Levels of Organization

Biology - The systematic study of life. • Atomic Level. Atom – fundamental building block of all
- The science that deals with the study of living things. matter
 Organisms – living things • Molecular level. Molecule – association of 2 or more
 Biosphere – the part of earth that sustain life atoms.
• Cellular Level - Cell is the smallest unit of life capable of
Importance carrying out all the functions of living things.
• Food. All foods are made directly from living things, or • Tissue Level. -Tissue is a group of cells performing a
indirectly from the products of organisms. specific function in a multicellular organism.
– Biotechnology – the use of organism to produce • Organ Level. -An organ is a group of different tissues that
things that people need. function together for a special purpose.
• Clothing. Most Clothing is made from biological products. • Organ System Level. Organ system – several organs
• Shelter working together to perform a function.
• Health • Population Level. Population -a group of organisms of the
• Fuel same species that live together in particular location.
• Community Level. Community - all the population of
Characteristic of Life different kinds of organisms living in the same place.
• All living things are made up of cells. • Ecosystem. Ecosystem –a community of organisms in an
• Living things are highly organized. area, as well as the non-living factors of the environment.
• All living things respond to the environment.
• All living things use energy for growth and maintenance. Area of Study in Biology
• Living things reproduce.
• Living things grow and develop. • Anatomy - Physical structure of humans or other animals.
• Living things adapt to their environment for survival. • Botany - Structure and function of plants.
• Cytology - Structure and function of cells
Energy • Ecology - Relationships among organisms and their
 The capacity to do work environments.
Nutrient • Ethology - Animal behavior.
 Substance that is necessary for survival, but that an • Genetics - Heredity.
organism can’t make for itself • Immunology - The body’s defenses against disease and
Producers foreign substances.
 Organisms that make their own food using energy and • Microbiology - Microscopic organisms.
• Molecular Biology -The chemical processes within cells.
simple raw materials from the environment Ex: plants
• Physiology - The functions of organs and organ systems.
• Taxonomy (Systemics) - The scientific classification and
 Organisms that get energy and carbon by feeding on
naming of organisms.
tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms Ex: animals • Zoology - The structure and function of animals.

NOTE: Organisms sense and respond to change to keep conditions Variety of Organism
in their internal environment within a range that favors cell survival • Kingdom Monera – the bacteria and the cyanobacteria.
(homeostasis) • Kingdom Protista – include the plantlike protist and the
• Homeostasis animal-like protists.
 Set of processes by which an organism keeps its • Kingdom Plantae
internal conditions within tolerable ranges. • Kingdom Fungi –unlike true plants, lack chlorophyll and
• Receptor therefore cannot manufacture their own food.
 Molecule or structure that responds to a stimulus. • Kingdom Animalia

Growth Nature of Science
 Increase in size, volume, and number of cells in multicelled • Science is uncertain.
species, • Science is always changing.
Development • Science is collaborative.
 Multistep process by which the first cell of a new individual
becomes a multicelled adult. Methods in Science
Reproduction • Observing and Questioning.
 Process by which parents produce offspring • Designing an Experiment.
Inheritance • Collecting and Analyzing Data.
• Communicating Conclusions.
