Application of Directional Overcurrent
and Earthfault Protection

Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection - January 2004

Directional Protection

Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection - January 2004

Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .5 0.9 0. Need for Directional Control Generally required if current can flow in both directions through a relay location e.January 2004 . Parallel feeder circuits Ring Main Circuits 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.9 Relays operate for current flow in direction indicated. (Typical operating times shown).g.

51 67 67 67 Load Load 51 67 67 67 Load Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .January 2004 . Need to establish principle for relay. Ring Main Circuit With ring closed : Both load and fault current may flow in either direction along feeder circuits. Thus. directional relays are required. Note: Directional relays look into the feeder.

3 Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .B . Open ring at A Grade : A' .E' .7 0.1 1.3 0. Open ring at A' Grade : A .5 D A' E E' 1.1 1. C.B' 2.7 0. D’.C' .C .D' . A B' B C' C 1.January 2004 .D .9 D' 0.5 0. Note : Relays B. E’ may be non-directional. Ring Main Circuit Procedure : 1.9 0.E Typical operating times shown.

B’ must operate before A’ For F2 :. Ring System with Two Sources Discrimination between all relays is not possible due to different requirements under different ring operating conditions.January 2004 .B’ must operate after A’ } Not Compatible B F1 A B' B C' C A' F2 D D' Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . For F1 :.

Ring System with Two Sources Option 1 Trip least important source instantaneously then treat as normal ring main. Option 2 Fit pilot wire protection to circuit A . B A 50 Option 1 Option 1 Option 1 PW PW Option 2 Option 2 Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .B and consider as common source busbar.January 2004 .

Fault level at ‘F’ Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .January 2004 . A&B Grade ‘A’ with ‘C’ and Grade ‘B’ with ‘D’ C&D Relays ‘A’ and ‘B’ have the same setting. Parallel Feeders Non-Directional Relays :- ‘F’ 51 A 51 C Load 51 B 51 D “Conventional Grading” :.

Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . As ‘C’ and ‘D’ have similar settings both feeders will be tipped.January 2004 . Parallel Feeders Consider fault on one feeder :- I1 + I2 I1 51 A I2 C 51 LOAD 51 B D 51 Relays ‘C’ and ‘D’ see the same fault current (I2).

January 2004 . Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . Parallel Feeders Solution:.Directional Control at ‘C’ and ‘D’ I1 + I2 I1 C 51 A I2 67 LOAD 51 B D 67 Relay ‘D’ does not operate due to current flow in the reverse direction.

January 2004 .1) Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .Fast operating time (i.e. Any current flow in ‘operate’ direction is indicative of a fault condition. TMS=0.Sensitive (typically 50% load) . Thus Relays ‘C’ and ‘D’ may be set :- . Parallel Feeders Setting philosophy for directional relays E 51 A C 67 Load 51 51 B D 67 Load current always flows in ‘non-operate’ direction.

Minimum T. 2. (0. relays are set :- .M.S. Parallel Feeders Usually. 50% full load current (note thermal rating) . Grade ‘A’ with ‘D’ (and ‘B’ with ‘C’) assuming both feeders in service. Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .1) Grading procedure :- 1. Grade ‘A’ (and ‘B’) with ‘E’ assuming one feeder in service.January 2004 .

Parallel Feeders .but check that sufficient margin exists for bus fault at A B Q when relay A sees D C M = Margin total fault current If2. M M If2/2 If1If2 If Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . If2 but relay B sees only If2/2 M If2/2.Application Note Grade B with C at If1 If2 P Q Grade B with D at If2 (in practice) B D Load A C Grade A with B at If Load If1:One Feeder B D If2:Two Feeders .January 2004 .

January 2004 . Establishing Direction Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

In relaying terms. The most convenient reference quantity is POLARISING VOLTAGE taken from the Power System Voltages. the REFERENCE is called the POLARISING QUANTITY. Establishing Direction:. Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .Polarising Quantity The DIRECTION of Alternating Current may only be determined with respect to a COMMON REFERENCE.January 2004 .

