“ACCELERATED CURING OF CONCRETE”

By

Aditya Narayanan (06102002)

Mehul Vats (06102022)

Vijay Kumar (06102044)

Rachit Goenka (06102048)

Submitted

in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

to the

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

Dr. B. R. AMBEDKAR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JALANDHAR, PUNJAB – 144011, INDIA

Page 1 of 43

DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, Jalandhar, Punjab- 144011, India

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “Accelerated Curing of Concrete”
being submitted by Aditya Narayanan (Roll No. 06102002), Mehul Vats
(Roll No. 06102022), Vijay Kumar (Roll No. 06102044), and Rachit Goenka
(Roll No. 06102048) to the Dr BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology,
Jalandhar, Punjab, India, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award
of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering, is a record of
authentic work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.

(Dr Rizwan Ahmad Khan)
Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Jalandhar, Punjab – 144011, India

Page 2 of 43

Acknowledgement

We, the team members, wish to record our gratitude to Dr. Rizwan Ahmad Khan, Department
of Civil Engineering, NIT Jalandhar, for his constant support, guidance, valuable views and
advice which helped us complete the project successfully.

Further, we wish to express our gratitude towards the Department of Civil Engineering, for
all the years of growth and development that it has provided to us in terms of technical and
extra-curricular activities.

Page 3 of 43

Index

Chapter 1- Introduction 5

Chapter 2- Mechanism 7

Chapter 3- Literature Survey 10

Chapter 4- Experimental Analysis 14

4.1- Compilation of Experimental Data 18

Appendix- A (Mix Design) 31

References 43

Page 4 of 43

and Bangalore Metro have all been cured using steam curing techniques. However. the selection of the cycle time is a trade off between the economical cycle time and the ultimate compressive strength. the cast girders may be lifted and shifted into the stocking yard. known as the "delay period" ranging from 2 to 5 hours. Page 5 of 43 . and hence it is a widely used technique in the industry. The prefabricated girders and sections being erected in the Delhi Metro.1 BACKGROUND Accelerated curing is any method by which high early age strength is achieved in concrete. The whole cycle should preferably not exceed 18 hours. the temperature is gradually reduced and allowed to fall to ambient levels. The cost of the equipment needed for accelerated curing is generally offset by the cost saving benefits of a reduced cycle time. Since the formwork may be removed within 24 hours. heating at the rate of 22 oC/hour or 44oC/hour until a maximum temperature of 50-82oC has been achieved. A typical curing cycle involves a preheating stage. The overall project time is reduced. CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1. warm water curing. boiling water curing and autoclaving. The most commonly adopted curing techniques are steam curing at atmospheric pressure. then maintaining at the maximum temperature. Hence. and finally the cooling period wherein. while the casting bed and the formwork become available for the next cycle. 1. hence the rate of gain of strength is higher.2 Introduction At heightened temperatures. the reaction of the concrete proceeds at a greater pace. the later age strength is adversely affected by the high temperature. These techniques are especially useful in the prefabrication industry wherein high early age strength enables the removal of the formwork within 24 hours thereby reducing the cycle time resulting in cost saving benefits.

An accelerated curing technique if employed can eliminate this problem. and the formwork is made available for the next cycle. prestressed concrete elements are frequently used in buildings and other structures to reduce the building time. then boilers which are capable of a steady supply of steam at a constant pressure and temperature are required. which means that large amounts of CO2 gas (which is a greenhouse gas) is released into the atmosphere during production of the cement. 1. The temperature of the concrete is constantly monitored. This is inconsistent with the goal of reducing the global rise in temperatures.Precast.The heightened temperatures involved in the accelerated curing procedures could cause micro-cracks which would adversely affect the durability of the concrete. Page 6 of 43 . 4. Pozzolanic materials improve the performance of accelerated cured concrete elements. 3. 2. Hence the use of pozzolanic material in partial replacement of cement can be envisaged. a delay period is allowed before the commencement of the procedure to allow the concrete to gain minimum tensile strength. accelerated curing technique with varying percentages of flyash as partial replacement of cement. High Early Age Strength. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Thermal Stresses. 1. cured using warm water. If steam curing is used. thermostats and thermometers.Highly reactive cements contain a high percentage of clinkers. Reactivity of Cements.1. It is important that the elements are prestressed as early as one day of age.Locally available cements may not be as reactive as is required for the early release of the prestressed strands.5 Equipment Warm water curing entails the use of a curing tank fitted with heating coils. The elements are covered with tarpaulin sheets and hose pipes connected to the boilers are inserted under the sheets.4 Objective and Scope of the Project The aim of the project undertaken is to study the strength gain of concrete during the curing cycle.3 Problem 1. Hence.

This has been termed as the “crossover effect”. which is formed by the transformation of metastable monosulfate. The formation of the gel and colloid is more rapid and the rate of diffusion of the gel is also higher.2 Delay Period Accelerated curing techniques invariably involve high temperatures. This may induce thermal stresses in the concrete. and this hinders the subsequent hydration. the water in the pores starts to exert pressure at higher temperatures. 2. a high concentration of the hydration products is built up close to the hydrating cement grains. If the accelerated curing process is begun immediately after the concrete has been poured. these micro-cracks formed may consequently lead to the delayed formation of ettringite. Consequently. The optimum temperature has been found to be between 65 to 70 oC beyond which the losses in later age strength have been found to be considerably higher. Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) induces expansion in the concrete thereby weakening it. Moreover. Chapter 2 Mechanism 2. Hence the later age strength of concrete cured using accelerated curing processes is lower in comparison to normally cured concrete. the reaction being more rapid leaves lesser time for the diffusion of the hydration products away from the cement particles and for uniform precipitation in the interstitial space at the high initial rate of hydration. The combined effect of the pore pressure and thermal stresses causes a tensile stress within the body of the concrete. However. then the concrete will not be able to withstand the tensile stresses as it requires time to gain some strength. DEF is promoted by the formation of the cracks which enables the easy entry of water. The rapid initial rate of hydration at higher temperatures retards the subsequent hydration and produces a nun-uniform distribution of the hydration products within the paste. the hydration process moves more rapidly and the formation of the Calcium Silicate Hydrate crystals is more rapid. a delay period is allowed to elapse before the commencement of the curing process to allow the concrete to gain a certain Page 7 of 43 .1 Mechanism At heightened temperatures. Further. Therefore.

