833333 Hundredweights. Short Avoirdupois Pounds 100 Ounces. Avoirdupois Kilograms 0.55517384 Kilograms Short Tons 0. Avoirdupois Kilograms 0. Avoirdupois Troy Pounds 0. Avoirdupois Avoirdupois Drams 256 Ounces.05 Ounces.9114583 Pounds. Avoirdupois Grains 437.015432358 Pounds.00110231 Pennyweights Grains 24 Kilograms Short Hundredweights 0. Avoirdupois Short Tons 0.0005 Kilograms Troy Ounces 32.215278 Kilograms Grams 1000 Pounds.00453592 Kilograms Avoirdupois Ounces 35. Avoirdupois Troy Ounces 14. Avoirdupois Avoirdupois Ounces 16 Milligrams Grains 0. Troy Avoirdupois Drams 17.34952313 Hundredweights.06857143 Hundredweights. Avoirdupois Grains 7000 Ounces. Troy Avoirdupois Ounces 1.000453592 Kilograms Troy Pounds 2.0625 Pounds. Long Short Tons 0. Avoirdupois Troy Pounds 1. Long Kilograms 50.45359237 Kilograms Avoirdupois Drams 564.001 Pennyweights Grams 1. Troy Grains 480 Kilograms Long Tons 0.5 Hundredweights. Troy Grams 31.045359237 Ounces. Troy Troy Pounds 0.36 Pounds. Avoirdupois Grams 28.58333 Kilograms Grains 15432.05 Ounces.55429 Hundredweights. Troy Avoirdupois Pounds 0. Troy Kilograms 0. Avoirdupois Long Tons 0.07595486 Pounds.3834 Pounds.04464286 Ounces. Long Long Tons 0. Troy Troy Drams 8 Hundredweights.05 Kilograms Metric Tons 0. Avoirdupois Quintals 0.16 - . Long Avoirdupois Pounds 112 Ounces. Short Long Tons 0.028349523 Pounds.056 Ounces.02204623 Pounds.15075 Pounds.000446429 Kilograms Avoirdupois Pounds 2. Avoirdupois Avoirdupois Pounds 0.59237 Ounces.050802345 Ounces. Short Short Tons 0.

90718474 Pounds. Short Kilograms 907.1023113 Kilograms/cu meter Pounds/cu in 0. Long (Deadweight) Avoirdupois Pounds 2240 Grams/liter Grains/gal 58.9842065 Kilograms/cu meter Pounds/mil-foot 3.405E-10 Tons.86 Tons. Gallon Parts/million 14. Short Metric Tons 0. Long (Deadweight) Long Hundredweights 20 Grams/cu.12 Grams/cu. .00003613 Tons.8928571 Pounds.623 Pounds/cu ft Pounds/cu in 0. Troy Grains 5760 Tons. ft 0.2959782 Grains/US gallon Parts/million 17. Long (Deadweight) Avoirdupois Ounces 35840 Grams/liter Parts/million 1000 Tons. Long (Deadweight) Short Tons 1. Troy Avoirdupois Drams 210.2417216 Tons.6514 Tons. Metric Long Hundredweights 19.417 Tons. Long (Deadweight) Metric Tons 1.345 Tons.18 - .456E-09 Tons. Troy Pennyweights 240 Tons. Metric Short Tons 1. Long (Deadweight) Short Hundredweights 22. Short Short Hundredweights 20 Pounds. Troy Troy Ounces 12 Tons.118 Scruples Grains 20 Grains/US gallon Pounds/million gal 142. Metric Avoirdupois Pounds 2204.1 E. Metric Troy Ounces 32150.06243 Tons.001 Tons. ft 62. Troy Avoirdupois Ounces 13. Density Quintals Kilograms 100 Conversions Quintals Avoirdupois Pounds 220. Troy Grams 373. Cm Pounds/mil-foot 3.17 .03613 Tons. Metric Quintals 10 Kilograms/cu meter Grams/cu cm 0.85714 Pounds.04691 Grams/liter Pounds/1000 gal 8.18474 Pounds. Cm Pounds/cu. Metric Kilograms 1000 Pounds/cu ft Pounds/mil-foot 5.286 Scruples Grams 1. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions To Convert To Multiply By To Convert To Multiply By Pounds. in 0.46226 To Convert To Multiply By Scruples Troy Drams 0. Short Long Tons 0.4 Grams/liter Pounds/cu.333 Grains/imp.16571 Tons. Metric Long Tons 0.43 Tons. Metric Short Hundredweights 22.405E-07 Tons.016046909 Grams/cu.75 . Short Long Hundredweights 17.68413072 Kilograms/cu meter Pound/cu ft 0. Long (Deadweight) Kilograms 1016. Cm Pounds/cu.04623 Milligrams/liter Parts/million 1 Tons.062427 Tons. Short Avoirdupois Pounds 2000 Quintals Metric Tons 0.0005787 Tons.

9 Steel (mild) 7.77 Oil (linseed) 0.000009425 Silicon 2.24 Oil (olive) 0.8 Brick 2.1-1.1-2.6 Pounds/cu in Gms/cu cm 27.86 Wood (ebony) 1.20 - .57 Pounds/cu in Kgs/cu meter 27680 Chromium 6.3 Pounds/cu in Pounds/mil-foot 0.03 Cobalt 8.9 Substance Relative Density Sodium 0.3 Paraffin 0.21 Platinum 21.56 Copper 8.92 Tungsten 19.75 Brass 8.00 Coal 1.76-0.5 F.5 Wood (elm) 0.7-0.4 Iron (wrought) 7.4 Mica 2.6 Sulphur 2.58 Iron (cast) 7.70 Cork 0.68 Carbon (charcoal) 1. . Relative Density (Specific Gravity) Of Various Substances Slate 2.8 Clay 1.2 Calcium 1.80 Glass (crown) 2.36-1.87 Water (sea average) 1.02 Carbon (graphite) 2.3 Antimony 6.8 Pounds/cu in Pounds/cu ft 1728 Silver 10.40 Glass (flint) 3.86 Wood (ash) 0.5 Oil (petroleum) 0.1 Gold 19.42 Pounds/cu ft Kgs/cu meter 16.07 Aluminum 2.19 .6 Nickel 8.01602 Sand (dry) 1.1 Bismuth 9.87 Wood (beech) 0.94 Tin 7.5 Oil (turpentine) 0.97 Water (fresh) 1.66 Carbon (diamond) 3. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions To Convert To Multiply By Substance Relative Density Pounds/cu ft Grams/cu cm 0.78 .

Greek Alphabet Lower Upper Name Case Case Alpha α Α Beta β Β Gamma γ Γ Delta δ ∆ Epsilon ε Ε Zeta ζ Ζ .0 Omicron ο Ο Wood (pine) 0.74 Iota ι Ι Manganese 8. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Substance Relative Lower Upper Name Density Case Case Wood (lignum-vitae) 1.74 Nu ν Ν Manganese 8.56 Upsilon υ Υ Wood (teak) 0.7-1.8 Rho ρ Ρ Zinc 7.0 Chi χ Χ Mercury 13.0 Tau τ Τ Wood (pine) 0.0 Kappa κ Κ Mercury 13.0 Xi ξ Ξ Wood (oak) 0.0 Sigma σ and ς Σ Wood (oak) 0.3 Eta η Η Lead 11.6 Psi ψ Ψ Omega ω Ω G.4 Mu µ Μ Magnesium 1.4 Theta θ Θ Magnesium 1. .21 .6 Lambda λ Λ Lead 11.56 Pi π Π Wood (teak) 0.8 Phi φ Φ Zinc 7.22 - .7-1.

MGL* second (MKS) system.000000000001 p farads) Boltzmann's constant k 1.23 .602 x 10-19 C .023 x 1026 /(kg mol) nF (Nano Nano 10-9 0.67 x 10-8 W/(m2K4) Multiply Into Into Into Into Into Into Into Characteristic impedance of free Zo (µo/Eo)1/2=120ΠΩ by Milli Centi Deci MGL* Deca Hecto Kilo space To convert 106 105 104 103 102 101 1 Electron volt eV 1.001 µ farads) Avogadro's number N 6. Deci British units are both dry and wet To convert 101 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 Metric System Centi To Exponent Numerical convert 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 Representation Example value equivalent Milli Thz (Tera MGL = meter.000001 n farads) Bohr magneton B 9.27 x 10-24 Am 252 -12 pF (Pico Pico 10 0.380 x 10-23 J/k Conversion Chart Stefan-Boltzmann constant d 5. liter Tera 1012 1000000000000 T hertz) Ghz (Giga Example: Giga 109 1000000000 G hertz) To convert Kilogram Into Milligram → (1 Kilo X 106 ) Milligrams Mhz (Mega Mega 106 1000000 M hertz) Physical constants Unit hz (hertz) 1 1 quantity F (Farads) Symbolic Name Numerical Equivalent µF (Micro Representation Micro 10-6 0. .24 - . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Multiply Into Into Into Into Into Into Into Chapter 3 by Milli Centi Deci MGL* Deca Hecto Kilo To convert 105 104 103 102 101 1 10-1 System of Units Hecto The two most commonly used systems of units are as follows: To • SI convert 104 103 102 101 1 10-1 10-2 • Imperial Deca To SI: The International System of Units (abbreviated "SI") is a scientific method of expressing convert 103 102 101 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 the magnitudes of physical quantities. This system was formerly called the meter-kilogram. To convert 102 101 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 Imperial: A unit of measure for capacity officially adopted in the British Imperial System.602 x 10-19 J Kilo Electron charge e 1. gram.