 Transmission of DNA from parents to offspring
• Finding Out More
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
 Molecule that carries hereditary information about traits

bond angle allow charge separation small to be seen with the unaided eye. (sweet!) CHAPTER 2 : CHEMISTRY OF LIFE b) Fructose . human dietary fiber IMPORTANCE IMPORTANCE OF CARBO 1. Carbohydrates electrical charge. other) Atomic number = number of protons • DISACCHARIDES Mass number = # protons + # neutrons  Double sugar // Formed by dehydration synthesis Atomic mass = mass of protons + neutrons In Neutral atoms: electron # = proton # (removal of water as the 2 monosaccharides bond) IONS – charged particles Examples of Disaccharides: # of electrons & protons differ a) Maltose = glucose + glucose • Cation: positive charge. are linked. COVALENT BOND . 4. chains of sugars 1.Any compound with a C-H bond. size and 1. Coolant: Has high heat of vaporization.Reactions to form most large organic its ability to store and use large amounts of information and molecules. Hydrolysis (Digestion) . but in 1 spot they are mirror image of forming between the positive pole of one – Light microscope – focuses light onto specimen water molecule and the negative pole of another using a mirror or a light bulb that can magnify up Organic Molecules . • MONOSACCHARIDES  Chromatography – the components of a mixture  simple sugars (The building block of all larger of gas or liquid can be separated.repeating subunits (monomers) bonded together • Computers – have revolutionized the work of biologists by Dehydration Synthesis . Molecule of water removed from bond area as monomers analyze data.  Carbos = Sugars: C. . • Field Studies • Laboratory Studies • Separation Techniques Organic Molecules Found in Living Organisms  Electrophoresis – molecules of mixture are separated according to their shape.Fruit sugar (sweet!) Note: Glucose and fructose are isomers ( formula the same.) • Tissue Culture Examples of Monosaccharides: a) Glucose . but the ATOMS: make up all matter O is on different Carbon atoms) • Protons (+) and neutrons (0) in nucleus Glucose and galactose are stereoisomers ( OH groups in same • Electrons (-) in orbits around nucleus spots. O in 1:2:1 ratio (roughly  Cell Fractionation – a centrifuge is used to CH2O) separate mixtures by spinning them at various Types speeds. aids body cooling. electron(s) gained c) Lactose (milk sugar) = glucose + galactose  CHEMICAL BONDS • POLYSACCHARIDES  starches.atoms donate or receive electrons from Formed by dehydration synthesis (removal of water as all other atoms. High specific heat: ( H20 = 1 cal / g / degree C ) . Techniques in Biology Molecule of water added to help remove the monomers.bodies of Animal Starch (Glycogen). 3.long term energy storage for animal cells water stay constant temp. electron(s) lost b) Sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose • Anion: negative charge. 2. Ex: diatomic hydrogen a) Amylose: simple plant starch b) Pectins: branched plant starch WATER c) Glycogen: branched animal starch constitutes two-thirds the mass of most organisms & 75% earth's d) Cellulose: component of plant cell walls.key metabolic fuel (energy source) of all cells. most organisms. Transport: polarity . (stores the glucose molecules in a form not easily used!). IONIC BOND .Form of simple sugar used by all cells. Example: NaCl the monosaccharides bond) 2.building blocks of larger molecules than a light microscope.Large organic molecules are broken up. – Electron microscope – uses beam of electron to Hydrocarbon . create an image that is about 1000 time better Monomer . Hydrogen Bonding .dissolves many substances. sugars.Any compound containing C (except CO2 and to 1500x those containing CO3). Polymers . Glucose .two atoms share one or more pairs of Examples of Polysaccharides: valence electrons. undigestible by surface. From grapes & honey. Habitat: Major component of internal (organism) & external Tools in Biology environments • Microscope – are used to study organisms that are too Water is highly polar : shape. H.