Pozzolona such as Fly Ash are easily available as waste products of coal thermal power plants. however. it is a trade-off between cost saving benefits and the loss in compressive strength. The precast industry makes use of accelerated curing methods to rapidly gain high early age strength so that the formwork may be removed and the casting bed becomes free to be used for the next batch of concrete sections. 2. the compressive strength obtained would also be lower.minimum tensile strength.3 Excessive Temperature As described earlier. The fast paced construction projects around the world today heavily depend upon the precast manufacture of concrete sections. Accelerated curing techniques radically help to increase the rate of strength gain. However portland pozzolona cements have higher activation energy and therefore. This results in delayed release of prestressed strands and increased cycle time periods in the precast industry. This results in lower early age strength as compared to OPC. Higher temperatures would reduce the cycle time and therefore improve the economy of the manufacturing process. Lesser delay periods result in compressive strength losses. the delay period is equal to the initial setting time which has been found to give satisfactory results. 2. their rate of hydration is lower as compared to ordinary portland cement (OPC). 50% and 60% fly ash by replacement) from 10MPa to about 20MPa which is sufficient to enable the removal of formwork and greatly aids the precast concrete industry. This technique is also advantageous under cold weather conditions as the hydration of concrete is slowed at Page 8 of 43 . The setting time of the concrete is an important criterion to determine the delay period. excessive temperatures cause a drop in the Compressive strength due to the “crossover” effect. Pozzolanic materials also improve the durability of the concrete. either the cycle time is designed to suit the concrete mix or vice versa. they help reduce the carbon footprint of the cement industry which is a highly energy intensive industry responsible for high amounts of CO2 emissions.4 Role of Pozzolanic Material Pozzolona increases the later age strength of concrete as it reacts with calcium hydroxide and turns it into calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H). Depending on the type of project and economic considerations. Therefore. It has been shown that steam curing improved the 1 day compressive strength values of high volume fly ash concrete mixtures (40%. Generally. When used as partial replacements for cement.

etc. coconut fibres. It has been seen that though accelerated curing techniques result in high early age strength. the addition of pozzolanic material acts to nullify this detrimental effect as curing at higher temperatures has been shown to cause a more thorough hydration of pozzolanic materials. rice husk ash. Some commonly available pozzolanic materials in India include fly ash. It has been shown that accelerated curing techniques result in huge cost saving benefits by decreasing the cycle time required for the precast sections thereby leading to faster construction as well as lower costs. Many such curing techniques exist today. Though steam curing is more advantageous.lower temperatures. Page 9 of 43 . hot water curing technique is used where steam curing is not possible. the later age strength is usually affected negatively. However. one of which is the hot water curing technique.

The results showed that early maturity was achieved before 28 days of early strength period with proper curing with reasonable accuracy. 7. 7. 3. three standard cylinder specimens (15 x 30 cm) were tested at each age and the average values were calculated to obtain the reference strength values. cube compressive strengths were determined. At the end of curing and on the 28th day. Four different delay intervals (t. The reference specimens of C25 and C40 were continuously cured at 23o C and 100% relative humidity until they were tested in compression at the end of 1. three standard cylinder specimens were tested in compression at the end of 1. 7. and t-3 hours) and two different steam curing periods at 80 o C (5 and 10 h) before they were allowed to cool down to the ambient temperature (23 o C) over a 5- h period. For each steam curing condition. The effects of accelerated curing temperature and fine aggregate on early strength as well as the relationships between early strength–28-day strength and strength maturity have been studied. and 90 days. and 90 days. Erdem et al[2] (2003)studied the effects of various delay intervals on setting time of concrete. 3. For each type of concrete. 28. The concrete were preheated for 1 hour after being replaced concrete in the mould. However. higher strengths were obtained in a shorter time. For the delay periods reported in this study. Concrete mixtures C25 and C40 were made at the laboratory temperature 23 o C. Then the cure application process was done and finally the last waiting period for 2 hours for minimizing the effects of thermal stresses. and 90 days. One-day compressive strengths of all steam-cured specimens were higher than the reference specimens. Cube concrete specimens produced with a 10-cm constant slump value. 0. and the average values were computed. Topcu & Toprak[1] (2005) studied the early-strength gain of concrete with heat treatment. lower strengths were obtained at 3. highest strength was obtained when the delay period was equal to the setting time. 28. t-2. Page 10 of 43 . and with two different types of fine aggregate were subjected to three-phase cure processes.59 w/c ratio. Each of the specimen groups was cured at different temperatures for different periods (6 or 18 h). By delaying the steam curing operation by a period equal to the setting time of concrete. 28. Chapter 3 Literature Survey Journals and papers published by various researchers in field of accelerated curing and field related to it were studied and the abstracts of the papers referred to are given below. t-1.

