Table of Contents

Volume Contents....................................................iii Mechanical Movement Indicators...............................10-29
Tachometers............................................................10-29
Preface.....................................................................v Mechanical Tachometers.....................................10-29
Electric Tachometers...........................................10-30
Acknowledgments.................................................vii Synchroscope..........................................................10-32
Accelerometers........................................................10-32
Table of Contents.................................................xiii Stall Warning and Angle of Attack (AOA)
Indicators.................................................................10-34
Chapter 10 Temperature Measuring Instruments..........................10-35
Aircraft Instrument Systems.............................10-1 Non-Electric Temperature Indicators......................10-36
Introduction...................................................................10-1 Electrical Temperature Measuring Indication.........10-36
Classifying Instruments................................................10-3 Electrical Resistance Thermometer.....................10-36
Flight Instruments.....................................................10-3 Ratiometer Electrical Resistance
Engine Instruments....................................................10-3 Thermometers......................................................10-38
Navigation Instruments.............................................10-4
Thermocouple Temperature Indicators...................10-38
Pressure Measuring Instruments...................................10-5
Turbine Gas Temperature Indicating Systems....10-39
Types of Pressure......................................................10-7
Total Air Temperature Measurement......................10-42
Pressure Instruments.................................................10-8
Direction Indicating Instruments................................10-43
Engine Oil Pressure...............................................10-8
Magnetic Compass..................................................10-43
Manifold Pressure..................................................10-9
Vertical Magnetic Compass....................................10-45
Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR).................................10-9 Remote Indicating Compass....................................10-45
Fuel Pressure........................................................10-10 Remote Indicating Slaved Gyro Compass (Flux
Hydraulic Pressure...............................................10-10 Gate Compass)........................................................10-45
Vacuum Pressure.................................................10-11 Solid State Magnetometers......................................10-46
Pressure Switches................................................10-11 Sources of Power for Gyroscopic Instruments...........10-46
Pitot-Static Systems ...............................................10-12 Vacuum Systems.....................................................10-48
Pitot Tubes and Static Vents................................10-12 Venturi Tube Systems..........................................10-48
Air Data Computers (ADC) and Digital Air Engine-Driven Vacuum Pump.............................10-48
Data Computers (DADC)....................................10-14 Typical Pump-Driven System..............................10-49
Pitot-Static Pressure-Sensing Flight Instruments....10-16 Twin-Engine Aircraft Vacuum System
Altimeters and Altitude........................................10-16 Operation.............................................................10-50
Vertical Speed Indicator......................................10-22 Pressure-Driven Gyroscopic Instrument Systems...10-51
Airspeed Indicators..............................................10-24 Electrically-Driven Gyroscopic Instrument
Remote Sensing and Indication..................................10-26 Systems....................................................................10-51
Synchro-Type Remote-Indicating Instruments ......10-26 Principles of Gyroscopic Instruments.........................10-52
DC Selsyn Systems..............................................10-26 Mechanical Gyros...................................................10-52
AC Synchro Systems...........................................10-28 Solid State Gyros and Related Systems..................10-54
Remote Indicating Fuel and Oil Pressure Ring Laser Gyros (RLG).....................................10-54
Gauges.................................................................10-28

xiii

............11-1 Electric Attitude Indicators.................10-72 Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)......10-75 Glideslope......11-66 Compensation.....10-58 Fundamentals of Electronics..............................................................10-61 Radio Waves.........................................................................10-61 Radio Communication..........11-38 Electronic Horizontal Situation Length........10-81 Altitude Encoders...................................................10-67 Transceivers......................10-71 Radio Navigation.........10-68 Polarization.....11-40 Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor Transmission Lines............... ..........................11-62 Tachometer Maintenance....11-3 Turn-and-Slip Indicator ......10-70 Types.................................................. and Field Pattern...........................................................................................................11-49 Annunciator Systems..............................................................................................................11-35 Autopilot Functions..11-60 Pitot-Static System Maintenance and Tests.................................................................................10-65 Radio Transmitters and Receivers........11-3 Autopilot Systems................11-52 Instrument Installations and Markings..........................................................................11-54 Instrument Power