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138

Motors: Starter Sizes ................................................136 Steam Turbines: Efﬁciency ......................................138

Motors: Service Factor.............................................136 Gas Turbines: Fuel Rates.........................................139

Motors: Useful Equations ........................................137 Gas Engines: Fuel Rates ..........................................141

Motors: Relative Costs .............................................137 Gas Expanders: Available Energy...........................141

Motors: Overloading ................................................138

134

Gulf Publishing Co. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries and Chemical Plants. from GPSA compares synchronous and induction motors.. Induction Table 3 Full Load Efﬁciencies *Synchronous motors.. F. Table 1 Energy Evaluation Chart NEMA Frame Size Motors. Evans. Table 2 Synchronous vs. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. 1. L. 1979.0 PF 1.. GPSA Engineering Data Book. 2. . 2. Drivers 135 Table 1 from the GPSA Engineering Data Book1 Table 2 compares standard and high efﬁciency motors. Induction 3 Phase. 1.000 Volts Table 3 from Evans2 shows the effect of a large range of speeds on efﬁciency. Vol. Vol. 2nd Ed. 1. 60 Hertz.300 or 4. 10th Ed.

dards are being changed to state that the temperature rise using a motor with a short time overload rating will tables are for motors with 1. tinuous operation with hot water at lower hp loads. Induction motors with a 15% service factor are still Today. W. that is. Large motors.1 been reduced 4–5% to reﬂect the savings. As stated in NEMA. the service factor for these reasons: motor would operate at a safe temperature at 15% over- load. include synchronous motors and all induction 2. here. The larger hp ratings provide increased pull-out standard motors with Class B insulation of 80°C rise by torque. For many years it was common practice to give stan. Large open motors (except splash-proof ) are for a particular application and for a speciﬁc driven available for an addition of 5% to the base price.0 service factor. tors would be consistent with that generally followed Service factor is mentioned nowhere in the NEMA in selecting hp requirements of synchronous motors. almost all large motors are designed speciﬁcally available. New catalogs for large induction motors are based on 3. Single Phase Motors Polyphase Motors McAllister. All of the larger standard hp are within or close to tailored to speciﬁc applications.. starting torque. resistance. This means the required..136 Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers Here are motor starter (controller) sizes. oldtimers came to expect a 10–15% pay for capability they do not require. This has changed for large motors. standards for large machines. Things are changing.0 service factor induction mo- rise by thermometer. standard synchronous nor enclosed induction motors have included service factor for several years. 1. For loads requiring an occasional overload.. Neither probably be appropriate. Users should specify standard hp ratings. which are closely 1. Over the years. 1993. startup of pumps with cold water followed by con- acteristics at the service factor overload. The practice of using 1. E. as shown tion of service factor. without dard open motors a 115% service factor rating. standard motor base prices have in the following section from Evans. Previously. customers should not be required to net price will be approximately the same. 3rd Ed. exceeding standard temperature rise. 1.15 service factor. In fact. they were 60°C 4. Pipe Line Rules of Thumb Handbook. there is no deﬁnition of it. In sizing the motor for the load. Gulf Publishing Co. 5. as used 15% steps. and pull-up torque. using the next larger hp avoids motors with 16 poles or more (450 rpm at 60 Hz). At nameplate . such as There is no standard for temperature rise or other char. the stan. Therefore. With the elimina- service factor for motors. the hp is usually speciﬁed temperature rise of 90°C for Class B insulation selected so that additional overload capacity is not by resistance at the overload horsepower.0 service factors. with a machine.

1979. 1. 125% are also still available. and motors other than 60 Hz. continuous-rated.250 lb./100) [hp(0.) PF] hp Horsepower (single phase) kW Kilowatts kVA input IE (1. F.746)]/[1.000 (single phase) kW input kVA input (PF) hp output kW input (eff. intermittent rated motors. and enclosures (Table 3). horsepower..73 E (eff. Table 1 Table 2 Relative Cost at Three Voltage Levels Relative Cost at Three Speeds of Drip-Proof 1. torque...)/0. Motors in this and Chemical Plants. 514 rpm and above) still have the 115% service factor rating. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries 60 Hz. Vol. L.. The following equations are useful in determining the where current.e.200-rpm Motors of Drip-Proof 2. L.746 Torque (rpm)/5. encapsu- Motors with a higher service factor rating such as lated motors.. Vol. Drivers 137 hp the service factor rated motor will usually have less totally enclosed motors. and power factor for AC motors: E Volts (line-to-line) I Current (amps) Full Load I [hp(0. Motors in this size range with 115% service factor are standard. drip-proof machines. speeds (Table 2).) PF] PF Power factor (per unit percent PF/100) (three phase) eff Efﬁciency (per unit percent eff. high than 80°C rise by resistance. 1.)/rpm and Chemical Plants. 2nd Ed. Evans gives handy relative cost tables for motors based on voltages (Table 1). 2nd Ed.000 (three phase) kVA Kilovoltamperes IE/1. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries Full Load Torque hp (5.746)]/[E (eff.300-Volt Motors . Gulf Publishing Power Factor kW input/kVA input Co.250 Evans. most multispeed motors. Most smaller open induction motors (i. general purpose. Gulf Publishing size range which normally have a 100% service factor are Co. voltage. 200 hp and below.-ft. 1979.73)/1.. Evans. design A or B. F. but not normally justiﬁable. slip design D motors.