this behaviour had been called the crossover effect. It is also expected to analyze the contribution of this pozzolan to the deduction of the ultimate strength of pozzolan cement under any temperature history. For this purpose. that CH was almost absent and the porosity was appreciably greater. Several investigators reported that high temperature improves strengths at early age. The first set of mortar specimens (named A) was prepared containing cement replacement by 0%. 8. The second set of mortars (named B) in which we have substituted the cement by 20% of natural pozzolan was exposed to various temperatures. in case of early high strength demand for early demolding purposes. 15-cm concrete cubes were prepared with a water cement ratio (W/C) of 0.Turkel and Alabas[3] (2005) studied that atmospheric steam curing is a heat treatment which has been used for many years to accelerate the strength development of concrete products. 10%. The object of this study was to determine the properties of this relatively new binder comparatively with conventional PC 42. the gain of strength can be speeded up by curing concrete in steam. All specimens were cured immediately after casting. 40 and 60 C. Test results indicated that Portland composite cement (PKC/A42. 24 and 36 h under curing temperatures of 65 and 85 oC.5 under steam curing. curing temperature should be increased to 85oC for PKC/A42. then they were demoulded the next day and cured in room temperature until compressive testing at different ages of 1. Cement dosage was kept constant (400 kg/m3) for all specimens. At a later age. the important number of formed hydrates had no time to arrange suitably. These specimens were cured under constant temperatures of 20. Concrete exposed to elevated temperature shows an accelerated hydration and non-uniform distribution of hydration products. and this engendered a loss of ultimate strengths. However. because the hydration rate of cement increases with the increase in temperature. 7. cured at 60 C.3.30% and 40% of natural pozzolan ground to fineness similar to cement. Escalante-Garcia and Sharp observed in the microstructure of cement paste containing 22% of volcanic ash. 20%. 16. Page 11 of 43 . Ezziane et al[4] (2007) studied the behaviour of cement including different replacement level of the natural pozzolan and hardening under different curing temperatures.44 and were subjected to steam curing for five different curing periods of 4. 28 and 90 days for set A and at 28 and 90 days for set B.5 cement concretes.5) can be used in place of PC42.5 for steam curing at atmospheric pressure in precast concrete production.

Monzo et al examined the strength of fly ash blended cement under 20. and another set was cured with water at 60°C for 3 days after which it was cured normally for 28 days. At 28 days. we notice that the pozzolan cement is characterized by a weak strength at early age followed by an increase exceeding especially that of the OPC after 28 days.and SF-incorporated mixes but resulted in higher carbonation of the mixes compared with that under normal temperature curing. with each group consisting of mixes with cement replaced with fly ash in a range of 0% replacement to 70% Page 12 of 43 . Lo et al[5] (2005)studied the depth of carbonation of concrete cubes cured under accelerated curing conditions with hot water. the experimental results show an increase of the activation energy. These cubes were then carbonated in an environment maintained at 7pH. 40. A total of 39 LWC mixes that had different water to binder ratios and binder content and which were blended with up to 70% cement replacement with PFA or SF were prepared. The results showed a perfect satisfaction between the calculation and the experimental data with error deviation less than 5%. When a part of the cement is substituted by the natural pozzolan. Baradan et al[5] (2005)studied the effect of steam curing on concrete incorporating ASTM Class C fly ash. This study has allowed to valorise the natural pozzolan and to analyse its behaviour under elevated temperatures. The depth of carbonation was then tested using phenolphthalein indicator and splitting the cubes. The optimal replacement rate is about 15% for a normal temperature and till 20% for an elevated temperature. the compressive strength of the pozzolan mortar exceeds that of the OPC mortar but decreases linearly with the curing temperature. 2 groups of cylindrical concrete specimens were cast. they found that 40 oC is an optimum temperature for pozzolanic reaction development in the experimental conditions studied. One set of cubes were cured normally (water at 27±3°C) for 28 days. This explains the slowness of its hydration and its beneficial effect in hot climate. The results indicated that accelerated curing at 60 °C for 3 days improved the 28-day compressive strength of the PFA. 60 and 80 oC.It is shown that the strength of the pozzolan mortar is considerably less than that of the OPC mortar at early stage of hydration. The optimal replacement rate is about 15% for a normal temperature and till 20% for an elevated temperature. As all cementitious materials.

Three methods for curing were used. Application of steam curing increased the 1-day compressive strength of 50% FA concrete to 20 Mpa. t-1. and 31% for the delay periods of t. the 1-day strength of C25 improved by 11%. warm water (35°C). It is concluded that the efficiencies of the concretes prepared by low early strength cements increase when the curing temperature is increased. the specimens were kept covered with a wet cloth and kept at 23°C. Trass cement concrete specimens and OPC concrete specimens were used in this test.replacement. When the hold time period was increased from 5 to 10 h. t-2 and t-3 hrs. the specimens were steam cured at this constant temperature of 80°C for 5hrs and 10hrs after which they were allowed to cool down to ambient temperature over a 5hr period. 22%. At the end of the delay period. The four following delay periods were selected: t. Erdem et al[6] (2003) M25 and M40 concrete mixes were prepared. Higher strengths at all ages were obtained when the holding time at the steam curing temperature was higher. For each one of the delay periods.28. Three specimens were made for each curing technique. t-1.The results show that both cement type and curing conditions affect the relation between the 28 day strength and accelerated strength.56 and 90 days. Ozkul (2005) studied the 28 day strength of warm water cured and concrete cured in boiling water by applying a regression analysis. 16%.3.ie sufficient to remove formwork. t-2 and t-3 hrs.7. boiling water technique (100°C) and standard water curing (23°C ± 1°C) techniques. One of the two groups was the control group subjected to only water curing at ambient temperature. steam curing did not improve later age strength of concrete as much as standard curing. the temperature was raised to 80°C at rate of around 21°C/hr. However. The other group was subjected to steam curing and the compressive strength of the specimens was recorded at the end of 1. Page 13 of 43 . Initial setting time for both mixes were determined and used as the basis for selecting the delay period. During the delay period.