Requirements.........................................................................................11-31 Computer and Amplifier..................................................................11-41 (ECAM)..................................11-51 Instrument Housings and Handling............................................10-74 Localizer........................................10-80 Radar Beacon Transponder....10-60 Digital Electronics ....................................10-61 Loading Information onto a Radio Wave...................................10-56 Communication and Navigation........................................................................................................................................................................................10-61 Types of Radio Waves......10-76 Compass Locators..........11-30 Sensing Elements..................................................11-34 Feedback or Follow-up Element.......................11-26 Autopilot Components............................................................................10-81 Transponder Tests and Inspections........10-64 Single Side Band (SSB) .......................10-58 History of Avionics......................................................................................................................................................................................11-1 Gyroscopic Direction Indicator or Directional Avionics in Aviation Maintenance....................................11-37 Flight Director Systems...11-38 Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI).........10-84 Weather Radar....................................11-2 Gyro (DG).............................11-4 Basis for Autopilot Operation...........10-63 Frequency Modulation (FM)..............................................10-60 Analog Electronics............................................10-55 LCD Display Screens......................................................11-37 Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)................................... Microelectromechanical Based Attitude and Autopilot System Maintenance...............................10-85 xiv ..11-39 Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)......11-58 Instrument Range Markings.........................................................................................................................................................11-36 Yaw Dampening............................................................................11-58 Maintenance of Instruments and Instrument Collision Avoidance Systems....... Directivity.......................................10-77 Marker Beacons.................................11-41 Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting VOR Navigation System....................10-65 Receivers...11-52 Instrument Panels.......10-81 Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) ...................................................................................................................11-59 Altimeter Tests..11-46 Flight Management System (FMS).....................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-56 Chapter 11 Vacuum-Driven Attitude Gyros..........................................10-78 Area Navigation (RNAV).....................................................................10-63 Amplitude Modulation (AM)...............11-32 Command Elements....................................................................................11-54 Instrument Mounting..................................................................................11-2 Turn Coordinators...........10-82 ADS-B...........................................11-48 Warnings and Cautions...................................10-67 Antennas.......................... ..........10-58 Analog Versus Digital Electronics................10-65 Transmitters...........................................10-84 Vacuum System Maintenance......................................10-57 Introduction.....................................................................................10-83 Radio Altimeter.........................11-64 Magnetic Compass Maintenance and Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)...........................11-49 Aural Warning Systems......11-42 System (EICAS)..10-73 Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)....11-38 Indicators (EHSI)..............................................................10-78 Distance Measuring Equipment (DME).........................................................10-74 Instrument Landing Systems (ILS)............................................11-58 Systems................................................10-55 Common Gyroscopic Instruments..........................10-86 Other Attitude and Directional Systems.....................................................................11-37 Electronic Instruments..........11-49 Clocks.........11-32 Output Elements..10-68 Electronic Flight Information Systems..........10-85 Directional Systems......................................

................................................12-32 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Power Systems.......12-4 O-Ring Installation .........................................12-8 Left and Right System Description.................................................................12-5 Boeing 737 Next Generation Hydraulic System...........12-19 Reducing Radio Interference..........................................................................................................................11-69 Filter Bypass Valve ....12-7 Power Transfer Unit (PTU)............................................................... ..........................................................................11-76 Heat Exchangers................12-14 (LORAN)........................................................................................................11-74 Pressure Control Valves........................................................12-7 Indications............12-35 Types of Hydraulic Fluids..................................12-1 Rotary Actuators..........................................................................12-23 Bonding .12-38 Open Center Hydraulic Systems...........................................................................................................12-43 