85 x 10-12 F/m Mass of the Sun MS 1.98 x 1024 kg Radius of the Sun RS 6.65 x 107 C/(kg mol) Radius of the Earth RE 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2 Electron volt 1 eV 1.11 x 10-31 kg 8 Velocity of light in vacuum C 2. 5/90R.74 x 106 m Proton mass mp 1.84 x 108 m Standard gravitational Earth-Sun distance .63 x 10-34 J s Universal gravitational constant G 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2 5/9(0F + 459.60 x 10-19 J Mass of proton mp 1. .80 m s-2 Earth Electron charge e -1.63 x 10-34 J s Temperature 0 C 5/9(0F .62 m s-2 Moon Mass of electron me 9.80665 m/s2.9979 x 10 m/s Planck's constant h 6.00 x 108 m s-1 Universal constant of gravitation G 6. 9.00 x 103 kg Planck's constant h 6.67).37 x 106 m Permeability of free space µ0 4Π x 10-7 H/m Mass of the Earth ME 5.32) Universal gravitational constant G 6.26 - .60 x 10-19 J Temperature K 273. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Symbolic Symbolic Name Numerical Equivalent Name Numerical Equivalent Representation Representation Acceleration due to gravity on Electronic rest mass me 9.6 Earth-Moon distance .672 x 10-27 kg Mass of the Moon MM 7.60 x 10-19 C Acceleration due to gravity on the gM 1.35 x 1022 kg Proton to electron mass ratio mp/me 1835.314 kJ/(kg mol K) Mass of electron me 9. 3.80665 N/kg acceleration Speed of light in air c 3.60 x 10-19 C Universal gas constant Ro 8.626 x 10-34 J s Radius of the Moon RM 1.67 x 10-11 N m2/kg2 Electron charge e -1.99 x 1030 kg Planck's constant h 6.80 m s-2 Earth Electronic charge to mass ratio e/me 1.67 x 10-27 kg . 0C + Electron volt 1 eV 1.11 x 10-31 kg Ton 1 ton 1.67 x 10-27 kg Speed of light in air c 3. 1.62 m s-2 Moon Faraday constant F 9.25 .50 x 1011 m g 9.96 x 108 m Permittivity of free space Eo 8.759 x 1011 C/kg Acceleration due to gravity on the gM 1.15 Mass of proton mp 1.109 x 10-31 kg g 9.00 x 108 m s-1 Acceleration due to gravity on g 9.

b and c are: n ab = n a n b Property Description n a = a1/ n Closure a + b and ab are real numbers n a a Commutative a + b = b + a. Expansion Formulae Zero-factor a0 = 0a = 0 Square of summation • (x + y) 2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 Negation -(-a) = a. . c b c bc d −b ± b 2 − 4ac Then x = Radical Combinations 2a The basic algebraic properties of real numbers a. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Chapter 4 Identity a+0 = 0+a = a Inverse a + (-a) = 0. (-a)(-b) = ab Square of difference • (x – y) 2 = x2 – 2xy + y2 Algebraic Combinations Difference of squares Factors with a common denominator can be expanded: • x2 – y2 = (x + y) (x – y) a+b a b = + c c c Cube of summation • (x + y) 3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 Fractions can be added by finding a common denominator: a b ad + bc Summation of two cubes + = c d cd • x3 + y3 = (x + y) (x2 . (-a)b= a(-b) = -(ab).1 Algebra A. (ab)c = a(bc) m n am = a n Distributive (a+b)c = ac+bc n m a = mn a . a(1/a) = 1 General Mathematical Formulae Cancellation If a+x=a+y.28 - .xy + y2) Cube of difference Products of fractions can be carried out directly: • (x – y) 3 = x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 a b ab × = c d cd Difference of two cubes • x3 – y3 = (x – y) (x2 + xy + y2) Quotients of fractions can be evaluated by inverting and multiplying: a B. Quadratic Equation b = a × d = ad • If ax2 + bx + c = 0. then x=y 4. ab = ba n = n b b Associative (a+b) + c = a + (b+c).27 .

30 - . s2.2 Geometry Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter 2 Square 4s s NA NA (Length)(Breadth) Rectangle 2 (L + B) NA NA = L·B .29 - Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter s1 + s2 + s3 where s1. s3 1 Triangle × B× H NA NA are the 3 sides 2 of the triangle Right s1 + s2 + s3 1 × B× H NA NA triangle 2 . Formulas and Conversions 4.

32 - . Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter s ( s − a)( s − b)( s − c) where Generic s1 + s2 + s3 a+b+c s= NA NA triangle 2 3s Equilateral where s is the 1 A= bh NA NA triangle length of each 2 side .31 - Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter ⎛a +b⎞ Trapezoid A=⎜ ⎟h NA NA where Ө and Φ are ⎝ 2 ⎠ the 2 base angles C = 2πr A = πr2 C = πd Circle NA NA .

33 - Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter 1 Trapezoid Sum of all sides A= (b1 + b2 )h NA NA 2 Hexagon 6s A = 2.6s2 NA NA Where s is the length of 1 side .34 - . Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter arc × r A= 2 θ° A= × πr 2 Circle 2r + (arc 360 NA NA Sector length) 2 θ °r A= 2 π (1/4)·D·d·∏ A= Dd 4 Ellipse D is the larger NA NA where D and d are the two axis radius and d is the smaller radius .

35 - Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter Rectangular 2 l h + 2wh + 2 NA NA l ×w ×h solid S = 2πrh + 2πr2 V = πr2h Right NA NA cylinder .83 s2 Octagon 8s NA NA Where s is the length of 1 side 2 Cube NA NA 6s s3 . Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter A = 4.36 - .

Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter S = 4πr2 4 3 Sphere NA NA πr 3 1 base area· ½.perimeter· 3 Pyramid NA NA slant height + perpendicular B height .37 - Formulas and Conversions Circumference Item Area Surface Area Volume Figure / Perimeter Rectangular NA NA 2lh+2lw+2wh V = lwh prism 1 2 πr h Cone NA NA pi·r(r+sh) 3 .38 - .

Cosine and the Pythagorean Triangle The equation can be rewritten in logarithm form as log 2 8 = 3 [sin θ ] + [cosθ ] 2 2 = sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 Logarithm laws The logarithm laws are obtained from the index laws and are: • loga x + loga y = loga xy . Secant and Co-Secant A. Cosine and Tangent 4.4 Logarithm opposite adjacent opposite Definition sin θ = cosθ = tan θ = The logarithm of a number to a particular base is the power (or index) to which that hypotenus hypotenus adjacent base must be raised to obtain the number. .39 . The number 8 written in index form as 8 = 23 Sine. Pythagoras' Law sin θ tan θ = cosθ c2 = a2 + b2 1 secθ = B. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions 4. Basic Ratios cosθ c 1 • Sin θ = a/c a cscθ = • Cos θ = b/c sin θ • Tan θ = a/b θ • Cosec θ = c/a C.3 Trigonometry Tangent.40 - . Trigonometric Function Values b • Sec θ = c/b • Cot θ = b/a Euler’s Representation e jθ = cos(θ ) + j sin(θ ) Degrees versus Radians • A circle in degree contains 360 degrees • A circle in radians contains 2π radians e− jθ = cos(θ ) − j sin(θ ) e jnθ = cos(nθ ) + j sin(nθ ) hypotenuse e jθ + e − jθ opposite cosθ = 2 e jθ − e − jθ θ sin θ = 2j adjacent Sine.

• loga (1/x) = -loga x c r ⋅ c s = c r+s (c ⋅ d ) r = c r ⋅ d r • loga 1 = 0 cr ⎛c⎞ r cr = c r−s . d. .41 . usually Hyperbolic Functions expressed in Cartesian form The hyperbolic functions can be defined in terms of exponentials.5 Exponents Summary of the Laws of Exponents • loga xy = y loga x Let c. it follows that Euler Relationship n p1 + p 2 = n p1 n p 2 The trigonometric functions are related to a complex exponential by the Euler relationship: The rule for raising a power to a power can also be deduced e jx = cos x + j sin x − jx e = cos x − j sin x (na)b = nab From these relationships the trig functions can be expressed in terms of the complex exponential: (ab)n = anbn am/an = am-n e jx + e − jx cos x = where a not equal to zero 2 e jx − e − jx sin x = 2 4.42 - . n times itself p times. a + jb where j = √-1 and j · j = -1 e x − e− x Complex numbers can also be expressed in polar form Hyperbolic sine = sinh x = 2 Aejθ where A = √a2 +b2 and θ = tan-1 (b/a) e x + e− x The polar form can also be expressed in terms of trigonometric functions using the Euler Hyperbolic cosine = cosh x = 2 relationship ejθ = cos θ + j sin θ sinh x e x − e − x Hyperbolic tangent = tanh x = = Euler Relationship cosh x e x + e x The trigonometric functions are related to a complex exponential by the Euler relationship ejx = cos x + j sin x . d ≠0 cs ⎝ ⎠ d d • loga a = 1 ( c r ) s = c r ⋅s c −r = 1 • a (log a x ) =x cr Basic Combinations Note: It is not possible to have the logarithm of a negative number. and s be any real numbers. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions • loga x – loga y = loga (x/y) 4. r. All logarithms must Since the raising of a number n to a power p may be defined as multiplying have the same base.6 Complex Numbers A complex number is a number with a real and an imaginary part. c ≠ 0 ⎜ ⎟ = r .