creatures ligaments.Change in shape alters activity of enzyme. • Derived enzymatically from fatty acids Fats. Energy storage. D). animal fats  They are organic molecules consisting of many Unsaturated: some double bonds (less C-H bonds).  Lipids with no fatty acids . • major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living 4) Structure / Support. Lipids • Physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse  Organic molecules insoluble in water due to hormone-like effect on animals numerous non-polar C-H bonds.Hormones which serve as intercellular messengers. so only 20 amino acids. . & waxes • Found in every tissue in human and animals FUNCTION OF LIPIDS  Nucleic Acid 1.  Some wax secretions form coatings that help  Polypeptide. Cellulose .Actin.  Steroids • a) lipid hormones – helps regulate the body’s growth and FUNCTION OF PROTEINS development and reproduction 1) Enzyme catalysis: Enzymes help reactions occur more easily.  Terpenes 3) Transport.Cytosine (C) • Adenine(A) .Structural polysaccharide of cell walls.Steroid hormones (testosterone & estrogen) 1. Phosphate group GLYCERIDE – body’s most abundant lipids and the richest source of 3. stores 3. Plant Starch (Amylose) . plant oils amino acids bonded together.development of bones and teeth microbes. • with strong odor and with protective function 6) Regulation.many amino acids bonded together.  Waxes  Peptide Bonds . protect. Ribonucleic acid: RNA. 2. and hair temperature. crustaceans. Sugar: 5-carbon ribose or deoxyribose COOH group at the end.long term energy storage for plant cells NOTE: Dehydration Reactions (Building of larger molecules) add (stores the glucose molecules in a form that is not easily used!) energy to organic molecules. Chemical messengers. • b) cholesterol – key component of animal cell membranes. -Hereditary Material 2.  Amino Acids  Phospholipids .Bond formed when 2 or more amino acids  Compound composed of fatty acids and certain bond. Specific base pairing. which forms the matrix of skin. tendons and bones. 2. hard. 1 phosphate a) Amino group (NH2)  Polar head region faces outward b) Carboxyl group (COOH)  Non-polar tails face inward c) R-group: variable. alcohols  Dipeptide. 2 PARTS fatty acids.Amylase (Converts starch to simple sugar.20 R-groups. soaps = glycerol.) used in the synthesis of Vitamin D 2) Defense: Antibodies . Lipid bilayers of cell membranes hereditary information 2.  Lipids with fatty acids Parts:  Has a long unbranched carbon backbone with – 1. Nitrogen base energy  Triglycerides (fats) DNA Nucleotides  glycerol + three fatty acids a) Sugar = deoxyribose  They are nonpolar (don't dissolve well in water). a muscle protein responsible for muscle contraction.Thymine (T) .Structural polysaccharide of exoskeletons of insects and energy from the molecules. • many are aromatic hydrocarbons produced by plants 5) Motion.Monomers or building blocks of all proteins.Hemoglobin (red blood cell protein).Fats store glucose energy for long time periods. template copy TYPES OF LIPIDS NUCLEOTIDES . Hydrolysis Reactions (those that tear apart molecules) release Chitin . Deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA. lubricate and maintain pliability of skin  Denaturaion . Example. Proteins Saturated: all single bonds (many C-H bonds).monomers of nucleic acids.protein shape altered with changes in pH.Insulin (blood sugar regulation)  Prostaglandins 3. master molecule. • STEROIDS –derivative of triterpene sqalene Example . b) Double helix form: two intertwined chains (double stranded) ends of the fatty acids can be attracted to water.  comprise cell membranes.2 amino acids joined by peptide bond. liquid.Globular proteins that "recognize" foreign • c) vitamins (Vit. complementary  They tend to form circular blobs in water • Guanine (G) . oils.Enzymes function within a narrow range of these factors.Collagen.

Wrote Micrographia 2. • All cells arise from preexisting cells. each of which bears in itself the complete . animals. He could get his lenses up to 270x.RNA Nucleotides • They are usually very small (less than 5m in length) with a) Sugar = ribose relatively simple structure.” ribosomes • He proposed cellular pathology. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) – passes located on the CRISTAE carry out the energy electrons through a thin specimen.  involved in intercellular communications. Mitochondria Two Kinds of Electron Microscope  Powerhouse of the cell because of the enzymes 1.  The substance between the cell membrane and • Three Principles of Cell Theory the nucleus. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) – bounces electrons  A series of interconnected membranous tubes off specimen that have been coated with metals. 1. Cytoplasm • He described all diseases as diseases of cells. envelope. He stated that cells are elementary particles of both plants  The nucleus regulates all cell activity. Plasma Membrane • Cell .3 March 1703) environment and act as selective filter for 1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum b. SEM’s can be used to  Synthesize proteins and lipids view structures ranging in size from entire insects down to There are two forms of ER: cells and even organelles.  Nucleolus 7. and fungi cells c) Single stranded helix • Larger cells (usually more than 10m in diameter) • Contains variety of membranous organelles • cells do have true nuclei ("eukaryotic" means "possessing a true nucleus.Cytosine (C) • Plants. characteristics of life. • Every living organism is made up of one or more cells Two Main Components • The smallest living organisms are single cells.It consists of DNA looped around • First wrote that “Every animal appears as a sum of vital histone proteins. the NUCLEOLI. subcellular structures 2." ) CHAPTER 3 : CELL THEORY AND STUCTURE THREE COMPONENTS OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS • Cytology – the study of cell structure and its functions 1. Nucleus  The most prominent organelle which is spherical Anton Von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) or ovoid in shape enclosed within two 4. healing of tissues etc. and described tumors. Ribosomes • Mostly bacteria  The rough E. Rudolf Virchow . and cells are • Cytosol . and that cells were units of metabolism. chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Described elements of magnified cork as cells.Within the nucleus are found cells. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum PROKARYOTIC CELL 3. He discovered cells in cork in 1665 materials attempting to pass into or out of the cell 2. . Endoplasmic Reticulum 2. 6. • Organelles .the basic functioning unit of living things.It is the nucleolus that manufactures • “all cells come from cells. Theodore Schwann (1810–1882) granular structure. protists. or modified cellular function. has ribosomes attached to it. .Adenine (A) EUKARYOTIC CELL Guanine (G) . and can reveal minute yielding steps of anaerobic metabolism. and animals (1830). and and channels in the cytoplasm. a. and that it is merely modified life. • Light Microscope – the most common type of microscope • Electron Microscope – use beams of electrons instead of ORGANELLES light. units.The nucleolus is a knot of chromatin.A jellylike mixture that consists mostly the functional units of multicellular organisms of water. the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE. 3. He also believed that fermentation granules (yeasts) were . carrying out specific MICROSCOPE functions in the cell. He had a specific way of creating lenses membranes to form the double-layered nuclear 5. 3. provide three dimensional images.  It contains CHROMATIN and one or more dense.  Also called the cell membrane Scientist  A double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids  It separates the cell from the surrounding Rorbert Hooke (18 July 1635 . .Membrane bound structures that work like miniature organs. b) Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in RNA • have no nuclei (prokaryotic means before a nucleus) Uracil (U) .R.Chromatin is DNA in its active form.

and supporting the cell 2.  They function in cell division. Fatty acid tails non-polar (water fearing) . One of move fluid past the cell. Golgi Complex or Golgi Apparatus 2. In responsible for the ability of the cell to contract. microtubles.  Communicates with other cells . the interaction of which with actin causes  Notice the 9+2 arrangement of the contraction in muscle and other cells. including thick leucoplasts (colorless plastids). during strong contractions. Lysosomes d. protists but not in animals or fungi. Specialty Structures  A specialized set of membranous sacs derived a. Cilia and Flagella the cell.  The major function of lysosomes is to digest food  They can easily be seem through a light particles microscope. plastids shown here in potato root cell. Cytoskeleton  Chloroplasts represent one group of plastids  Network of protein fibers wherein most of the called chromoplasts (colored plastids).Tubular structures composed of proteins called  Isolates the cell cytoplasm from the external TUBULIN.They radiate out from a microtuble organizing species. Phospholipids composed of microtubules. medium-sized usually store food molecules. and in many cells.  Their structures are similar except that cilia tend to be small and numerous and flagella o Microfilaments tent to be large and fewer. . .  This gives it its texture. eliminating water according to their destinations.Larger than microfilaments. environment . Functions of cell membrane . ensuring that the cells do not tear themselves apart cell. It modifies some molecules c.  The other class of plastid are called  Several types of protein fibers. Proteins embedded in membrane 2. Vacuoles 3 MAJOR FUNCTIONS  Sacs bounded by single membrane 1.Normally found in only one or a few cell types 3. 4. b.Thin linear structures.Some proteins bind with actin and determine  In large multicell organisms their role is to the configuration and behavior in particular cells.They are important intracellular architecture. these is MYOSIN. membrane for export  They provide support for the plant .They are made of protein called ACTIN unicellular organisms their job is locomotion.It anchors the microfilaments of actin muscle  These ribosomes manufacture proteins for the cells.Essential parts of the structures of CILIA and  Identifies the cell as belonging to a particular FLAGELLA. Centrioles from ER  Centrioles are found only in animal cells. center called the CENTROSOME.  These provide support and maintain the form of e. within the cells. Separates proteins and lipids received from ER  storing of food or wastes. they provide a means  These are hair like extensions off of the cell of locomotion and translocation of organelles membrane. homeostasis. 1. . Proteins . It packages these materials into vesicles that are  the rigid structure found surrounding plant transported to other parts of the cell or the plasma cells. where they are  Their they beat back and forth rythmically. Plastids  Membranous vesicles that contain enzymes for  large organelles found on plants and some digestion of food. o Microtubules Membrane Structure and Function .They play a vital role in moving the  Regulates the exchange of essential substances chromosomes toward the daughter cells during cell between the cytoplasm and the external division. organelles are attached. organization and transport. Lipid Bilayer -2 layers of phospholipids 1. Included in INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS. Within the centrosome Basic Structure of Cell Membrane are found pair of CENTRIOLES. and thin this group are amyloplasts or starch MICROFILAMENTS make up the skeleton. . 5. which are themselves 1. Phosphate head is polar (water loving) o Intermediate Filament 2. they MICROTUBULES. environment to maintain internal balance called . species and particular individual member of that . Cell Walls 3.