Filters..................................................................................................12-17 Approval of New Avionics Equipment Gear-Type Power Pump...................................12-3 Phosphate Ester-Based Fluid (Skydrol®)....12-3 Gaskets.........11-72 Piston Pump....................12-17 Considerations....................................12-2 Power Transfer Unit (PTU).................12-40 Closed-Center Hydraulic Systems...................................................12-18 Cooling and Moisture ......12-32 Actuators......................12-38 Contamination Control............................................12-3 Seal Materials...............11-69 Filter Differential Pressure Indicators ......12-5 Reservoirs.........................12-3 Backup Rings.... ...................................................................................12-27 Static Discharge Wicks........................................................................12-41 Evolution of Hydraulic Systems..........12-3 V-Ring Packings.......................................................................12-29 Installation of Aircraft Antenna Systems............................12-14 Global Positioning System (GPS)......12-38 Hydraulic System Flushing.......12-35 Mineral-Based Fluids.............................11-74 Variable-Displacement Pump ..........................................................................................................................................12-6 Filter Units....................12-14 xv ................................................................................................12-6 Pumps..................12-3 U-Ring .........................................................12-38 Health and Handling.................12-42 Hydraulic System Components..............12-15 Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Inertial Reference Hand Pumps ..........................................................................................................................................................12-30 Maintenance Procedure..12-3 Seals..12-33 Aircraft Hydraulic Systems...................................................11-75 Accumulators......................................................11-74 Valves ................................................................................12-38 Basic Hydraulic Systems .....................12-38 Contamination Check ...............................................12-32 Chapter 12 Linear Actuators..............................................................................................................12-5 Large Aircraft Hydraulic Systems.......................................................................................................................................12-8 Boeing 777 Hydraulic System.................12-2 Ram Air Turbine (RAT) .....................................................11-74 Flow Control Valves...............11-72 Gerotor Pump.12-42 Reservoirs............... ...........12-4 Wipers ........................12-16 Equipment........................................................................................................................................................12-23 Isolation.......................12-30 Transmission Lines............................................12-35 Chemical Stability.....................12-34 Hydraulic Fluid...........12-40 Hydraulic Power Systems............................................................12-37 Hydraulic Fluid Contamination...................................................12-14 Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)......................12-3 O-Rings..........................11-72 Constant-Displacement Pumps........12-35 Polyalphaolefin-Based Fluids.......................... ........................................11-73 Vibration Isolation........................................................................................................ Long Range Aid to Navigation System Maintenance of Filters.. ............................................................12-35 Flash Point........11-75 Shuttle Valves....12-2 Hydraulic Motor-Driven Generator (HMDG)......................................12-1 Hydraulic Motor ............................................................................................11-71 Pumps..............................................11-71 Power-Driven Pumps.............................................................................................12-7 Landing Gear Transfer Unit........................................................................................................................................................................................................12-35 Fire Point...................................12-17 Installations......................12-45 Micron-Type Filters........11-76 Types of Accumulators.......12-7 Standby Hydraulic System..............12-42 Hydraulic Power Pack System...........11-73 Vane Pump..............12-35 Viscosity..12-37 Compatibility with Aircraft Materials............................................12-16 Installation of Communication and Navigation Classification of Pumps.....................................................12-15 System (IRS)....................................................................12-20 Shielding .........................................................12-12 Center Hydraulic System..................................................................................................................................12-37 Intermixing of Fluids...