613 Initial Setting time of Portland Pozzolona Cement = 50mins Final Setting time of PPC = 390mins Initial Setting Time of OPC = 45mins Page 14 of 43 .8 0. 100 ∑C = 260.2 Pan 19 1.75mm 2 0.36mm 150 15 84.18mm 220 22 62.2 600µm 232 22.5 Fineness modulus = (∑C+500)/100 Fineness modulus = 7.2 150µm 137 13 0. 100 ∑C = 393.8 15.58 Specific gravity of coarse aggregates = 1.2 2. Mass Percentage Percentage Cumulative % Retained(gm) retained passing retained (C) 20mm 100 5 95 5 10mm 1090 54.4 84.2 .1 Materials Coarse Aggregate Sieve Analysis: 2kg sample was taken and sieve analysis was carried out.5 4 96 Pan 80 4 .937 Specific gravity of fine aggregates = 1.75mm 730 36. Sieve No.2 1.7 300µm 252 24.605% Fine aggregate sieve analysis Sieve No.5 14.2 99.6 59. Mass Percentage Percentage Cumulative % Retained(gm) retained passing retained (C) 4.07 97. Chapter 4 Experimental Analysis 4.5 40.5 39.7 Fineness modulus = ∑C/100 = 3.5 59.8 37.5 4.

753 321.82 Page 15 of 43 . 156. 164 463.88% 4.488 1 0.2.97 0. 82 90µm 80 8 90 Pan 100 10 100 ∑C = 288 Fineness modulus = (∑C)/100 Fineness modulus = 2.2 Design of M30 concrete using PPC: Following the same design methodology shown above.054 314. we arrive at the following mix design: Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.298 4.5 432. Mass Percentage Percentage Cumulative % Retained(gm) retained passing retained (C) 1mm 10 1 99 1 600µm 10 1 98 2 300µm 110 11 4 13 150µm 690 69 .276 1307.9792 4.2 Mix Design of Concrete (IS Method) 4.Final Setting Time of OPC = 284mins Sieve analysis of 1kg of fly ash used was carried out Sieve No.2.1 Design of M20 concrete (using PPC): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.1218 0.93 2.354 1 0.376 1379.

218 545.6 Design of M35 concrete mix using OPC (43 grade) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.226 2.667 4. 178.4.735 2.29 372 580 1178 0.45 401 1229.3268 1 0.33 4.2.30299 1 0.3375 0.167 4.1 437.4138 1 1.4 Design of M20 concrete mix using OPC (43 grade): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.29 387.1 0. 181. 165.48 1 1.67 0.51 1166. 180.2.25 Page 16 of 43 .71 2.3 Design of M40 concrete using PPC: Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.6 536.2.192 1271.25 545.5 Design of M30 concrete mix using OPC (43 grade) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.2.559 3.

and the temperature within the tank was allowed to rise to a maximum of 70oC at a rate of 22oC per hour. Page 17 of 43 . This is done until the eighth hour. Once the maximum temperature has been achieved. The ambient temperatures were noted.3 Experimental Methodology Concrete cubes of varying target compressive strength and varying replacement percentage of flyash were cast. three cubes were removed. 24 hours later. they were removed from their moulds and were put into the accelerated curing tank. at every two hour interval. their compressive strength was tested. and then. allowed to dry for two hours.4.

4.3 313.01 450 400 350 300 2 Hrs 250 4 hrs 200 6 Hrs 150 8 Hrs 100 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 500 450 400 350 300 2 Hrs 250 4 Hrs 200 6 Hrs 150 8 Hrs 100 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.4.1.0 404.97 20.89 12.7 367.3 450.3 425.59 13.89 17.0 375.3 Mpa 10.Compressive strength of M20 with 0% by replacement of cement as flyash Time (Hrs.31 16.94 16.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 246 290 301 355 357 405 401 440 Cube 2 255 281 315 368 388 441 412 462 Cube 3 234 279 325 378 381 429 400 449 Average 245.4.0 283.68 18.4 Compilation of Experimental Data Table 4.1.Initial and final strength of M20 with 0% by replacement of cement as flyash Page 18 of 43 .

Initial and final strength of M30 with 0% by replacement of cement as flyash Page 19 of 43 .4.02 29.0 608.5 471.29 28.2.0 672.18 23.Compressive strength of M30 with 0% by replacement of cement as flyash Time (Hrs.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 401 459 456 519 559 622 612 678 Cube 2 426 483 497 545 579 640 604 666 Cube 3 408 472 478 556 560 647 618 654 Average 413.0 Mpa 18.0 631.93 21.38 20.0 476.2.64 25.04 27. Table 4.0 569.4.5 532.87 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 hrs 300 6 Hrs 200 8Hrs 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 800 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 Hrs 300 6 Hrs 8 Hrs 200 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Fig 4.

3.0 600.07 21.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 412 461 508 539 556 593 621 650 Cube 2 408 442 447 485 561 603 640 667 Cube 3 413 452 514 524 545 605 607 651 Average 411.68 27.67 29.Initial and final strength of M35 with 0% by replacement of cement as flyash Page 20 of 43 .27 20.3 622.0 451.4.7 656.Compressive strength of M35 with 0% by replacement of cement as flyash Time (Hrs.3.7 489.Table 4.4.7 516.0 554.62 26.0 Mpa 18.16 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 hrs 300 6 Hrs 200 8 Hrs 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 800 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 Hrs 300 6 Hrs 200 8 Hrs 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.93 24.76 22.

