MULTICELLULAR • A waxy, water-resistant cuticle is

ORGANIZATION often secreted by epidermal cells
on the aerial parts of the plant.
Multicellular Level • Periderm - It constitutes the
• Tissue - A group of cells that have corky outer bark of old trees.
similar structure and function • Functional cork cells are dead; the
• Organ - It is made up of tissues waterproofed cell walls of the
group together into a structural periderm functions as protective
and functional unit. outer covering.
• System - A group of interacting
organs that have a common
function. Fundamental Tissue
• A. Parenchyma - Tissue occurs in
TISSUE roots, stems and leaves.
1.1 Plant Tissues • They are unspecialized vegetative
• Meristematic Tissues - Tissues cells similar to those of lower
that are found in regions of active plants.
cell division that are made of • They may be meristematic and
immature cells. may sometimes undergo further
• Permanent Tissues - Plant specialization.
tissues that are more mature and • The cells have thin primary walls
differentiated cells. and no secondary walls.
• 1.1.1 Meristematic Tissue • Most of the chloroplasts of leaves
• Apical Meristems – can be found are in the cells of parenchyma
at the growing tips of roots and tissue, and it is here that
stems. They are responsible for photosynthesis occurs.
increase in plant length. • Stems and roots have parenchyma
• Lateral Meristems – those found that function for storage of
at the periphery roots and stems. nutrients and water.
They responsible for increase in • B. Collenchyma - It is a simple
plant girth. tissue with cells that remain alive
• 1.1.2 Permanent Tissue during most of their functional
• Surface Tissue - They are existence.
protective outer covering of the • The cells are more elongated and
plant body. the primary walls are irregular
• Fundamental Tissue - This type thickened.
of tissue is neither surface nor • Collenchyma tissue functions for
vascular tissue. support.
• Vascular Tissue - Higher plants • C. Schlerenchyma -
have a distinctive vascular, or Schlerenchyma cells which also
conductive tissue. functions for support are divided Surface Tissue into fibers and sclereids.
• Epidermis - It is the principal • Fibers – are long cells with
surface tissue or roots, stems and tapered ends. They are tough
leaves. and strong, but flexible.
• It is thicker in plants living in dry Commercial flax and hemp
habitats and protects the plants are derived from standards of
against excessive water loss. schlerenchyma.
• Epidermal cells are mostly flat and • Sclereids – are irregular in
with little intercellular space shape. The simpler,
between cells. unbranced sclereids, called
stone cells, are found in • The covering or lining of all free
nutshells and hard parts of body surfaces, both external and
seeds. internal, is made up of epithelial
• D. Endodermis tissue.
• Occurs as a layer surrounding the • The tissue is found on the outer
vascular-tissue core of roots. portion of the skin, the linings of
• The cells occur in a single layer and the digestive tract, lungs, blood
are compactly arranged without vessels, ducts and body cavity.
intercellular spaces. • According to thickness, epithelial
• Vascular Tissue tissue may be simple, if it is only
It incorporates cells that function as one cell thick, or stratified, if it is
tubes or ducts through which water and two or more cells thick. A
numerous substances in solution move pseudostratified epithelium looks
from one part of the plant body to stratified, but actually is not.
another. • Epithelial tissues are separated
• A.Xylem from the underlying tissue by an
• When water and minerals are extracellular fibrous basement
absorbed by the roots of a plant, membrane.
these substances must be • Some epithelial tissues may be
transported up to the plant’s stems specialized to secrete certain
and leaves through the xylem. substances, in which case it is
• There are 2 kinds of conducting called a glandular epithelium.
cells present in xylem: • Some type, such as the inner lining
1. Tracheids - They are long of ovary and tubules of the testis
narrow, cells of xylem with are specialized to produce gametes
thin separation between or sex cells.
them. A. Squamos - have the
2. Vessel Elements - They are appearance of thin, flat
short wide cells of xylem with plates.
no end walls. B. Cuboidal -They are cube-
• Both kinds of cells do not conduct like cells
water until they are dead and C. Columnar - They appear
empty of cytoplasm. rectangular in vertical
• B.Phloem section.
• Phloem tissue conducts sugar
upward and downward in a plant. • Connective Tissue
• Two kinds of cells are present in They have extensive intercellular matrix
phloem: sieve tube elements and which may be liquid, semisolid, or solid.
companion cells. A. Blood and Lymph, or Vascular
• Unlike cells in xylem, phloem cells Tissue - They are non typical
are alive when they are connective tissues with liquid
functioning. matrices.
• Sieve tube elements transport sap, B. Connective tissue proper - This
while companion cells assist them. type of tissue have cells and fibers
The partnership between sieve embedded in a ground substance
tube elements and companion cells consisting of two mixture of water,
is vital; neither cells can live protein, carbohydrates, and lipids.
without the other. 1. Loose Connective Tissue - It
• 1.2 Animal Tissue supports, surrounds, and
• Epithelial Tissue connects the elements of the
other tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue - • Nerve cells are easily stimulated
They have fibers that are and can transmit impulses very
irregularly arranged in rapidly.
interlacing network as in the • Each cell is made up of a cell body,
dermis of the skin, or they and one or more long thin
maybe arranged in a definite extensions called fibers. Nerve
pattern to withstand tension fibers bound together by
from one direction, as in connective tissue is called a nerve.
tendons connecting muscle
to bone, or ligaments ORGANS & ORGAN
connecting bone to bone SYSTEMS
C. Cartilage - Cartilage is found in the 2.1 Plant Organ and Organ System
nose and ears, larynx, trachea, 2 Major Parts in the Body of Higher Plants
intervertebral discs, surfaces of 1. Root
skeletal joints, and ends of ribs. 2. Shoot – consists of the stem and
D. Bone -The matrix of bone is hard appendages of the stem,
and relatively rigid. It contains particularly the foliage leaves and
numerous collagen fibers, large the reproductive organs
amount of water and is Functions of Roots
impregnated with inorganic salts • For procurement of inorganic
such as calcium carbonate and nutrients such as minerals and
calcium phosphate. water
• 1.2.3 Muscle Tissue • For transport
• Muscles function for movement. • For nutrient storage
• Individual muscle cells are usually • For anchoring the plant to the
elongated and are bounds together substrate
into sheets or bundles by Functions of Shoots
connective tissue. • The functions of the stem are for
• Muscle Tissue support and for internal transport.
There are three (3) type of muscle in • The leaves are organs in which
vertebrates: photosynthesis takes place.
A. Skeletal or striated voluntary •
muscle – which is responsible for • Integumentary System - for
most voluntary movement. covering and protection.
B. Smooth muscles – which is involve • Muscular System - for movement
in most involuntary movements of • Respiratory System - for exchange
internal organs. of gases.
C. Cardiac muscle – the tissue of • Excretory System - for the removal
which the heart is composed. of certain metabolic wastes and for
• 1.2.4 Nervous Tissue regulating the chemical make up of
• Nervous tissue is specialized in its body fluids.
ability to respond to stimuli, the • Nervous System - for coordinating
property called irritability. the various functions of the body.
• 1.2.4 Nervous Tissue