12-48 Wheel Construction...................................................................................Aircraft Pneumatic Systems................................................................................................13-73 Nose Wheel Steering Systems.13-6 Power Brakes ................................. ............................................................13-2 Dual-Disc Brakes.............13-15 Control Units.......................................................13-28 Off Aircraft Brake Servicing and Maintenance.......................................................................................13-72 Landing Gear Retraction Test .......................12-47 Aircraft Wheels.................13-14 Wheel Speed Sensors......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13-22 Anti-Skid System Maintenance.13-1 Single Disc Brakes..............................................................................13-76 Non-Hydraulic Shimmy Damper..........................................................................13-33 Tire Classification...12-52 Wheel Inspection..............13-50 Shock Absorbing and Non-Shock Absorbing Brake Actuating Systems..........................13-22 Auto Brakes..................................13-43 Landing Gear Arrangement..................................................13-34 Ply Rating...........13-35 Off Aircraft Wheel Inspection .........................13-64 Large Aircraft Retraction Systems .......................................................................................................................................................................13-24 On Aircraft Servicing..........................12-52 On Aircraft Inspection...................................13-22 Anti-Skid System Tests..........13-34 Pneumatic System Components.....................13-23 Brake Inspection and Service..................................................13-61 Landing Gear Alignment...............13-76 Piston-Type......................13-26 Bleeding Master Cylinder Brake Systems........13-43 Landing Gear Types.....................13-5 Independent Master Cylinders ..................13-3 Carbon Brakes..................13-75 Shimmy Dampers......13-74 Small Aircraft ...........................13-33 Aircraft Tires and Tubes.................................................................................................................................13-20 Touchdown and Lock Wheel Protection............................13-32 Chattering or Squealing ...........13-29 Replacement of Brake Linings.........................................................................................................13-52 Leaf-Type Spring Gear..13-52 Landing Gear ...................................12-51 Outboard Wheel Half.............................13-50 Fixed and Retractable Landing Gear....................13-69 Landing Gear Rigging and Adjustment.....................................................13-66 Emergency Extension Systems..............................13-28 Bleeding Power Brake Systems..................................... and Retraction................13-37 Chapter 13 Aircraft Brakes................13-24 Lining Wear....13-63 Small Aircraft Retraction Systems....................................................13-34 High-Pressure Systems........13-69 Gear Door Clearances........................13-16 Anti-Skid Control Valves...................................................................................13-56 Bungee Cord.............................13-13 System Operation...13-46 Tandem Landing Gear....................................................13-30 Overheating .............13-77 xvi ..................................................................................................................................................13-61 Bleeding Shock Struts....13-1 Types and Construction of Aircraft Brakes ...............................................13-25 Air in the Brake System......13-68 Ground Locks............................................................................................................................................13-55 Rigid ...13-59 Shock Struts ..............................................................13-12 Anti-Skid..........13-11 Brake Deboosters.................13-74 Large Aircraft.........13-76 Vane-Type......13-71 Drag and Side Brace Adjustment ..........................13-62 Support................13-61 Shock Strut Operation......... .. Support................13-35 Low-Pressure Systems ......................13-5 Expander Tube Brakes..............13-61 Servicing Shock Struts...........................................................................12-52 Proper Installation..........................13-7 Emergency Brake Systems ...............................13-7 Parking Brake.................13-33 Types.................................13-30 Brake Malfunctions and Damage ...........13-76 Steering Damper.....13-68 Landing Gear System Maintenance......13-35 Emergency Backup Systems...........................................................................................................................................13-3 Multiple-Disc Brakes..................................................................................13-30 Dragging ...................13-45 Tail Wheel-Type Landing Gear .............................13-68 Landing Gear Position Indicators.....................................................................................................................................................13-35 Pneumatic Power System Maintenance........13-66 Landing Gear Safety Devices........................13-3 Segmented Rotor-Disc Brakes ............................12-48 Inboard Wheel Half...............................13-47 Tricycle-Type Landing Gear............................................................................................ .......................................................................13-6 Boosted Brakes........................................13-68 Nose Wheel Centering............................... .13-14 Alignment.....................................................................................13-35 Medium-Pressure Systems.................. ........13-66 Safety Switch................... .......................13-42 Aircraft Landing Gear Systems.................