Types of Passive Transport 1. Steriods solution is equal to the concentration of  a component of cell membranes in the form of cholesterol.Refers to the strength of a solution in relation to osmosis. spread out. Equilibrium) About the Cell Membrane  Active Transport Cell membranes have pores (holes) in it  cell uses energy (ATP) a. and a higher concentration of water than  These are generally globular proteins. . Protein Pumps concentration to an area of low concentration. Selectively permeable: Allows some molecules in and  actively moves molecules to where they are keeps other molecules out b.the physical EX: Hormones or wastes released from cell pressure that exactly balances the osmosis of water – TONICITY . TRANSPORT PROTEINS . membrane permeable membrane  Cell changes shape – requires energy – OSMOTIC PRESSURE . (High solute. High water)  They are not held in any fixed pattern but instead float Result: Water moves from the solution around in the phospholipid layer. – -ransport proteins that require energy to do work  (HighàLow) Example: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses. (Low solute. The structure helps it be selective! needed Types of Cellular Transport  Movement from an area of low concentration • Passive Transport to an area of high concentration  cell uses no energy  (Low à High)  molecules move randomly  Molecules spread out from an area of high Types of Active Transport 1. Water moves equally in both directions  When it is present it reduces the fluidity of the membrane. cell into the solution: Cell shrinks surface attachment sites. membrane 3. to inside the cell): Cell Swells and bursts  open (cytolysis) o Hypertonic: higher concentration of solutes Three Categories of Protein.allow the cell to receive instructions Result: Water moves from inside the RECOGNITION PROTEINS .  Floating around in the cell membrane are different kinds of o Hypotonic: lower concentration of solutes proteins.Proteins that regulate transport and and a lower concentration of water than diffusion inside the cell. (Plasmolysis) o Isotonic: The concentration of solutes in the 4. and the cell remains same size! (Dynamic  Not all membranes contain cholesterol.serve as identification tags and cell. (High to Low) Three Types – Diffusion continues until all molecules are o Pinocytosis (Cell Drinking) – the tiny evenly spaced (equilibrium is reached)- droplets of extra cellular fluid with all its Note: molecules will still move around but stay contained solutes are taken in by engulfing. Endocytosis – random movement of particles from an area – The process wherein large molecules enter the of high concentration to an area of low cell concentration. Low water) RECECEPTOR PROTEINS . Osmosis  membrane surrounding the material fuses with cell – The diffusion of water across semi. Diffusion 2. o Phagocytosis (Cell Eating) – the large particles of whole cells are ingested 2. inside the cell. solutes inside the cell. Exocytosis – Transports larger or charged molecules – Forces material out of cell in bulk 3. Facilitated Diffusion o Receptor Mediated Endocytosis – the – diffusion of specific particles through transport proteins found in the membrane specific substance are ingested by binding – Transport Proteins are specific – they to receptor proteins located in coated its on “select” only certain molecules to cross the the membrane.