00358 Nickel 0.43 . Complex Numbers V = IR The standard form of a complex number is Where a + jb where j = √-1 I = current (amperes) E = electromotive force (volts) But this can be shown to be equivalent to the form R = resistance (ohms) Aejθ where A = √a2 +b2 and θ = tan-1 (b/a) Temperature correction which is called the polar form of a complex number.00450 . as well as many other applications.44 - .) jθ Ae = a + b (cos ⎢ tan −1 ⎥ + j sin ⎢ tan −1 ⎥ ) 2 2 Rt = resistance at tºC (. . The equivalence can be shown by Rt = Ro (1 + αt) using the Euler relationship for complex exponentials.004 28 (Ω/Ω ºC) Ae jθ = a 2 + b 2 ( a + j b ) = a + jb (1 + αt2 ) R2 = R1 a2 + b2 a2 + b2 (1 + αt1 ) Where R1 = resistance at t1 R2 = resistance at t2 Values of Ω/Ω ºC alpha Copper 0.1 Electricity e jx + e − jx cos x = 2 Ohm's Law e jx − e − jx sin x = V 2 I= R This relationship is useful for expressing complex numbers in polar form.00672 Tungsten 0.00428 Platinum 0.j sin x From these relationships the trigonometric functions can be expressed in terms of the Engineering Concepts and Formulae complex exponential: 5. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Chapter 5 e-jθ = cos x . Where ⎡ b⎤ ⎡ b⎤ Ro = resistance at 0ºC (.) ⎣ a⎦ ⎣ a⎦ α = temperature coefficient which has an average value for copper of 0. Or Polar Form.

.m. .637 of maximum value Form factor = RMS value / Mean Value = 1.0040 Where EG = generated e.f. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Aluminum 0. Rs Rs = R1 + R2 + R3 Resistors in parallel..45 .f. I = = nqvA Ra = armature resistance t Conductor Resistivity Alternating Current ρL R= RMS value of sine curve = 0. c = 2p (lap winding) τ= Φ = useful flux per pole (webers). .. .11 Where pN ρ = specific resistance (or resistivity) (ohm meters. entering or leaving the armature R p = number of pairs of poles Current decay t - N = speed (revolutions per minute) (switch moved to a new position) i(t) = I o e τ ′ vR(t) = R i(t) Generator Terminal volts = EG – IaRa vL(t) = − RT i(t) Motor Terminal volts = EB + IaRa .707 of maximum value a Mean Value of Sine wave = 0. . L T L1 L 2 L 3 Dynamo Formulae Current build up - t 2ϕNpZ (switch initially closed after having At v L ( t) = E e τ Average e.m. nqvtA Ia = armature current Current.e τ ) t Where E - Z = total number of armature conductors i(t) = (1 − e τ ) R c = number of parallel paths through winding between positive and negative brushes L Where c = 2 (wave winding). generated in each conductor = been opened) t 60c − v R ( t) = E(1 .m.46 - . EB = generated back e. R p 1 1 1 1 Physical Quantity Equation = + + R p R1 R2 R3 Inductors and Inductance di VL = L dt Power dissipated in resistor: V2 P = VI = I 2 R = Inductors in Series: LT = L1 + L2 + L3 + .f. R Inductor in Parallel: 1 1 1 1 Potential drop across R V=IR = + + + . Ωm) Frequency of Alternator = cycles per second L = length (meters) 60 a = area of cross-section (square meters) Where p is number of pairs of poles N is the rotational speed in r/min Quantity Equation Slip of Induction Motor Resistance R of a uniform L conductor R=ρ [(Slip speed of the field – Speed of the rotor) / Speed of the Field] × 100 A Inductors and Inductive Reactance Resistors in series..

.48 - ......τ ′ t Quantity Equation Capacitor i(t) = − e R Ohm’s Law for AC V=IZ - t v R ( t) = − Vo e τ′ t Time Domain v(t) = Vm sin (ω t ± φ) - v C ( t) = Vo e τ ′ i(t) = Im sin (ω t ± φ) τ' = RTC Phasor Notation V = Vrms ∠ φ V = Vm ∠ φ Components in Series ZT = Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + .. Inductive Reactance |XL| = ω L C T C1 C 2 C 3 Capacitive Reactance |XC| = 1 / (ω C) Capacitors in Parallel C T = C1 + C 2 + C 3 + . Voltage Divider Rule Zx Vx = VT Capacitance Q ZT C= V Components in Parallel 1 1 1 1 = + + + .. .e RC ) τ = RC Discharging a Vo . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Physical Quantity Equation Quantity Equation L Current Divider Rule ZT τ' = I x = IT RT Zx Alternating Current f = 1/T Two impedance values in Z1 Z 2 ϖ=2πf parallel ZT = Z1 + Z 2 Complex Numbers: C=a+jb C = M cos θ + j M sin θ Capacitance M = a 2 + b2 ⎛b⎞ Capacitors θ = tan -1 ⎜ ⎟ C= Q [F] (Farads) ⎝a⎠ V Polar form: C=M∠θ Capacitor in Series 1 1 1 1 = + + + .RC i(t) = e Impedance Resistance: ZR = R ∠0° R Inductance: ZL = XL ∠90° = ω L ∠90° - t Capacitance: ZC = XC ∠-90° = 1 / (ωC) v R ( t) = E e RC ∠-90° - t v C ( t) = E(1 .. Quantity Equation ..47 . Z T Z1 Z 2 Z 3 . Resistance R Charging a Capacitor t E .

the presence of the dielectric decreases the potential Modulus 2 difference between the plates ⎛ 1 ⎞ Z = [ R 2 + ⎜ ωL − ⎟ ] Ohms • If the capacitor is connected to a battery.e-t/RC). . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Quantity Equation Current in AC Circuit RMS Current In Cartesian ⎡ 1 ⎞⎤ Capacitance of a εA I= V ⎛ ⋅ ⎢ R − j ⎜ ωL − ⎟ Parallel-plate Capacitor C= form ⎡ 2 ⎛ ωC ⎠⎥⎦ 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎣ ⎝ 2 d ⎢ R + ⎜ ωL − ⎟ ⎥ V ⎣⎢ ⎝ ωC ⎠ ⎦⎥ E = d Amperes Isolated Sphere C = 4πεr In polar form V I= ∠ − φ s Amperes 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ [ R + ⎜ ωL − 2 ⎟ ] ⎝ ωC ⎠ Capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + C3 ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢ ωL − ωC ⎥ where φ s = tan −1 ⎢ ⎥ Capacitors in series 1 1 1 1 ⎢ R ⎥ = + + ⎣ ⎦ C C1 C 2 C 3 Modulus V Energy stored in a 2 I = Amperes Q1 1 2 charged capacitor W = = CV 2 = QV ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2C 2 2 R + ⎜ ωL − 2 ⎟ ⎝ ωC ⎠ If the capacitor is Q 2 isolated W = Complex Impedance 2C If the capacitor is 1 In Cartesian W = CV 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ connected to a battery 2 form Z = R + j ⎜ ωL − ⎟ Ohms ⎝ ωC ⎠ For R C circuits Q = Qo (1 .t/RC ωL − −1 ⎢ ω C⎥ V = Vo e-t/RC Where φ s = tan ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ R ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ • If the capacitor is isolated.49 .e-t/RC) ⎝ ωC ⎠ ⎡ 1 ⎤ Discharging a capacitor Q = Qo e. • The introduction of the dielectric increases the capacitance of the capacitor .50 - . In polar form 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ V = Vo Z = R 2 + ⎜ ωL − ⎟ ∠φ s Ohms Charging a capacitor (1 . the presence of the dielectric increases the ⎝ ωC ⎠ charge stored in the capacitor.

dq dv I= =C Amperes dt dt DC V2 Power Pdc = VI = I 2 R = Permittivity of free space 10 −9 R ε0 = = 8.I ) = VI cos φ (meters)-1 Power Energy stored in a 1 capacitor = CV 2 Joules Power in ac circuits 2 Quantity Equation Quantity Equation Resistance The mean power = P = Irms Vrms = Irms2 R Inductance The instantaneous power = (Io sin wt) (Vo sin (wt + Coulomb’s law Q1Q2 π) F =k r2 The mean power P =0 Electric fields F E= Capacitance The instantaneous power = (Io sin (wt + π/2)) (Vo sin q wt ) Due to a point charge Q The mean power P =0 E= 4πε o r 2 Formula for a.c. P = VI cos φ Watts Line voltage = 3 · phase voltage Power dissipation in a Line current = phase current P = I R Watts 2 resistor Delta connected Line voltage = phase voltage Line current = 3 · phase current Rectification Three phase power P = 3 EL IL cos Φ Controlled half wave EL = line voltage rectifier Average DC voltage = Vm (1 + cos α ) 2π IL = line current Volts cos Φ = power factor Controlled full wave rectifier Average DC voltage = Vm (1 + cos α ) π Electrostatics Volts Quantity Equation Power Factor Instantaneous current.85 × 10 −12 Farads 36π AC Pac = Re(V .51 . The mean power = P = Irms Vrms cos φ Due to a conducting sphere carrying charge E=0 power Q Inside the sphere . .52 - . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Power dissipation Three Phase Alternators Star connected Average power.

Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Quantity Equation Quantity Equation Outside the sphere Q Relation between E and V dV E= E=− 4πε o r 2 dx Just outside a uniformly charged conducting σ For uniform electric field V E = E = sphere or plate εo d • An electric field E is a vector Magnetostatics • The electric field strength is directly proportional to the number of electric field lines per unit cross-sectional area. Physical Quantity Equation • The electric field at the surface of a conductor is perpendicular to the surface. The work done in Qq sin θ bringing a charge q from infinity to some point a distance W = 4πε o r Force on a moving charged particle in a F=q v · B r from A is magnetic field Electric potential W Circulating Charges V = mv 2 q qvB = r Due to a point charge Q V = 4πε o r Calculation of magnetic flux density Due to a conducting sphere. Magnetic flux density (also called the B. If the potential at a point is V. I: B = µo n I.53 . distance from a very long straight wire. F field) is defined as the force acting per unit B= current length. where n = number of of a charge q at that point is carrying current turns per unit length. . • The electric field is zero inside a conductor. of radius a. Work done in bringing charge q from A of potential VA to W = q (VB – VA) Hall effect VH point B of potential VB At equilibrium Q = QvB and VH = B v d d The current in a material is given by I = nQAv .54 - . then the potential energy U = qV Magnetic fields inside a long solenoid. carrying charge Q Physical Quantity Equation Q: V = 4πε o a Inside the sphere Magnetic fields around a long straight wire µo I carrying current I B= Outside the sphere Q 2πa V = 4πε o r where a = perp. Il Quantity Equation Force on a current-carrying conductor in a F = I l BF = I l · B magnetic field And Magnitude of F = F = I l B Suppose a point charge Q is at A.

f.56 - .s round the loop. induced between the center and the rim of a spinning ε = B πr2f I= disc t E. and Flux-linkage = Nφ Kirchoff’s laws Current Sensitivity θ NAB Kirchoff's first law (Junction Theorem) SI = = I c At a junction. is such that it tends to ε = −N φ The net e. induced in a rotating coil Ε = N A B w sin Work W = qV wt Ohm’s Law V = IR Resistances in Series R T = R1 + R 2 K Quantity Equation Resistances in Parallel 1 1 1 Self-induction ε = + K L=− R T R1 R 2 dI / dt N φ =LI Magnetic flux Φ = BA .f.d. and does oppose it if dt induced current flows.f.m. in the primary coil Magnetic flux φ φ = B A cos θ falls. induced in a straight conductor ε =BLv Electric current q E. the total current entering the junction is equal to the total current leaving the junction. The =NIAB e.m. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Physical Quantity Equation Quantity Equation The forces between two current-carrying µ II l Energy stored in an inductor: 1 2 conductors F21 = o 1 2 U= LI 2πa 2 Transformers: VS N S = VP N P Physical Quantity Equation The L R (d. then = N I A B sin 90o the core decreases.m. . round a circuit is equal to the sum of the p..f. Physical Quantity Equation EMF Equations Power W P= = VI t E.) circuit: E The torque on a rectangular coil in a magnetic T = F b sin θ I= (1 − e − Rt / L ) field = N I l B b sinθ R = N I A B sinθ When a great load (or smaller VP − ε p resistance) is connected to Vp -εp = I R. I = If the coil is in a radial field and the plane of the T = N I A B sin θ R the secondary coil. εp.55 .c. Lenz's law d Kirchoff's second law (Loop Theorem) The direction of the induced e. the flux in coil is always parallel to the field.m. oppose the flux-change causing it.m.f.f.m.

2 Applied Mechanics v−u Equations of motion a= . they exert equal and opposite forces on one another. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Electromagnetic (Φ 2 − Φ 1 ) Impulse = force · time = change of momentum induction Emf = − N Ft=mv–mu t emf = l v B Newton's third law of motion When two objects interact. Magnetic force F=I l B "Third-law pair" of forces act on two different bodies. .2. Gravitational potential energy E p = mgh 5. 2.57 . mv 2 Centripetal force F = ma = r Newton's second law of motion mv-mu Newton’s Law of Universal m1m2 F= . s = ut + 21 at 2 .58 - . Gamma rays and X-rays occupy a common region.1 Newton's laws of motion v2 Centripetal acceleration a= Newton' first law of motion r The inertia of a body is the reluctance of the body to change its state of rest or motion. mp is the mass of the planet. The Universal law and the second law must be consistent Electromagnetic spectrum Newton’s Laws of Motion and Their Applications Wavelength λ (m) 102 10 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 Physical Quantity Equations s v+u radio frequencies Average velocity v av = = X-rays t 2 v-u Area of Acceleration a= Spectrum microwaves t visible ultraviolet radiation Momentum p = mv infrared radiation gamma rays Force F = ma Weight weight = mg f(Hz) 10 6 10 7 10 8 9 10 10 10 10 11 12 10 10 10 13 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 1018 19 10 10 20 Work done W = Fs Frequency Kinetic energy E k = 21 mv 2 Note: 1. Shaded areas represent regions of overlap. F=G ∆t Gravitation r2 F=ma . v 2 = u 2 + 2as t 5. Universal Law Transformer turns ratio Vs Ns = F = Gmsmp/d2 Vp Np ms is the mass of the sun. Mass is a measure of inertia.

Speed of light in vaccum equals 3 x 108m/s Tangential. mi/h Conversions: Linear displacement s=rθ 1m/s = 3.2. ω2 = final 1 Velocity: vector property equal to displacement / time θ = ω 1t + αt 2 2 The magnitude of velocity may be referred to as speed α angular acceleration ω 2 2 = ω 1 2 + 2αθ In SI the basic unit is m/s. Quantity Equations In SI the basic unit is m/s2 Tangential acceleration aT is due to angular acceleration aT = rα In Imperial ft/s2 α .61 m/s for each °C acceleration rise. ⎛v+u⎞ moments s=⎜ ⎟ then displacement s. .2 Linear Velocity and Acceleration Physical Quantity Equations Moment of a force M = rF Quantity Equations Principle of ∑M = 0 If u initial velocity and v final velocity. ω1 = initial.60 - . in Imperial ft/s (radians/s2) Other common units are km/h.621 mi/h Linear velocity v=rω Linear.81 m/s2 5.28 2 Gravitational field strength M s2 s g=G r2 Acceleration due to gravity.59 . or tangential aT = r α Speed of sound in dry air is 331 m/s at 0°C and increases by about 0. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Conversion: Physical Quantity Equations m ft 1 = 3. ⎝ 2 ⎠ Stress F Stress = A If t is the elapsed time 1 2 s = ut + at 2 Strain ∆l Strain = l If a is the acceleration v 2 = u 2 + 2as Young’s Modulus F/A Y= Angular Velocity and Acceleration ∆ l/ l Quantity Equations Scalar: a property described by a magnitude only θ angular displacement ω1 + ω 2 (radians) θ= ×t Vector: a property described by a magnitude and a direction 2 • ω angular velocity (radians/s).28 ft/s 1km/h = 0. Centripetal and Total Acceleration Acceleration: vector property equal to change in velocity time. g is 9.

61 . where W is work.2 lb 5. N. such as gravity Torque Equation In Imperial this is usually expressed Ep = w h T = I α where T is the acceleration torque in Nm. J. the unit In Imperial the unit of work is the ft-lb of electrical energy is the kWh Energy Conversions Energy is the ability to do work. defined as a kg m In Imperial the unit of force is the pound lb Conversion: 9. can be calculated from the Where ω is angular velocity in rad/s known weight in pounds weight Potential Energy m= g ft Quantity Equation g = 32. of a rotating point experiencing a = aT + ac Where k is radius of gyration. a push or pull which changes the shape and/or motion of an object Where I = mk2 is the moment of inertia In SI the unit of force is the newton. a. I is the moment of inertia in kg m2 and Where w is weight. (and kJ/kg for specific p = mv [Imperial p = (w/g)v. in slugs. where g = 9.62 - . equal to the (vector) product of a force and the displacement of an 1 Btu = 1055 J object. where w is weight] quantities) in SI unit is kgm / s In Imperial. and kJ.81 N = 2. and ft-lb 1 kWh = 3600 kJ 1 kWh = 3412 Btu = 2. kJ Electrical Energy 1 J = 1 Nm In SI the units of electrical energy are J.2.4 Centripetal (Centrifugal) Force Weight mv 2 The gravitational force of attraction between a mass. ω is angular velocity in rad/s angular acceleration is the vector sum of aT and ac Kinetic Energy of Rotation 1 5. the mass of an object (rarely used). .81 m/s2 Where r is the radius In Imperial. the units are the same as for work.66 x 106 ft-lb Power . m. the units of thermal energy are British Thermal Units (Btu) Work Conversions Scalar quantity. and the mass of the Earth Fc = r In SI weight can be calculated from Weight = F = mg. In SI the common units of thermal energy are J. kJ. J. kJ and kilowatt hours kWh. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Kinetic Energy Centripetal (Centrifugal) acceleration ac is due to change ac = v2/r = r ω2 in direction only 1 ER = mk 2ω 2 2 Total acceleration. F force and s distance 1 Btu = 778 ft-lb W=Fs In SI the unit of work is the joule. symbol p.2 2 s Energy due to position in a force Ep = m g h field.2.3 Force Er = Iω 2 2 Vector quantity. or kilojoule. In simple systems. In Imperial. and h is height α is the angular acceleration in radians/s2 above some specified datum Momentum Thermal Energy Vector quantity.