.............................................................................................................13-90 Small Single-Engine Aircraft Fuel Systems...............14-29 Fuel Tank Vents and Carburetor Vapor Vents.......14-15 Takeoffs and Landings........14-13 Tubeless Tires........13-89 Turbine Fuel Volatility.......................................................................13-80 Inflation.............................................................14-5 Solenoid-Operated Valves............14-3 Bladder Fuel Tanks.................14-3 Fuel Valves ...........14-25 Fuel System Hot Weather Operation...............................................13-78 Fuel System Drains........14-4 Motor-Operated Valves..................................................................................................................................13-80 Vapor Lock..14-28 Fuel Tank Sump......................................................14-9 Tire Repair and Retreading...............................................................................................................................................14-13 Tire Mounting............................................................................................14-6 Carcass Plies........................................................................................13-94 Small Multiengine (Reciprocating) Aircraft Landing Field and Hangar Floor Condition ......14-30 Fuel Tank Outlet...................................13-89 Turbine Engine Fuels.................. ................................................................13-88 Fuel Identification......................................14-3 Fuel Lines and Fittings......................... ...........13-80 Carburetor Icing...........................................................................................................14-3 Hand-Operated Valves..........14-5 Fuel Pumps.........................14-4 Poppet Valves..............................................14-31 Pressure Fueling Systems...............................14-22 Fuel System Lightning Protection................13-89 Purity.........13-94 Fuel Systems..................................................13-93 High-Wing Aircraft With Fuel Injection Taxiing .............................................................................14-6 Tire Construction..14-10 Tire Storage ............................................................14-14 Operation and Handling Tips.........................13-90 Aircraft Fuel Systems.................................14-25 Unusable Fuel Supply.......................................................................................14-4 Fuel Tank Expansion Space........................14-7 Volatility.......................................................................................................................................14-5 xvii ........................14-11 Tube Construction and Selection..................................................13-79 Reciprocating Engine Fuel—AVGAS...............................................................................14-26 Fuel Tanks.............................13-94 Low-Wing Twin..........................................13-88 Octane and Performance Number Rating...........................................................................................................................................................14-2 Fuel System Components............14-8 Tire Removal...................................14-23 Flow Between Interconnected Tanks...................14-5 Bias Ply or Radial.........14-26 Fuel Tank Tests..............................................................................................................................................14-14 Braking and Pivoting..........................................................................................................13-93 Pump Feed Systems........................14-3 Rigid Removable Fuel Tanks.....14-7 Sidewall...14-6 Bead ..14-4 Manually-Operated Gate Valves......................................................................................13-82 Aromatic Fuels.....................14-7 Tire Inspection on the Aircraft..........................................................14-31 Fuel System Lines and Fittings ...............14-13 Tire Balancing ..............14-13 Tire Inspection ........14-5 Hand-Operated Fuel Pumps.....13-78 Fuel Strainer or Filter................................14-22 Fuel Flow.........................................14-1 Jet Transport Aircraft Fuel Systems.................................................14-17 Basic Fuel System Requirements...................................................................................................14-29 Fuel Tank Filler Connection...........................................14-8 Sidewall Condition......................................................................................................13-94 System.......14-9 Tire Inspection Off of the Aircraft...14-5 Ejector Pumps......................14-16 Aircraft Fuel System..................14-16 Large Reciprocating-Engine Aircraft Fuel Chapter 14 Systems...................................................................13-90 Turbine Engine Fuel Types....................................14-10 Aircraft Tubes...........................................................................14-7 Tread...................................................................14-15 Hydroplaning................................14-4 Cone Valves..............................14-22 Fuel System Independence...14-3 Integral Fuel Tanks...................13-77 Fuel Valves and Controls................14-1 Helicopter Fuel Systems.......................................................................................14-12 Tube Storage and Inspection.....................................................................14-31 Fuel Pumps ................................................................................................................................................13-86 Surface Ignition and Preignition...........14-2 Fuel Tanks....................13-94 High-Wing Twin........................................13-86 Detonation........14-7 Tread Condition.......................................14-28 Fuel Tank Installation.......................................................................... Tube-Type or Tubeless......13-90 Turbine Engine Fuel Issues.............................................13-79 Types of Aviation Fuel...................................................................................................................................................................14-32 Fuel System Components...................................................................14-13 Tube-Type Tires.........13-78 Fuel Jettisoning System.....................................................................13-91 Gravity Feed Systems....