08 450 400 350 300 2 Hrs 250 4 hrs 200 6 Hrs 150 8 Hrs 100 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 500 450 400 350 300 2 Hrs 250 4 Hrs 200 6 Hrs 150 8 Hrs 100 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.79 15.Compressive strength of M20 with 5% by replacement of cement as flyash Time (Hrs.3 373.7 355.3 341.16 17.7 429.Initial and final strength of M20 with 5% by replacement of cement as flyash Page 21 of 43 .4.0 400.4.79 16.40 13.3 Mpa 10.Table 4.59 15.4.0 279.0 305.4.09 12.61 19.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) Cube 1 224 283 308 342 341 382 362 438 Cube 2 236 292 322 367 324 407 387 403 Cube 3 221 262 287 357 358 412 372 447 Average 227.

) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 384 430 498 594 532 597 612 650 Cube 2 415 462 432 432 540 602 601 641 Cube 3 393 452 481 481 561 580 597 629 Average 397.3 502.81 28.5.Compressive strength of M30 with 5% by replacement of cement as flyash Time (Hrs.91 20.0 470.33 24.3 640.Initial and final strength of M30 with 5% by replacement of cement as flyash Page 22 of 43 .4.44 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 hrs 300 6 Hrs 8 Hrs 200 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 700 600 500 400 2 Hrs 4 Hrs 300 6 Hrs 200 8 Hrs 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.3 448.3 544.4.19 26.Table 4.0 Mpa 17.90 22.36 26.66 19.0 603.3 593.5.

93 24.4.27 20.7 656.62 26.68 27.7 516.Initial and final strength of M35 with 5% by replacement of cement as flyash Page 23 of 43 .0 451.76 22.7 489.16 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 hrs 300 6 Hrs 8 Hrs 200 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 800 700 600 500 2 Hrs 400 4 Hrs 300 6 Hrs 8 Hrs 200 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.67 29.3 622.07 21.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 412 461 508 539 556 593 621 650 Cube 2 408 442 447 485 561 603 640 667 Cube 3 413 452 514 524 545 605 607 651 Average 411.Compressive strength of M35 with 5% by replacement of cement as flyash Time (Hrs.0 Mpa 18.6.4.6.0 600.Table 4.0 554.

7.0 271.21 9.64 10.60 300 250 200 2 Hrs 150 4 hrs 6 Hrs 100 8 Hrs 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 350 300 250 200 2 Hrs 4 Hrs 150 6 Hrs 100 8 Hrs 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.68 11.Compressive strength of M20 of PPC (30% Flyash) Time (Hrs.10 10.06 13.0 Mpa 7.4.3 255.4.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 124 137 239 244 240 246 279 333 Cube 2 162 188 191 203 230 255 265 287 Cube 3 150 162 221 235 251 264 270 298 Average 145.3 162.3 306.3 240.7.33 12.0 227.3 217.Initial and final strength of M20 of PPC (30% flyash) Page 24 of 43 .Table 4.

84 15.0 334.8.Initial and final strength of M30 of PPC (30% flyash) Page 25 of 43 .0 468.8.89 17.0 196.76 20.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 170 200 300 327 353 382 420 464 Cube 2 160 192 312 341 362 393 424 473 Cube 3 165 188 325 349 378 399 413 478 Average 165.33 8.5 422.22 18.71 13.5 387.0 306.4.5 Mpa 7.Table 4.0 357.60 14.4.82 450 400 350 300 2 Hrs 250 4 hrs 200 6 Hrs 150 8Hrs 100 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 500 450 400 350 300 2 Hrs 250 4 Hrs 200 6 Hrs 150 8 Hrs 100 50 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Fig 4.Compressive strength of M30 of PPC (30% Flyash) Time (Hrs.

4.79 21.0 560.Compressive strength of M35 of PPC (30% Flyash) Time (Hrs.45 22.Initial and final strength of M40 of PPC (30% flyash) Page 26 of 43 .3 403.3 406.9.0 434.) 2 4 6 8 Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Cube 1 374 404 395 432 439 474 490 540 Cube 2 365 395 403 431 445 485 515 569 Cube 3 387 420 411 441 452 489 519 572 Average 375.06 17.32 19.58 24.9.3 Mpa 16.90 600 500 400 2 Hrs 300 4 hrs 6 Hrs 200 8 Hrs 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 700 600 500 400 2 Hrs 4 Hrs 300 6 Hrs 200 8 Hrs 100 0 Cube 1 Cube 2 Cube 3 Fig 4.91 19.68 18.7 508.4.3 482.Table 4.7 445.

62 7. Table 4. 0 % (Mpa) % Strength Gained M 20.Percentage Strength vs time plots. M20 Time % Stregth Gained (Hrs) M20.00 40. 5 % (Mpa) M20.6 51.10.97 6 18.23 19.79 66.4.33 42.37 12.9 71.73 13.00 20.88 11.4. 0 % (Mpa) M 20.01 75.Percentage Strength gained vs time plot.10.00 50. 5 % (Mpa) M20.36 10.21 27. 0% PPC % Strength Gained 2 12.13 80.00 30.79 59.1 37.59 8 20.4 46.08 71.05 17.3 61.00 0.00 70.00 60.6 47.00 10.11 4 16.28 15. 0% PPC Fig 4.00 2 4 6 8 M20. M20 Page 27 of 43 .

00 50. 0% PPC % Strength Gained 2 20.71 22.87 78. Table 4.Percentage Strength gained vs time plot.36 68. M30 Page 28 of 43 . 5 % (Mpa) M30.09 28.00 60.80 22.02 8 29.84 38.4. M30 Time % Stregth Gained (Hrs) M30.91 52.80 6 28.00 70.11. 0 % (Mpa) M 30.33 58. 0% PPC Fig 4.72 19.00 80.11.44 74.31 26.22 45.00 40.00 20.Percentage Strength vs time plots.4.00 2 4 6 8 M30.35 20. 0 % (Mpa) % Strength Gained M 30.92 17.64 61.00 0.38 14.05 8.77 4 23. 5 % (Mpa) M30.43 90.00 10.93 54.00 30.82 54.04 73.