.294 in.W. p.2 psi = 0.9 Btu Brass 0.0 Pressure Mild steel 2.02 in. water = 703 mm water • COP = Qc/W (refrigerators) • 1 m H2O = 9. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions A scalar quantity.5 psi = 100 kPa • 1 kg/cm2 = 98.3 kPa or 14.2.03 in.7 psi • W = P∆V Pressure Conversions • ∆U = Q – W 1 psi = 6.7 mm mercury • ec = 1 – Tc/Th • 1 psi = 27. the units are: Mechanical Power – (ft – lb) / s.8 In Imperial.55 10 Tungsten 4.1 kPa = 14.5 Stress. p.7 in. equal to the rate of doing work • 1 atmosphere (atm) = 101.981 bar . psi 5.5 mm mercury • Cp/Cv = γ= 5/3 • 1 kPa = 4.81 kPa • COP = Qh /W (heat pumps) • Wmax= (1-Tc/Th)Qh Other pressure unit conversions: • ∆S = Q/T • 1 bar = 14.70 2.7 psi In SI the unit is the Watt W (or kW) J Simple Harmonic Motion 1W = 1 m s Velocity of P = ω R 2 − x 2 s In Imperial. or in units of static fluid head.16 4.895 kPa • W= nRT lnVf/Vi Pressure may be expressed in standard units. or h. in both SI • Q = Cn∆T and Imperial systems • Cv= 3/2R Common equivalencies are: • Cp= 5/2R • 1 kPa = 0.63 .3 Thermodynamics Atmospheric Pressure 5. kW. = 550 s Copper 1.10 11. mercury = 51.0 A vector quantity.3. Strain And Modulus Of Elasticity Thermal Power – Btu / s Electrical Power . force per unit area In SI the basic units of pressure are pascals Pa and kPa Glass 0.948 s Iron (wrought) 1. 5.7 1kW = 0.p.64 - . the basic unit is the pound per square inch.4 1h.93 3.17 1. Young’s modulus and the breaking stress for selected materials Conversions Young modulus Breaking stress 746W = 1h. Material x 1011 Pa x 108 Pa ft − lb Aluminium 0.p.3 kPa = 14. mercury = 7.10 20 N 1Pa = 1 m2 Bone 0. water = 102 mm water • e = 1 – Qc/Qh = W/Qh • 1 psi = 2.1 Laws of Thermodynamics At sea level atmospheric pressure equals 101. horsepower h.90 4.

4 Elastic and Inelastic collision • g = GME / R2E • miv1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f • PE = . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions 5.6 Angular Motion • v = -Aωsin(ωt) • s = rθ • a = -Aω2cos(ωt) • vt = rω • ω = √k / m • at = rα •f = 1 / T • ac = vt2/r = rω2 • T = 2π√m / k • ω = 2π/T • E = ½kA2 • 1 rev = 2π rad = 360o • T = 2π√L / g • vmax = Aω For constant α • amax = Aω2 • ω = ωo + αt •v = λ f v = √FT/µ • ω2 = ωo2 +2αθ • µ = m/L • θ = ωot + ½αt2 • I = P/A • θ = (ωo + ω)·t/2 • β = 10log(I/Io) • I = ∑mr2 • Io = 1 x 10-12 W/m2 • KER = ½Iω2 • f’ = f[(1 ± v0/v)/(1 m vs/v)] • τ = rF • Surface area of the sphere = 4πr2 • ∑τ = Iα • Speed of sound waves = 343 m/s • WR = τθ • L = Iω 5.3.3.3 Impulse • F = Gm1m2/r2 I = Fav∆ t = mvf – mvi • T = 2π / √r3 /GMs • G = 6.10 Standing Waves • ∑τ = Iα • fn = nf1 • WR = τθ • fn = nv/2L (air column.8 Gravity 5. string fixed both ends) n = 1.Gm1m2 / r • (½) miv1i2 + (½) m2v2i2 = ½ m1v1f2 + ½ m2v2f2 • ve = √2GME / RE • miv1i + m2v2i = (m1 + m2)vf • vs = √GME / r • ME = 5. • L = Iω • fn = nv/4L (open at one end) n = 1.97 x 1024 kg 5.37 x 106 m • xcm = ∑mx/M • Vcm = ∑mv/M 5.3.3.3.3.9 Vibrations & Waves • Acm = ∑ma/M • F = -kx • MAcm = Fnet • PEs = ½kx2 • x = Acosθ = Acos(ωt) 5.3.3.66 - .2 Momentum • ∑ Fy = 0 • p = mv • ∑τ = 0 (any axis) • ∑F = ∆p/∆t 5.11 Beats 5.4…….5.3.5 Center of Mass • RE = 6.65 .7 Conditions of Equilibrium • fbeats = | f1 – f2 | • ∑ Fx = 0 • Fluids .3.67 x 10-11N-m2/kg2 5.3.2.3.7……… • Li = Lf 5. .

3.3.3.38 × 10-23 J/K V1 V2 = • M=NAm T1 T2 • (KE)av=(1/2mv2 )av= 3/2kT • U= 3/2NkT = 3/2nRT where V is volume and T is absolute temperature .3.31 J/mol K T • PV = NkT or • NA = 6. • H = Q/t =(kA∆T)/L 5. • R = 8. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions • ρ = m/V 5.01 x 105Pa = 14. • PV = nRT V = const.01 × 105 Pa • Wa=W-FB 5.7 lb/in2 • S = Fh/A∆x • FB = ρfVg = Wf (weight of the displaced fluid) • B = –Vo∆F / A∆V • ρo/ρf = Vf /Vo (floating object) • Volume of the sphere = 4πr3/3 • ρwater = 1000 kg/m 3 • 1 atm = 1.3.17 Latent Heat • Q = mL • Latent heat of fusion of ice = 335 kJ/kg • 1 kcal = 4186 J • Latent heat of steam from and at 100°C = 2257 kJ/kg • Heat Loss = Heat Gain • 1 tonne of refrigeration = 335 000 kJ/day = 233 kJ/min • Q = (kA∆T)t/L.3.68 - .18 Gas Laws Boyle’s Law • Q = eσT4At When gas temperature is constant • P = Q/t PV = constant or • P = σAeT4 P1V1 = P2V2 • P net= σAe(T4-TS4) Where P is absolute pressure and V is volume • σ = 5.15 • M=mass • ρ= m/v • C=specific heat • ∆L = αLo∆T • ∆T=temperature chance • ∆A = γAo∆T • ∆V = βVo∆T β=3α • Q = mc∆T 5.16 Sensible Heat Equation • Q=mc∆T • T= TC+273.67 .67 × 10-8 W/m 2K4 Charles’ Law 5.12 Temperature and Heat • K = °C + 273 (K Kelvin) • TF= 9/5TC+32 • TC= 5/9(TF-32) • ∆TF = 9/5∆TC 5.13 Ideal Gases When gas pressure is constant.15 Temperature Scales Equation of Continuity: Av = constant • °C = 5/9 (°F – 32) Bernoulli’s equation: P + ½ ρv2 + ρgy = 0 • °F = 5/9 (°C + 32) • °R = °F + 460 (R Rankine) 5.14 Elastic Deformation • P = F/A • P = F/A • P2 = P1 + ρgh • Y = FLo/A∆L • Patm = 1.3.02 × 1023 molecules/mol • k = 1. .

85 1.043 0.825 0.153 1.632 0.66 P1 P2 Hydrogen 14.451 1.40 V = volume (m3) T = absolute temp (K) 5. kJ/kgK or kJ/kgK or γ= cp / cv T kJ/kg oC kJ/kg oC or Helium 5.235 10.751 1. .3. Oxygen 0.30 Sulphide where P is absolute pressure and T is absolute temperature Methane 2.40 P1V1 P2V 2 = = const.20 Efficiency of Heat Engines m = mass (kg) R = characteristic constant (kJ/kgK) Carnot Cycle Also T1 − T2 PV = nRoT where P = absolute pressure (kPa) η= T1 V = volume (m3) T = absolute temperature K where T1 and T2 are absolute temperatures of heat source and sink N = the number of kmoles of gas Ro = the universal gas constant 8. GAS Pressure Volume Specific P = const.718 1.3.41 = T1 T2 Hydrogen 1.630 1.652 1.314 kJ/kmol/K Air Standard Efficiencies Spark Ignition Gas and Oil Engines (Constant Volume Cycle) 1 5.561 1.913 0.096 1.005 0.177 1.32 R = ratio of cut-off volume to clearance volume Carbon Dioxide 0.40 Where r = ratio of compression Ammonia 2.675 1.051 0.234 3.745 1.19 Specific Heats Of Gases η = 1 − (γ −1) rv rv= compression ratio Specific Heat Specific Heat at Constant at Constant Ratio of γ = specific heat (constant pressure) / Specific heat (constant volume) GAS Pressure Volume Specific Diesel Cycle kJ/kgK or kJ/kgK or γ= cp / cv kJ/kg oC kJ/kg oC Rγ − 1) η =1− γ −1 rv γ ( R − 1) Air 1.70 - . Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Gay-Lussac's Law Specific Heat Specific Heat at Constant at Constant Ratio of When gas volume is constant.30 General Gas Law Nitrogen 1.31 High Speed Diesel (Dual-Combustion) Cycle Carbon 1.060 1.40 kβ γ − 1 Monoxide η =1 rv γ −1 [(k − 1) + γk ( β − 1)] .105 0.40 T1 T2 P V = m R T where P = absolute pressure (kPa) Sulphur Dioxide 0.69 .