..........14-51 Inspection...................14-48 Control Valve....................................................................................15-21 Fire Safety.....................................................................................................................................15-25 Fueling and Defueling Procedures........................... and Ice Control Systems...........14-46 Wet-Type Engine-Driven Air Pump.14-51 of Rubber Deicer Boot Systems............................................14-49 Timer/Control Unit................15-14 Fuel Pressure Gauges....................15-21 Fuel System Servicing....16-1 Thermal Electric Anti-Icing..............14-52 Troubleshooting...............................15-17 Valve-In-Transit Indicator Lights ...........................................14-54 Electric Deice Boots...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................15-19 Bladder Tanks...........14-35 Sources of Operating Air.......................................................... Pulsating Electric Pumps.......................................................................15-12 Fuel System Indicators..........15-10 Human Respiration and Circulation................................14-34 Wing and Stabilizer Deicing Systems...........15-16 Pressure Warning Signal..15-23 Ground Deicing of Aircraft................14-55 Propeller Deice System..................................................................14-50 Regulators and Relief Valves....................................................................15-1 Windshield Frost..........................15-19 Integral Tanks...................................................14-59 Ice and Snow Removal.................14-58 Aircraft..................................................15-18 Troubleshooting the Fuel System..........................................................15-25 Detection of Contaminants.........15-27 Fire Hazards When Fueling or Defueling......................15-27 Windshield Surface Seal Coating.......15-19 Welded Tanks.......14-50 Inlet Filter..................................................15-21 Checking for Fuel System Contaminants......................................................................................................................15-4 Chapter 16 Thermal Pneumatic Anti-icing....14-55 Chemical Propeller Deice..............................15-23 Foreign Fuel Contamination.......16-2 Chemical Anti-Icing.....................................14-36 Turbine Engine Bleed Air........................15-4 Physiology of Flight........................................15-14 Fuel Temperature Gauges...........................14-49 Distributor Valve..........15-13 Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems....................................................................................................................15-22 Solid Particle Contaminants.........16-1 Leading Edge Slat Anti-Ice System.......................................................14-54 Deice Boot Maintenance.15-18 Fuel Leak Classification.............................. and Troubleshooting Soldered Tanks..............................................................................................................14-39 Pneumatic Deice Boot System for GA Aircraft...................................................15-27 Defueling............................................................14-47 Dry-Type Engine-Driven Air Pump............................................... Maintenance...........15-19 Fuel Tank Repair..............................15-28 Icing Effects.......................................................15-6 Composition of the Atmosphere..............................................................................................16-1 Wing Anti-Ice (WAI) System...................................................14-52 Adjustments........................15-28 Ice Detector System.......................14-61 Windshield Wiper Systems .....................14-61 Chemical Rain Repellant.....15-23 Microorganisms..............14-55 Electrothermal Propeller Device System ........ Fog...............................................................15-14 Fuel Flowmeters...................................................................................................................................................15-12 Fuel Filters............................................... Seals................................14-56 Deicing and Anti-icing of Transport Type Fuel Contamination Control........................................14-59 Rain Control Systems..........................14-56 Frost Removal.............................15-3 Pneumatic.......................14-40 Deice System for Turboprop Aircraft.................................................................................................................14-40 GA System Operation.......................................................... ...................15-3 Chemical...........................................................................................................15-28 Ice Control Systems..............15-28 Chapter 15 Ice and Rain Protection.............................................15-23 Surfactants.............15-2 Electric......................................................................................14-49 Deflate Valve........................... and Packings.14-44 Deicing System Components...............................15-12 Fuel Heaters and Ice Prevention......15-21 Water........................15-18 Location of Leaks and Defects...........................................15-27 Fueling.........................15-18 Replacement of Gaskets........14-48 Oil Separator.......14-51 Construction and Installation of Deice Boots......15-12 Vane-Type Fuel Pumps...........................................15-32 Anti-Icing Systems..14-54 Inspection...15-19 Riveted Tanks...................................................................................15-31 Wing and Horizontal and Vertical Stabilizer Portable Water Tank Ice Prevention............15-10 xviii ..............................................................15-1 Pneumatic Rain Removal Systems....14-51 Operational Checks.........................................15-17 Fuel System Repair ........14-50 Manifold Assembly..........................15-30 Ice Prevention........................................................15-4 Cabin Environmental Control Systems..........................