12. 5 % (Mpa) Fig 4.93 53. M35 Page 29 of 43 .11 48.42 80. M35 Time % Stregth Gained (Hrs) M35.81 20.00 10.00 60.Percentage Strength vs time plots.80 26.07 46.16 67.00 70. Table 4. 0 % (Mpa) M 35.36 70.00 30.4.00 50.00 0.00 2 4 6 8 M35.01 55.Percentage Strength gained vs time plot.00 40.4. 0 % (Mpa) % Strength Gained M 35.20 29.40 4 24.68 61.12. 5 % (Mpa) 2 21.16 62.51 22.00 20.02 6 27.69 8 30.

it adversely affects the later age strength as compared to the standard curing techniques. such as the proper determination of the setting time of concrete. it can clearly be seen that the compressive strength rises rapidly when maintained at elevated temperatures from 2 to 8 hours. This has phenomenon. Further.6 Conclusion Therefore. Halit et al[5] have shown the long term effect of the addition of flyash which is not evident in this experiment. However. This happens because the rate of the reaction proceeds faster at the temperature of 70 oC. prefabrication units. it may be concluded that the accelerated curing technique may be used with immense benefits if the one day strength is of high importance. there are certain precautions which need to be taken before employing this technique. However. This technique however is of immense importance if the one day strength is the sole consideration.5 Results and Discussions From the graphs.4. 4. the correct equipment to measure the enclosure as well as the concrete temperature. as in precast. the proper maintenance of the heating cycle without exceeding the maximum prescribed temperature or the maximum rate of temperature rise prescribed. or 82oC. Page 30 of 43 . The accelerated curing did not improve the later age strength of concrete with high volume flyash replacements as much as the standard curing techniques. This is because that the ultimate age strength is adversely affected by the higher temperature. It is of great economic value to the precast-prefabrication industry wherein the reduced cycle times are of immense importance. Warm water curing accelerates the strength gain of concrete with flyash as partial replacement as compared to standard curing techniques. many organizations prescribe a temperature not exceeding 70. even though the strength gain may be rapid. The one day strength can be seen to be considerable enough to enable the removal of formwork.1. known as the “crossover” effect has been explained in section 2.

0 1.A (Mix Design of various mixes used) A. Degree of workability: 0.9 CF or 80mm slump 5. Gravity = 3.6 2.0 Fineness Modulus 2.0 Target mean Strength: ft = fck + kS = 20 + 1. For decrease in w/c ratio of 0. Characteristic strength at 28 days: 20 MPa 2.55 Water content: 186 kg/m3 Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume: 35% Adjustments (For change in conditions from the reference values specified in the table provided in the IS guidelines) 1. Appendix. % 2.05 = -15 kg/m3 of water content and -7% sand Page 31 of 43 . Gravity 2.65 Bulk Density 1700 Kg/m3 1800 Kg/m3 Free surface moisture. Fine aggregate: Natural river sand of grading zone II Cement type and grade: Portland Pozzolona Cement Sp.55 Hence adopt w/c ratio of 0.58 From Durability consideration: 0. Devn.2 6.1 Design of M20 concrete (using PPC): 1. Max. nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm 3. = S = 4 MPa 6. Degree of quality control: (Good) Std.6 MPa Water Cement Ratio: From Compressive strength consideration: 0.65 x 4 = 26. Type of aggregate: Angular (crushed) aggregate 4.15 Bulk Density = 1450 Kg/m3 Aggregates Fine Agg Coarse Agg Sp.

For increase in CF by 0.58 = 176.663 = 1379. 176.9792 4.753 kg Actual mix proportion by mass (kg/m3) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.827 = 156.054 kg/m3 ( > 300 kg/m3 min.55 = 321. = 0.15 x 1000) + 176.753 321.01 = 13.054/(3.97 kg Mass of wet fine aggregates in mix = 314.2118 x 0.58 – 19.376 kg Mixing water required = 176.58/0.663 kg Free water in fine agg. = 0.309 + 13. = 308.70149 m3 Absolute volume of fine agg.5054 4.827 kg Mass of wet coarse aggregates in mix = 1366.58/1000) = 0.298 Page 32 of 43 . prescribed according to exposure conditions) Air content = 2% Coarse and Fine Aggregates = 1.51559 x 2650 0.58 321. 2. = 1366.97 0.58 kg/m3 Sand content = 35 – 7 = 28% Cement content = 176.18589 x 2600 0.(0.1 = +3% of water content = 5.55 1 1.58 kg/m3 o o o Water content = 186 – 15 + 5.51559 m3 Mix proportions by mass (kg/m3): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.488 1 0.02 + 321.054 314. 156.376 1379.309 x 0.2557 Quantities of Ingredients: Free water in coarse agg.02 = 6.18589 m3 Absolute volume of coarse agg.16 kg Total water present in aggregates = 19.054 0.