the pump will tend to “run Branan.300-volt..S. 1. F. 1978.. A. The Process Engineer’s Pocket tion to correct atmospheric pressure for altitude. The theoretical steam rate1 is given as lb/hr/kw which is easily converted to lb/hr/hp.. H. If the control valve in the discharge line fully opens or an operator opens the control valve bypass.M. When a pump has a motor drive.. and Keyes. G. R. in this handbook.. Cooling water within manufacturer’s standard conditions of temperature and pressure. One word of caution—in using Keenan and Keyes. 2. F. Branan. for the equa. the process engi.. **With double tube gas to water heat exchanger. Sea level is the basis. ing greatly on speed. *Does not include blower and duct for external air supply. C. Gulf Publishing Co. Vol. 1.” giving more ﬂow and requiring more Vol. and pressure condi- .200-rpm Motors Evans. 1976. The theoretical steam rate (sometimes referred to as the The theoretical steam rate must then be divided by the water rate) for stream turbines can be determined from efﬁciency to obtain the actual steam rate.” Trans. 1. Evans1 provides the following graph of steam turbine Smaller turbines can vary widely in efﬁciency depend- efﬁciencies.138 Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers Table 3 Relative Cost of Three Enclosure Types 2. See the section on Pressure Drop Air-Cooled Rate Tables.. (1938). Vol. L. entropy path.E. J. Air Side Heat Exchangers. out on its curve. The Process Engineer’s Pocket Handbook.. Gulf Publishing Co. from extreme process changes. “Theoretical Steam be made. R. horsepower. Gulf Publishing Co. Handbook. See the section Keenan and Keyes1 or Mollier charts following a constant on Steam Turbines: Efﬁciency.. For low steam pressures at high altitudes appropriate corrections must 1. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries and Chemical Plants. 1979. horsepower. The motor must have the capacity to handle neer must verify that the motor will not overload this. C. 2nd Ed. The horsepower for a centrifugal pump increases with ﬂow. steam pressures are given in PSIG. 2. Keenan.

in their Section 15. Evans. exhaust pres- sure loss. 1979. effect of altitude. 1. 1. Vol. 10th Ed. It is based on gaseous fuels. The Process Engineer’s Pocket turbines. inlet pressure loss.. Very rough efﬁciencies to use for initial planning below 500 horsepower at 3. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries and Chemical Plants. and ambient temperature on power and heat rate. Drivers 139 tions...600 rpm. C. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries and Chemical Plants. 2nd Ed.. . 1. Figure 1. Gas Processors Figure 1. R. F. L. 2. The GPSA Engineering Data Book2 provides the however Evans1 provides the following fuel rate graph for following four graphs (Figures 2–5) showing the initial estimating. 1976. Handbook. Approximate gas turbine fuel rates. Gas turbine fuel rates (heat rates) vary considerably. GPSA Engineering Data Book. L.500 rpm are Some designers limit the speed of the cheaper small steam turbines to 3. Gulf Publishing Co. 1. Evans.. Branan. GPSA2 also provides a table showing 1982 Performance Speciﬁcations for a worldwide list of gas turbines. Vol. 1. 1979. 2nd Ed. Vol. F. Gulf Publishing Co.. Suppliers Association. Gulf Publishing Co. 1... Vol. Typical efﬁciencies for mechanical drive 2.

Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 3. Exhaust Loss Correction Factor. Figure 5. Temperature Correction Factor. . Altitude Correction Factor. Inlet Loss Correction Factor.

9865/Mol. Assuming Z 1 A rough outlet temperature can be estimated by 5. Figure 1. available energy is For comparison. A quickie rough estimate of actual expander rating is worthwhile.544 with 779 ftlb/Btu 4.. 1. 1976. °R from the standard compressor head calculation (see P1. 2nd Ed. Cp Heat capacity (constant pressure). 1979.. . C. Using a roundhouse 50% efﬁciency P H K 1 K T2 T1 2 (2) P1 Cp For large expanders.)[K/(K 1)] 2 545 (1.... Substituting Cp (1.9865/1. Drivers 141 Here are heat rates. outlet pressures. F. With high energy costs. Evans. Equipment Design Handbook for Reﬁneries and Chemical Plants. Vol. Equation 1 may be conservative. Gulf Publishing Co. for gas engines. Be sure to check for this. Branan. Approximate gas engine fuel rates. Gulf Publishing Co. Cancelling 1. psia Compressors. the outlet temperature for gas at critical ﬂow accross an oriﬁce is given by P2 K 1 K H C p T1 1 05 (1) P1 P 2 K 1 K T2 T1 2 T1 (3) P1 K 1 where The proposed expander may cool the working ﬂuid H Actual available energy.wt. P2 Inlet.544)R[K/(K 1)] H 3. L. Equation 1 can be used to see if a more accurate than ever. A full rating using vendor data is required for accurate Vol. R. Horsepower Calculation) by: K Cp /Cv 1. The Process Engineer’s Pocket Handbook. expanders will be used more results.9865/1. Btu/lb below the dew point. for initial estimating. 1. Btu/lb °F The expander equation (Equation 1) is generated T1 Inlet temperature. Turning [(P2/P1)(K 1)K 1] around (since work To get lb/hr-hp divide as follows: h) 2.

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