...................................................................16-16 Ignition System...........................16-32 Ionization Type.........16-41 Installed Fire Extinguishing Systems................16-58 Liquid Oxygen..........16-62 Filling LOX Systems......................................................16-39 Cockpit and Cabin Interiors...............17-8 Cabin Air Pressure Regulator and Outflow Smoke....................................17-11 Components...............................................16-58 Chemical or Solid Oxygen ........16-5 Electric Heating Systems......17-8 Cabin Air Pressure Safety Valve Operation.......................................17-8 Pressurization Gauges.............................16-27 Pneumatic Continuous-Loop Systems........16-36 Halogenated Hydrocarbons........................................16-19 Replacing Tubing...........17-1 Classes of Fires..........................16-39 Water..............................................................................16-58 Gaseous Oxygen......16-20 Introduction.....16-34 Carbon Monoxide Detectors................................................................................................................................................................17-8 Pressurization Operation ...................................................................17-2 Pressurization Issues.........................16-62 Inspection of Masks and Hoses................................................16-21 Systems.....16-60 Oxygen Systems and Components.....................................16-34 Extinguishing Agents and Portable Fire Air Cycle Air Conditioning..........................................16-24 Continuous-Loop Systems...........................................17-11 Theory of Refrigeration..........................................16-20 Chapter 17 Prevention of Oxygen Fires or Explosions...............16-28 Fire Zones....16-25 Fenwal System....................16-61 LOX Systems...16-36 Inert Cold Gases.................................................................................................................................................................. ........17-10 Water Separator........16-21 Requirements for Overheat and Fire Protection Pressure of the Atmosphere..........17-4 Control of Cabin Pressure ..........................................................................17-4 Reciprocating Engine Aircraft ................................................................16-40 Extinguisher Types..............................................................................16-26 Kidde System............................................................................. ..............................................16-23 Thermal Switch System..16-58 Onboard Oxygen Generating Systems Exhaust Shroud Heaters...................................................16-30 Systems....................................................16-16 Safety Features ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17-6 Pressurization Modes...............................................................................16-5 Combustion Heaters.......16-60 Gaseous Oxygen Systems........16-61 Servicing Gaseous Oxygen....16-3 System Servicing.....................................................................................................................................................................................16-55 Forms of Oxygen and Characteristics.............16-32 Light Refraction Type...................................................................................................................................................16-19 Maintenance and Inspection.....................................................................................................................................................................17-3 Sources of Pressurized Air.................... and Carbon Monoxide Detection Valve....17-9 Cabin Pressurization Troubleshooting....................................16-36 Dry Powders......17-2 Temperature and Altitude................................... and Fittings............17-2 Aircraft Pressurization Systems...17-9 Air Conditioning Systems.....16-4 Bleed Air Systems.............16-34 Flame Detectors.......16-16 Fuel System.................................................. Flame........................................................16-31 Smoke Detectors....................17-8 Air Distribution...........................16-16 Controls................17-6 Cabin Pressure Controller.....................16-60 Chemical Oxygen Systems.........................................................................................................17-10 System Operation..............16-6 Combustion Air System........................................................................................................................................17-11 Cabin Temperature Control System................16-22 Fire Detection/Overheat Systems............................................16-3 Equipment..................................... Valves.......................16-20 Fire Protection Systems.....................16-58 (OBOGS).............. Oxygen and Hypoxia............................17-10 Pneumatic System Supply............................................................17-4 Turbine Engine Aircraft ..............................16-35 Extinguishers....16-61 Oxygen System Servicing.......................16-27 Pressure Type Sensor Responder Systems..............................................16-6 Ventilating Air System ........................... ......................17-1 Oxygen System Inspection and Maintenance......................................16-2 Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning Servicing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning...........................16-51 Aircraft Oxygen Systems...........................................................................16-4 Technician Certification................................................16-4 Aircraft Heaters......................16-46 xix ........17-11 Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems.........................................17-2 Pressurization Terms.........................16-23 Thermocouple System..........17-11 Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning...............17-10 Component Operation...

........................................................................... .........................................17-15 Cargo and Baggage Compartment Fire Detection and Extinguisher System.... Halogenated Hydrocarbons Fire Extinguishing Systems..........................17-15 Class E.............17-21 Glossary.........................................................17-20 Container Pressure Check..................17-13 Yellow Disk Discharge Indicator..................................................17-18 Fire Detection System Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................................17-14 Cargo Compartment Classification...............17-14 Fire Switch.....................17-13 Two-Way Check Valve.......................................................................17-14 Cargo Fire Detection.............17-16 Lavatory Smoke Detectors..................................................................................................................17-17 Lavatory Fire Extinguisher System...................................................17-16 Cargo Compartment Extinguishing System....17-11 Containers ...............17-15 Class A....................................................................................17-15 Smoke Detector System...........17-20 Fire Prevention....................G-1 Index............I-1 xx ..............................................17-20 Discharge Cartridges..........................................17-13 Thermal Discharge Indicator (Red Disk).......17-20 Agent Containers........................................................................................................17-17 Lavatory Smoke Detector System ....................17-15 Class B...........17-13 Discharge Indicators.......................................................17-15 Class C...................................................................................17-13 Pressure Indication.17-12 Discharge Valves.....................17-19 Fire Extinguisher System Maintenance......................17-18 Fire Detection System Maintenance.....................................................................