Type of aggregate: Angular (crushed) aggregate 4.2 Design of M30 concrete (using PPC): 1. Gravity 2.0 Target mean Strength: ft = fck + kS = 30 + 1.0 1. Gravity = 3.65 x 5 = 38.33 kg/m3 ( > 300 kg/m3 min.45 From Durability consideration: 0. nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm 3.45 = 413.45 Water content: 186 kg/m3 Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume: 35% Adjustments (For change in conditions from the reference values specified in the table provided in the IS guidelines) o o o Water content = 186 Sand content = 35 – 3 = 32% Cement content = 186/0.2 6. Degree of quality control: (Good) Std.25 MPa Water Cement Ratio: From Compressive strength consideration: 0. Fine aggregate: Natural river sand of grading zone II Cement type and grade: Portland Pozzolona Cement Sp. Degree of workability: 0. % 2. = S = 5 MPa 6.9 CF or 80mm slump 5. prescribed according to exposure conditions) Page 33 of 43 . Characteristic strength at 28 days: 30 MPa 2.55 Hence adopt w/c ratio of 0.15 Bulk Density = 1450 Kg/m3 Aggregates Fine Agg Coarse Agg Sp. Max.A. Devn.0 Fineness Modulus 2.6 2.65 Bulk Density 1700 Kg/m3 1800 Kg/m3 Free surface moisture.

6)) fa = 551.32x2.43 1166.43 kg Ca = (1-0.005 x 1172 = 5.65 = 1171.83 Quantities of Ingredients: CA absorption = 0.43 x 2.8 413.45 1 1.8 kg Mix proportions by mass (kg/m3): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.43 1172 0.02 x 551.33 2.43 kg CA required = 1166.8 kg Sand required = 562.32)/0.6/2.437 1 1.86 kg Moisture present in sand = 0.33 562. 180.33/(3.14 kg Actual mix proportion by mass (kg/m3) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.82 Page 34 of 43 .15 x 1000) + 186/1000+ fa/(0.32 x 551. 186 413.98 = (413.0286 kg Actual water required = 180.14 0.36 2.Air content = 2% 0.33 551.43 = 11.

87 kg Page 35 of 43 .65 x 5 = 48.A.65 Bulk Density 1700 Kg/m3 1800 Kg/m3 Free surface moisture.0 Fineness Modulus 2.6 2.15 Bulk Density = 1450 Kg/m3 Aggregates Fine Agg Coarse Agg Sp.55 Hence adopt w/c ratio of 0.25x2. Degree of workability: 0. nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm 3.3 kg/m3 ( > 300 kg/m3 min.0 1.35 Water content: 180 kg/m3 Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume: 25% Cement content = 180/0.9 CF or 80mm slump 5. Fine aggregate: Natural river sand of grading zone II Cement type and grade: Portland Pozzolona Cement Sp. Characteristic strength at 28 days: 30 MPa 2. Devn.35 = 514.0 Target mean Strength: ft = fck + kS = 40 + 1. Gravity = 3. Max.2 6.3/(3.25 MPa Water Cement Ratio: From Compressive strength consideration: 0.6)) fa = 413. Gravity 2. Degree of quality control: (Good) Std. Type of aggregate: Angular (crushed) aggregate 4. = S = 5 MPa 6.35 From Durability consideration: 0.15 x 1000) + 180/1000+ fa/(0. % 2.98 = (514.3 Design of M40 concrete (using PPC): 1. prescribed according to exposure conditions) Air content = 2% 0.

86 kg Moisture present in sand = 0. 178 514.4 Page 36 of 43 .005 x 1241 = 5.65 = 1241.02 x 413. 180 514.346 1 0.4 Quantities of Ingredients: CA absorption = 0.87 1241.6/2.25 x 413.821 2.87 = 8.465 kg Actual mix proportion by mass (kg/m3) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.35 1 0.87 x 2. Ca = (1-0.3 422.147 1235.67 0.277 kg Actual water required = 178 kg Sand required = 422.5 0.3 413.25)/0.8 2.61 kg Mix proportions by mass (kg/m3): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.147 kg CA required = 1235.

Grade of cement used: 43MPa Cement type and grade: Ordinary Portland Cement Sp.5 Water content: 186 kg/m3 Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume: 35% .55 Hence adopt w/c ratio of 0. Type of aggregate: Angular (crushed) aggregate 4. Degree of workability: 0.6)) Page 37 of 43 . % 2. Degree of quality control: (Good) Std. Devn.0 Fineness Modulus 2.15 x 1000) + 186/1000+ fa/(0.2 6.0 1. Characteristic strength at 28 days: 20 MPa 2.6 MPa Water Cement Ratio: From Compressive strength consideration: 0. Max. Gravity = 3. nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm 3.0 Target mean Strength: ft = fck + kS = 20 + 1.65 Bulk Density 1700 Kg/m3 1800 Kg/m3 Free surface moisture. Fine aggregate: Natural river sand of grading zone II 7.A.9 CF or 80mm slump 5. Gravity 2.4 Design of M20 concrete (using OPC): 1.6 2.2 = 33% Cement content = 186/0.5 From Durability consideration: 0.33x2.15 Bulk Density = 1450 Kg/m3 Aggregates Fine Agg Coarse Agg Sp. prescribed according to exposure conditions) Air content = 2% 0. = S = 4 MPa 6.98 = (372/(3.65 x 4 = 26.5 = 372 kg/m3 ( > 300 kg/m3 min.

559 3.559 3.65 = 1178 kg Mix proportions by mass (kg/m3): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.29 kg Sand required = 591.6/2.89 kg Moisture present in sand = 0.5 1 1.fa = 580 kg Ca = (1-0.167 Quantities of Ingredients: CA absorption = 0.02 x 580 = 11.6 kg Actual water required = 180.11 kg Actual mix proportion by mass (kg/m3) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.48 1 1.6 kg CA required = 1172. 186 372 580 1178 0.005 x 1178 = 5. 180.33)/0.29 372 580 1178 0.1667 Page 38 of 43 .33 x 580 x 2.