04 Where ms = mass flow rate of steam Wood 0.076 m s (h1 − h2 ) Equivalent evaporation = paper 2257 kj / kg Aluminum 206 (h1 − h2 ) Factor of evaporation = 2257 kj / kg Brick 0. fibre 0. cast 70 N2 Air in kg per kg of fuel = ×C 33(CO2 + CO) Steel 60 Boiler Formulae Wallboard.3.3. cellular 0.7C + 144( H 2 − ) + 9.0 Air Supplied from Analysis of Flue Gases Iron.72 - . 0. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Where rv= cylinder volume / clearance volume 5.043 ⎣3 ⎦ 23 Glass 1.23 Chemical Heating Value of a Fuel O2 Chemical Heating Value MJ per kg of fuel = 33.85 ⎡8 ⎤ 100 Air (kg per kg of fuel) = ⎢ C + 8( H 2 − O2 ) + S ⎥ Cork 0.04 mf × (calorificvalue) Plastic.038 m s (h1 − h2 ) Glass.71 .22 Thermal Expansion of Solids k = absolute pressure at the end of constant V heating (combustion) / absolute pressure at Increase in length = L α (T2 – T1) the beginning of constant V combustion Where L = original length β = volume at the end of constant P heating (combustion) / clearance α = coefficient of linear expansion volume (T2 – T1) = rise in temperature Increase in volume = V β (T2 – T1) Gas Turbines (Constant Pressure or Brayton Cycle) Where V = original volume 1 β = coefficient of volumetric expansion η =1− ⎛ γ −1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟ (T2 – T1) = rise in temperature r p⎝ γ ⎠⎟ Coefficient of volumetric expansion = Coefficient of linear expansion × 3 where rp = pressure ratio = compressor discharge pressure / compressor intake pressure β = 3α 5. .21 Heat Transfer by Conduction 5.6 Copper 380 Boiler Efficiency Felt 0.025 S is the mass of sulphur per kg of fuel Brass 104 Theoretical Air Required to Burn Fuel Concrete 0.15 h1 = enthalpy of steam produced in boiler h2 = enthalpy of feedwater to boiler mf = mass flow rate of fuel .3S Material Coefficient of Thermal 8 Conductivity C is the mass of carbon per kg of fuel W/m °C H2 is the mass of hydrogen per kg of fuel O2 is the mass of oxygen per kg of fuel Air 0.3.

= mc p (T2 − T1 ) P(V2-V1) mc v (T2 − T1 ) mc p (T2 − T1 ) mc n log e ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ P=Pressure T2 V2 ⎝ T1 ⎠ Isothermal P1 V2 ⎛P⎞ ⎛P⎞ ⎛P⎞ 1 = -.74 - . mRT log e ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ mRT log e ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ 0 0 mR log e ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ T=Constant P2 V1 ⎝ P2 ⎠ ⎝ P2 ⎠ ⎝ P2 ⎠ γ γ −l γ −1 Isentropic P1 ⎡V2 ⎤ T1 ⎡ P1 ⎤ γ T1 ⎡V2 ⎤ γ =⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ 0 mc v (T1 − T2 ) mc v (T2 − T1 ) mc p (T2 − T1 ) 0 S=Constant =⎢ ⎥ P2 ⎣ V1 ⎦ T2 ⎣ P2 ⎦ T2 ⎣ V1 ⎦ n n −l n −1 Polytropic P1 ⎡V2 ⎤ n T1 ⎡V2 ⎤ mR ⎛T ⎞ PVn = n =⎢ ⎥ T1 ⎡ P1 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ mc n (T2 − T1 ) (T1 − T2 ) mc v (T2 − T1 ) mc p (T2 − T1 ) mc n log e ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ =⎢ ⎥ Constant P2 ⎣ V1 ⎦ T2 ⎣ P2 ⎦ T2 ⎣ V1 ⎦ n −1 ⎝ T1 ⎠ Thermodynamic Equations for perfect gases *Can be used for reversible adiabatic processes cv = Specific heat at constant volume. cp/cv n = polytropic exponent P = Pressure. mc v (T2 − T1 ) 0 mc v (T2 − T1 ) mc p (T2 − T1 ) mc v log e ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ V=Constant T2 P2 ⎝ T1 ⎠ Constant T1 V1 ⎛T ⎞ pressure 0 -. K = 273+˚C U = Internal Energy.73 - Formulas and Conversions ⎛γ − n⎞ cm = Specific heat for polytropic process = cv ⎜ ⎟kJ / kgK ⎝ 1− n ⎠ H = Enthalpy. -. kJ/K T = Absolute Temperature. kJ/kgK . = -. Formulas and Conversions P-V-T Relationships Change in Name of Value Change in Change in Heat added Work done Internal process of n Enthalpy Entropy Energy P-V T-P T-V Constant T1 P1 ⎛T ⎞ Volume ∞ -. kJ V = Volume. kJ/kgK S = Entropy. kPa R = Gas content. m3 m = Mass of gas. kJ/kgK cp = Specific heat at constant pressure. -. kJ γ = Isentropic Exponent. kg .

5 Glass 0.093 12.130 14.6 Silicon 0.76 - .4 Carbon 0.452 13.135 50.383 18.388 16.544 10.4 Brass 0.82 Mercury 0.0 Platinum 0.75 - Formulas and Conversions Specific Heat and Volume Expansion for Liquids Specific Heat Coefficient of Volume Expansion Liquid (at 20 o C ) (Multiply by 10-4) KJ/kgK or kJ/kg o C Alcohal 2.125 12.135 Gasoline 2.494 12.4 Iron (cast) 0.470 11.0 Tin 0.5 Bismuth 0.0 Ammonia 0.5 .7 .2 o o Ice (between -20 C & 0 C ) 2.741 7.0 Gold 0.389 16.4 Carbon Dioxide 3. Formulas and Conversions Coefficient of Linear Expansion Specific Heat and Linear Mean Specific Heat between 0 o C between 0 o C and 100 o C Expansion of Solids and 100 o C kJ/kgK or kJ/kg o C (multiply by 10-6) Aluminum 0.643 1.230 26.8 Antimony 0.131 29.800 9.209 17.80 Olive oil 1.9 Cobalt 0.402 12.138 12.465 12.4 Iron (wrought) 0.795 7.4 Water 4.5 Steel (mild) 0.473 Benzine 1.3 Copper 0.183 3.7 Zinc 0.139 1.0 Turpentine 1.909 23.633 Petroleum 2.0 Nickel 0.134 8.235 19.8 Silver 0.896 9.0 Lead 0.

7 9. .3 6. the volumetric flow rate Q of the fluid is given by 3/4 26.91 2. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions 5.5 2.4.7 20.02 in small pipes 5.77 .1 Discharge from an Orifice Where B = breadth (m) H = head (m above sill) Triangular Right Angled Notch: Q = 2.960 × 10-4 At the vena contracta.6 and 0.4 26.653 × 10-4 • Typically.660 × 10-5 1/4 13.3 15.6 3.65 • Circular orifice: Q = 0.1 3.574 × 10-4 • Or Q = C c AC v 2 gh 1¼ 42.3 Actual pipe dimensions Nominal Outside Inside Wall Flow area pipe size diameter diameter thickness (m2) (in) (mm) (mm) (mm) 1/8 10.8 2.3 40.87 3.62 (B · H) 2/3 √2gh .73 3.2 2.24 6717 × 10-5 3/8 17.2 Bernoulli’s Theory And Ac = cross-sectional area of the jet at the vena π 2 conrtacta dc 4 P v2 H =h+ + Then Ac = CcA Ac ⎛ d c ⎞ 2 w 2g Or C c = =⎜ ⎟ A ⎝ d ⎠ H = total head (meters) w = force of gravity on 1 m3 of fluid (N) Where Cc is the coefficient of contraction h = height above datum level (meters) v = velocity of water (meters per second) P = pressure (N/m2 or Pa) Loss of Head in Pipes Due to Friction L v2 Loss of head in meters = f d 2g L = length in meters v = velocity of flow in meters per second d = diameter in meters f = constant value of 0.4.38 5.1 12. values for Cd vary between 0.4 Fluid Mechanics 5.168 × 10-3 • Rectangular notch: Q = 0.31 1.635 H5/2 Let A = cross-sectional area of the orifice = π Where H = head (m above sill) d2 4 5.5 3.77 1.437 × 10-4 • Q = area of the jet at the vena contracta · actual velocity = AcV 1 33.3 52.56 9.9 2.236 × 10-4 1/2 21.62 A √2gh 1½ 48.9 3.8 1.2 35.78 - .68 1.4.314 ×10-3 • Where Q = flow (m /s) A = area (m ) h = head (m) 3 2 2 60.01 in large pipes to 0.