6 kg/m3 ( > 300 kg/m3 min. Devn.0 Fineness Modulus 2. Degree of quality control: (Good) Std. prescribed according to exposure conditions) Air content = 2% 0.425 = 437.65 Bulk Density 1700 Kg/m3 1800 Kg/m3 Free surface moisture. Max.5 Design of M30 concrete (using OPC): 1.A. % 2.9 CF or 80mm slump 5. Grade of cement used: 43MPa Cement type and grade: Ordinary Portland Cement Sp.98 = (437.5% Cement content = 186/0.6)) Page 39 of 43 .15 = 31.3. Gravity 2. Gravity = 3. Fine aggregate: Natural river sand of grading zone II 7.65 x 5 = 38.25 MPa Water Cement Ratio: From Compressive strength consideration: 0. Characteristic strength at 28 days: 30 MPa 2. = S = 5 MPa 6.425 Water content: 186 kg/m3 Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume: 35% .2 6.15 Bulk Density = 1450 Kg/m3 Aggregates Fine Agg Coarse Agg Sp.15 x 1000) + 186/1000+ fa/(0.6 2.0 Target mean Strength: ft = fck + kS = 30 + 1.55 Hence adopt w/c ratio of 0.0 1. Type of aggregate: Angular (crushed) aggregate 4. nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm 3. Degree of workability: 0.315 x 2.6/(3.425 From Durability consideration: 0.

48 1 1.67 kg Mix proportions by mass (kg/m3): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.67 0.559 3.667 Actual mix proportion by mass (kg/m3) after correcting for water absorption and moisture present in aggregates Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.6/2.1667 Page 40 of 43 .65 = 1166. fa = 536.226 2.315 x 536.315)/0. 181.6 1166.67 0.51 x 2.51 kg Ca = (1-0. 186 437.425 1 1.6 536.51 1166.1 372 591.

246 x 2.0 1.65 x 5 = 43.0.6% Cement content = 186/0.15 x 1000) + 180/1000+ fa/(0.6 Design of M35 concrete (using OPC): 1. Type of aggregate: Angular (crushed) aggregate 4. nominal size of aggregates: 20 mm 3. Gravity 2.6 2.45 kg/m3 ( > 300 kg/m3 min. = S = 5 MPa 6. % 2. Devn.45/(3.98 = (545.33 = 545. Fine aggregate: Natural river sand of grading zone II 7. Gravity = 3. prescribed according to exposure conditions) Air content = 2% 0.55 Hence adopt w/c ratio of 0.A. Degree of quality control: (Good) Std.25 MPa Water Cement Ratio: From Compressive strength consideration: 0. Characteristic strength at 28 days: 35 MPa 2.15 Bulk Density = 1450 Kg/m3 Aggregates Fine Agg Coarse Agg Sp. Degree of workability: 0.33 Water content: 180 kg/m3 Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume: 25% .6)) Page 41 of 43 .65 Bulk Density 1700 Kg/m3 1800 Kg/m3 Free surface moisture. Max. Grade of cement used: 43MPa Cement type and grade: Ordinary Portland Cement Sp.0 Target mean Strength: ft = fck + kS = 35 + 1.33 From Durability consideration: 0.4% = 24.0 Fineness Modulus 2.2 6.9 CF or 80mm slump 5.

6/2.73 2.45 401 1229.1255 545.1 0.927 kg Ca = (1-0.25 Quantities of Ingredients: CA absorption = 0.005 x 1229.1 0.1455 kg Moisture present in sand = 0.326 1 0.33)/0.45 401 1229.081 kg Mix proportions by mass (kg/m3): Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.73 2.33 x 580 x 2. 180 545. fa = 400.02 x 401 = 8 kg Actual water required = 178. 178.1255 kg Sand required = 409 kg CA required = 1223 kg Actual mix proportion by mass (kg/m3) Water Cement Fine Aggregates Coarse Agg.1 = 6.33 1 0.25 Page 42 of 43 .65 = 1229.

pp. Algeria. Department of Civil Engineering. The effect of excessive steam curing on Portland composite cement concrete. pp. L. Cement & Concrete Composites. Compressive strength of mortar containing natural pozzolan under various curing temperature. Cement and Concrete Research. Ezziane. Turkey. 741–745 Page 43 of 43 . 2005. H. 405– 411 [4] K. Fine aggregate and curing temperature effect on concrete maturity. 1122–1127 [6] T. Volkan Alabas. Kadri. 587–593 [5] Halit YazVcV.2007. Dokuz Eylul University. Algeria. Turkey.2005. Hqseyin Yig˘iter. Khelafi. Cement and Concrete Research. Ankara. pp. LEEVAM Laboratory. Department of Civil Engineering. A. T. References [1] I˙lker Bekir Topcu. Erdogan. Department of Civil Engineering. pp. Bqlent Baradan.K. Dokuz Eylu University. E. Mehmet Ug˘ur Toprak. Kadri. Department of Civil Engineering. Middle East Technical University. 2003. T. Laboratory Materials and Structures. Osmangazi University. Bougara. Turanli. Setting time: An important criterion to determine the length of the delay period before steam curing of concrete.pp. Erdem. 758– 762 [2] T. Cergy Pontoise University. Cement and Concrete Research.Y.K. Ankara. Turanli. Cement and Concrete Research. Oran University. A. Cement and Concrete Research. Effect of steam curing on class C high-volume fly ash concrete mixtures. Erdogan. Serdar AydVn. Erdem. Turkey. Laboratory Sciences of the Materials and Environment. L. 2005. pp. Turkey. France. Department of Civil Engineering. 741-745 [3] Selcuk Tqrkel. Setting time: An important criterion to determine the length of the delay period before steam curing of concrete. Middle East Technical University. Sciences and Technology.Y. Hassiba Benbouali Chlef University. 2003.