9 52.6 333. 209.4 87. 178.94 9.090 × 10-2 Li Be B C N O F Ne 6.06 0.0 35. 195.8 0 8 6 0 4 0 4 5 3 0 5 8 2 9 2 6 0 0 20 508.864 × 10-2 H 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A He 1.9 5.0 16.7 17.9 24.1140 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 18 457.9 32. 152.9 78.226 × 10-2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 273.2 92.2594 85.8 12.0 30. 127. 137.1 7.2 428.7 72. 112.70 0.45 0.090 × 10-3 3 88. 173.1 40. 118. 231.7 5. 106.02 8.213 × 10-3 A 8A 5 141.3 69.10 8.6 574. 227. 162. 238.8 58.9 47. 7 2 1 2 1 4 1 9 4 9 4 8 7 8 6 9 3 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 132. 107.74 6.00 8 3 8 219.9 101. 204.2 6.7 63. 140.6 88.4 381.7 14.381 × 10-3 6. 167. 1 9 2 4 0 3 9 5 9 3 9 0 0 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 232.291 × 10-2 1 18 1 2 6 168. 144. (145) 150.16 3.9 15. 157. 158.00 2 13 14 15 16 17 4.0 477. 237.0 62.3 154.9 97.9 303.9 95. (261) (262) (266) (264) (265) (268) 0 0 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 140. 192.0 14.80 - .9 58.3 6.11 1. 183.1443 39.1 254.0 19.2 10.49 4.9 79.729 × 10-2 22.1 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 8 12 323. .0 54.7 8. 131.79 . 180.31 7. 168.5 74.9 91.9 77. 164.27 0. 186.3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 26.3 102.5 65.5 9. (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (262) 0 0 0 0 .0 20.9 28.1794 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 24 609.01 10. 175.9 50.18 3.3 128. Formulas and Conversions Formulas and Conversions Nominal Outside Inside Wall Flow area pipe size diameter diameter thickness (m2) (in) (mm) (mm) (mm) Chapter 6 2½ 73.6 90. 126.4 11. 190. 102. 207.0 44.1 Periodic Table of Elements 4 114. (209) (210) (222) 9 3 9 5 9 8 2 2 2 1 0 6 4 2 0 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (223) 226.1 5.4 39.9 83. 121. 197.9 9 1 8 9 7 7 5 5 16 406. 200.55 1.219 × 10-2 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si P S Cl Ar 14 355.768 × 10-3 References 3½ 101. 138.9 55.1 202.27 5.0 12. 114.

Formulas and Conversions 6.81 - .2 Resistor Color Coding Color Value Black 0 Brown 1 Red 2 Orange 3 Yellow 4 Green 5 Blue 6 Violet / Purple 7 Grey 8 White 9 Courtesy: Dick Smith Electronics. Australia .

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quality focused support staff. In site. • Improve your troubleshooting abilities CUSTOMIZED TRAINING • Sharpen your competitive edge In addition to standard on-site training. Institution of Engineers New Zealand) CLIENT FOCUS IDC’s independence and impartiality guarantee that clients receive unbiased advice and CERTIFICATE OF ATTENDANCE recommendations. 100% MONEY BACK GUARANTEE IDC Technologies’ engineers have put considerable time and experience into ensuring that you gain maximum value from each workshop. The company has thirty-five professional IDC workshops satisfy criteria for Continuing Professional Development for most engineering engineers. If by lunch time of the first day you decide that the workshop is not appropriate for your requirements. Institution of Measurement and Control in the UK. Expert knowledge and experience – of the course topic are reflected in the increased efficiency of their operations and equipment.com assess the presentation after each class to ensure that the instructor stays on track in presenting SAVE OVER 50% outstanding courses. charts. 2. please let us know so that we can arrange a 100% refund of your fee. Organizations can save valuable training dollars by holding courses on- We deliver engineering and technology training that will maximize your business goals. With our "Training that Works" workshops are tailored to meet with our client's training requirements and courses can be objective you and your organization will: presented at beginners. you require training that will help you and your organization to systems and equipment so that attendees obtain the greatest benefit from the training. Listening skills – they listen carefully to the needs of the participants and want to ensure that For more information or a FREE proposal please contact our Client Services Manager: you benefit from the experience Each and every instructor is evaluated by the delegates and we Kevin Baker: business@idc-online. hands-on sessions where the delegates are ten years to organizations around the world. All on-site achieve its goals and produce a large return on investment. PROFESSIONALLY STAFFED IDC Technologies consists of an enthusiastic and experienced team that is committed to ACCREDITATION AND CONTINUING EDUCATION providing the highest quality in consulting services. ON-SITE TRAINING TECHNICAL WORKSHOPS On-site training is a cost-effective method of training for companies with several employees to TECHNOLOGY TRAINING THAT WORKS train in a particular area. You may EXPERT INSTRUCTORS select components of current IDC workshops to be combined with additional topics or we can We search the world for good quality instructors who have three key attributes: design a course entirely to your specifications. specific and individual requirements. IDC has the engineering and training expertise and • Save time and money resources to work closely with clients in preparing and presenting specialized courses. SPECIALIST CONSULTING HANDS-ON APPROACH TO TRAINING IDC Technologies has been providing high quality specialist advice and consulting for more than All IDC Technologies workshops include practical. A fully illustrated workshop manual with hundreds of pages of tables. Specific areas of interest to the client can also be covered in more • Improve the operation and design of your equipment and plant detail. The benefits to companies in adopting this option 1. . figures and handy hints. focused on providing the best technical and economical solutions to the client's Each delegate receives a Certificate of Attendance documenting their experience. Superb training abilities – to ensure the know-how is transferred effectively and quickly to you in a practical hands-on way ON-SITE & CUSTOMIZED TRAINING 3. Institution of Engineers in Australia. intermediate or advanced levels based on the knowledge and experience • Get job-related skills that you need to achieve your business goals of the delegates in attendance. where costs are significantly less. IDC Technologies specializes in developing customized • Boost morale and retain valuable staff courses to meet our client's training needs. as well as a vast resource base of specialists in their professional associations throughout the world (incl. challenges to engineers. Other benefits are IDC's ability to focus on particular today's competitive environment. The Institution of Electrical Engineers and relevant fields. We pride our selves on being the premier QUALITY MANUALS provider of practical and cost-effective engineering solutions. The technological world today presents tremendous given the opportunity to apply in practice the theory they have learnt. plus considerable reference material is provided FREE of charge to each delegate. scientists and technicians in keeping up to date and taking advantage of the latest developments in the key technology areas.

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LEEK LTD • CRUICKSHANKS LTD • DARESBURY LABORATORIES • DATEL RAIL SYSTEMS • DRAX POWER STATION • ELF ONTARIO • CITY OF OTTAWA •CITY OF SASKATOON • CONOCO CANADA LIMITED • DEPT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE .CANADA •BC HYDRO • BOMBARDIER • CITY OF LONDON .CANADA • EXPLORATION UK PLC • ENERGY LOGISTICS • EURO TUNNEL • EUROTHERM • EUROTUNNEL • EVESHAM MICROS • EXPRO ENBRIDGE PIPELINES • ENMAX • FORD ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING PLANT • GE ENERGY SERVICES • GENERAL MOTORS NORTH SEA LTD • EXULT LTD • FIRST ENGINEERING LTD • FISHER ROSEMOUNT • GEC METERS • GENESIS OIL & GAS •GUILLEVIN AUTOMATION • HUSKY OIL • IMC LTD • IMPERIAL OIL • INCO LTD •KALPEN VACHHARAJANI • KEYANO COLLEGE • CONSULTANTS • GLAXO CHEM • GLAXO SMITH KLINE • GLAXO WELLCOME • GRAMPION REGIONAL COUNCIL • GREAT LABRADOR HYDRO • MANITOBA HYDRO • MANITOBA LOTTERIES CORP • MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEW FOUNDLAND • YARMOUTH POWER • HALLIBURTON KBR • HAMWORHTY COMBUSTION • HONEYWELL .VANCOUVER • ONTARIO HYDRO • • ICI NOBEL ENTERPRISES • ICS TRIPLEX • IGGESUND PAPER BOARD • INMARSAT LTD • INSTEM LIMITED • JOHN BROWN OTTAWA HYDRO• PETRO CANADA • POWER MEASUREMENT LTD • SASKATCHEWAN POWER •SPARTAN CONTROLS • STONE ENGINEERING • JOHNSON MATTHEY • KODAK • KVAERNER ENERGY • LEVER FABRIGE • LINDSAY OIL REFINERY • LLOYDS • CONSOLIDATED • STORA • SUNCOR ENERGY •SYNCRUDE • TELUS • TRANS CANADA PIPELINES • TROJAN TECHNOLOGIES LOGICA • LUCAS AEROSPACE • MERSEY TUNNELLS • METHODE ELECTRONICS • METTLER TOLEDO • MILLTRONICS • MOBIL •WASCANA ENERGY • WEST COAST ENERGY • WEYERHAUSER OIL • MONTELL • MWH GLOBAL • NDC INFRARED • NEC SEMICONDUCTORS • NISSAN UK • NORTHERN LIGHTHOUSE BOARD • OKI EUROPE LTD • ORGANON LABORATORIES LTD • PHARMA SITE ENGINEERING • PHILLIPS PETROLEUM • POWERGEN • FRANCE QINETIQ • RAIL TRACK SYSTEMS • RIG TECH • ROBERTS & PARTNERS • ROLLS ROYCE • ROVER GROUP • RUGBY CEMENT • SCHLUMBERGER SCOTTISH COURAGE • SCOTTISH HYDRO ELECTRIC PLC • SCOTTISH POWER • SHELL CHEMICALS • SHELL UK EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION • SHOTTON PAPER PLC • SIEMENS .NASA • AK STEEL CORPORATION • ALCATEL • ALLEN BRADLEY • AMERICAN PFIZER • PILZ IRELAND •PROSCON ENGINEERING ELECTRIC POWER/RADISSON AIRPORT HOTEL • AMGEN INCORPORATED • ANDERSEN CORPORATION • ARROW INTERNATIONAL • ASTRA ZENECA PHARMACEUTICALS • AVISTA CORPORATION • BOEING • BOWATER NEWSPRINT • CENTRAL KOREA MAINE POWER COMPANY • CHEVRON • CITY OF DETROIT • DAISHOWA PAPER MILL • DEGUSSA CORPORATION • DEPT OF US DEPT OF THE ARMY ENERGY • DEQUESNE LIGHT • DETROIT WATER • EXXON MOBIL CHEMICAL COMPANY • FMC CORPORATION • GENERAL MONITORS • HARNISCHFEGER • HOME STAKE MINING CO • HONEYWELL • HUGHES AIRCRAFT • IDM CONTROLS • ISA • K-TRON INSTITUTE • LCRA • LIFESCAN • LONGVIEW FIBER • LOOP LLC • LUCAS BODY SYSTEMS • MCKEE FOODS • MILLTRONICS • MALAWI NASA • PARKER COMPUTER • PEPPERL FUCHS • PHELPS DODGE • PHILIP MORRIS • PROCESS EQUIPMENT COMPANY • DWANGA SUGAR CORPORATION RALSTON PURINA • SAN DIEGO COUNTY WATER AUTHORITY • SAN FRANCISCO WATER DEPARTMENT • SANTA CLARA VALLEY WATER • SECURITIES INDUSTRY AUTOMATION CORP • SERANO LABORATORIES • SIEMENS POWER • SIEMENS MALAYSIA WESTINGHOUSE • SPAWAR SYSTEMS CENTER • SPEEDFAM CORP • STILL WATER MINING CORPORATION • TOYOTA MOTOR GERMAN MALAYSIA INSTITUTE MANUFACTURING • TUCSON ELECTRIC • UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORP (UTC) • UNOCAL ALASKA RESOURCES • UTILITY ENGINEERING • VALTEK • WASHINGTON WATER POWER • WISCONSIN POWER • ZENECA NAMIBIA NAMIBIAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION • NAMPOWER • NAMWATER ZIMBABWE TRIANGLE LIMITED NEW ZEALAND ACI PACKAGING • AJ GREAVES • ANCHOR PRODUCTS • AUCKLAND REGIONAL COUNCIL • BALLANCE AGRI NUTRIENTS • CONTACT ENERGY • ENZAFOODS NZ LTD • ERICCSON • FISHER & PAYKEL • GEC ALSTHOM • JAMES HARDIE • METHANEX NZ LTD • NATURAL GAS NZ • NZ MILK PRODUCTS • NZ WATER AND WASTE ASSOC • NORSKE SKOG • NZ ALUMINIUM SMELTERS • NZ REFINING CO • PAN PAC FOREST PRODUCTS • POWERCO • ROCKWELL NZ • ROTORUA DISTRICT COUNCIL • ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY • THE UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND • SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ELECTRIC COMPANY SINGAPORE .ABERDEEN • HONEYWELL BRACKNELL MILLTRONICS • NEW BRUNSWICK POWER • NOVA CHEMICALS •NXTPHASE CORPORATION .AUTOMATION & DRIVES • STRATHCLYDE WATER • SUN VALLEY POULTRY • SWALEK • TEXACO PEMBROKE • THAMES WATER • TMD TECHNOLOGIES LTD • TOTAL OIL MARINE • TOYOTA UK • TRANSCO • INDIA TRANSCO LOCKERLEY COMPRESSOR • TREND CONTROL SYSTEMS LTD • UKAEA • UNITED KINGDOM PAPER • VG GAS • MASIBUS VICTREX PLC • VSEC • WATER SERVICE • YARROW SHIPBUILDERS • YORKSHIRE ELECTRIC • YORKSHIRE ELECTRIC IRELAND USA BAYER DIAGNOSTICS • ESB DISTRIBUTION • INTEL • IRISH CEMENT • JANNSEN PHARMACEUTICALS LTD • MICROSOL LIMITED • ACW INCORPORATED • AERO SYSTEMS . DRIEFONTEIN GOLD MINE • EASTERN CAPE TECH • EMERGENCY SERVICES. ACTIVEMEDIA INNOVATION PTE LTD • FLOTECH CONTROLS • LAND TRANSPORT AUTHORITY • NGEE ANN POLYTECHNIC • COMPANIES WHO HAVE BENEFITED FROM IDC OWER SERAYA LTD • WESTINGHOUSE • YOKOGAWA SINGAPORE TECHNOLOGIES’ TRAINING: SOUTH AFRICA AUSTRALIA AMATOLA DISTRICT COUNCIL • ANGLO AMERICAN • BATEMAN METALS • CALTEX REFINERIES • CHEVRON ANGOLA • AIR DUCTER • AIR SERVICES • ALCOA • ALINTA GAS • AMPOL REFINERIES •ANSTO • AUSTRALIAN COMMUNICATIONS COLUMBUS STAINLESS • DE BEERS KIMBERLEY • DE BEERS VENETIA MINE • DEBEERS DEBTECH • DURBAN METRO• EAST AUTHORITY • AUSTRALIAN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY • AUSTRALIAN RAIL ROAD GROUP • BHP BILLITON • BHP BILLITON .ORAPA MINE 24 SEVEN • ABB AUTOMATION LTD • AER RIANTA • AIR PRODUCTS • ALLEN STEAM TURBINES/ROLLS ROYCE • ALLIED COLLOIDS • ALLIED DISTILLERS • ALSTOM • AMEC DESIGN & MANAGEMENT • BAE SYSTEMS • BAILEY ICS • BBC ENGINEERING • BECHTEL • BNFL .JWANENG MINE • DE BEERS .CLYDE REFINERY • SNOWY MOUNTAIN HYDRO• SPC FRUIT • STANWELL POWER STATION • TELSTRA • THOMPSON MARCONI SONAR • TIWEST • TRANSEND NETWORKS PTY LTD • UNCLE BENS • VISION FIRE & SECURITY • WESFARMERS CSBP • WESTERN POWER • WESTRAIL • WMC . METRORAIL • ESKOM • GRINTEK EWATION • PETROLEUM DIVISION • BHP IRON ORE • BOC GASES • BOEING CONSTRUCTORS INC • BRISBANE CITY COUNCIL • BRITISH HIGHVELD STEEL •HILLSIDE • ILLOVO SUGAR • IMPALA PLATINUMS • ISCOR • IST • JOY MINING •KOEBURG POWER STATION • AEROSPACE AUSTRALIA • CAMMS AUSTRALIA PTY LTD • CHK WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES •CI TECHNOLOGIES • CITIWATER LEVER PONDS • METSO AUTOMATION •MIDDLEBURG FERROCHROME • MINTEK • MONDI KRAFT • MOSSGAS •NAMAQUA TOWNSVILLE • CITY WEST WATER • CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY • COMALCO ALUMINIUM • CSIRO • DELTA ELECTRICITY • DEPT SANDS • NESTLE • NKOMATI MINE • OMNIA FERTILISERS • ORBICOM• OTB • PALABORA MINING • POTGIETERUS MUNICIPALITY • PROCONICS PTY LTD • RAND WATER BOARD • RDI • RICHARDS BAY MINERALS • SA NAVY • SABC• SALDANHA STEEL • SANS OF DEFENCE • DEPT OF TRANSPORT AND WORKS • DSTO • DUKE ENERGY INTERNATIONAL • EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT • ENERGEX •ERG GROUP • ERGON ENERGY • ETSA • FMC FOODTECH PTY LTD • FOOD SCIENCE AUSTRALIA • FIBRES • SAPPI DURBAN • SASOL COAL • SASOL MSM ROTATING EQUIPMENT • SASOL SYNTHETIC FUELS • SATRA • SILDANHA GHD CONSULTING ENGINEERS • GIPPSLAND WATER •GLADSTONE TAFE COLLEGE • GORDON BROTHERS INDUSTRIES LTD STEEL • SKILLTEC • SPOORNET • STEINMULLER AFRICA • TRANSTEL EASTERN REGION • UMGENI WATER • WATER •GOSFORD CITY COUNCIL • GREAT SOUTHERN ENERGY • HAMERSLEY IRON •HEWLETT PACKARD • HOLDEN • HOLDEN LTD • UTILISATION CORPORATION • WESTERN PLATINUM • WITWATERSRAND TECHNIKON • YELLAND CONTROLS HONEYWELL • I&E SYSTEMS PTY LTD • INTEGRAL ENERGY • KALGOORLIE NICKEL SMELTER • METRO BRICK• MILLENIUM CHEMICALS • MISSION ENERGY • MT ISA MINES • MURDOCH UNIVERSITY • MURDOCH UNIVERSITY • NABALCO • NEC • NHP SWAZILAND ELECTRICAL •NILSON ELECTRIC • NORMANDY GOLD • NORTH PARKES MINES • NU-LEC INDUSTRIES AUSTRALIA LTD • SIMUNYE SUGAR PARKER HANNAFIN • PEAK GOLD MINES •PHARMACIA & UPJOHN • POWER & WATER AUTHORITY NT (PAWA) • POWERCOR • POWERLINK • PROSPECT ELECTRICITY • QETC • QUEENSLAND ALUMINA •RAAF AIRCRAFT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TANZANIA UNIT • RAAF BASE WILLIAMTOWN • RAYTHEON • RGC MINERAL SANDS • RLM SYSTEMS • ROBE RIVER IRON ASSOCIATES • GOLDEN PRIDE MINE ROYAL DARWIN HOSPITAL • SANTOS LTD •SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC • SHELL .KALGOORLIE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES NICKEL SMELTER • WMC FERTILIZERS • WOODSIDE • WORSLEY ALUMINA • WYONG SHIRE • YOKOGAWA AUSTRALIA EUROMATECH • PROMIS GROUP BOTSWANA UNITED KINGDOM DE BEERS .

practical engineering and technology training” .COMPANY MISSION “To provide our clients with measurable and significant productivity gains through excellence in cutting edge.

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