January 2004 . Directional Decision by Phase Comparison (1) S1 = Reference Direction = Polarising Signal = VPOL S2 = Current Signal = I OPERATION when S2 is within ±90° of S1 :- S1 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

January 2004 . Directional Decision by Phase Comparison (2) RESTRAINT when S2 lags S1 by between 90° and 270° :- S1 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 S2 Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

Which voltage to use ? Selectable from VA VB VC VA-B VB-C VC-A Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .Polarising Voltage for ‘A’ Phase Overcurrent Relay OPERATE SIGNAL = IA POLARISING SIGNAL :.January 2004 .

Directional Relay Applied Voltage : VA Applied Current : IA VA IA Operate IAF VAF Restrain Question : .is this connection suitable for a typical power system ? Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .January 2004 .

Polarising Voltage Applied Voltage : VBC Applied Current : IA VA IA IAF MAXIMUM SENSITIVITY LINE VBC IVBC X Polarising voltage remains ØVBC healthy X Fault current in centre of ZERO SENSITIVITY characteristic LINE Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .January 2004 .

but no longer. as the 90° connection gives better performance.January 2004 .g. 30° and 60° connections were also used in the past. 90° (Quadrature) Connection : IA and VBC IA VA 90° VBC VC VB The 90° connection is now used for all overcurrent relays. Relay Connection Angle The angle between the current applied to the relay and the voltage applied to the relay at system unity power factor e. Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

) for Electronic Relays The angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce maximum operational sensitivity e. 45° OPERATE IA FOR MAXIMUM OPERATE VA RESTRAIN SENSITIVITY RCA 45° VBC Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .A.C. Relay Characteristic Angle (R.g.January 2004 .

45° R.C.A.January 2004 . 90° Connection . MAX SENSITIVITY OPERATE LINE IA VA VA IA FOR MAX RESTRAIN SENSITIVITY 45° 90° 45° VBC VBC 135° VC VB RELAY CURRENT VOLTAGE A IA VBC B IB VCA C IC VAB Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

90° Connection . OPERATE MAX SENSITIVITY IA RESTRAIN LINE VA VA IA FOR MAX 30° SENSITIVITY 90° 30° VBC VBC 150° VC VB RELAY CURRENT VOLTAGE A IA VBC B IB VCA C IC VAB Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .C.January 2004 .30° R.A.

(1) Overcurrent Relays 90° connection 30° RCA (lead) Plain feeder. zero sequence source behind relay Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .C. Selection of R.January 2004 .A.

(2) 90° connection 45° RCA (lead) Plain or Transformer Feeder :.January 2004 .C.Zero Sequence Source in Front of Relay Transformer Feeder :.Delta/Star Transformer in Front of Relay Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . Selection of R.A.

Directional Earthfault Protection Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .January 2004 .

Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . Most appropriate polarising signal is the residual voltage. need operating signal and polarising signal Operating Signal obtained from residual connection of line CT's i.January 2004 .e. Directional Earth Fault Requirements are similar to directional overcurrent i. Iop = 3Io Polarising Signal The use of either phase-neutral or phase-phase voltage as the reference becomes inappropriate for the comparison with residual current.e.

2.January 2004 . secondary. Residual Voltage May be obtained from ‘broken’ delta V. VT primary must be earthed. VT must be of the '5 limb' construction (or 3 x single phase units) Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .T. A B C VA-G VB-G VC-G VRES = VA-G + VB-G + VC-G = 3V0 VRES Notes : 1.

Distribution systems (solidly earthed) 60 (I lags V) . Directional Earth Fault Relays Relay Characteristic Angle 0 .Resistance earthed systems 45 (I lags V) .Transmission systems (solidly earthed) Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .January 2004 .

January 2004 . Z S0 VRES= x 3E 2Z S1 + Z S0 + 2Z L1 + ZL0 Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . Residual Voltage Solidly Earthed System E S R F ZS ZL A-G VA VA VC VB VC VB VC VB VA VRES VA VRES VB VB VB VC VC VC Residual Voltage at R (relaying point) is dependant upon ZS / ZL ratio.

F R G. Residual Voltage Resistance Earthed System E S R F ZS ZL N ZE A-G G VA-G S S V S A-G R G.F G.January 2004 .F VC-G VB-G VC-G VB-G VC-G VB-G VRES VRES VRES VB-G VB-G VB-G VA-G VA-G VC-G VC-G VC-G Z S0 + 3Z E VRES= x 3E 2Z S1 + Z S0 + 2Z L1 + ZL0 + 3Z E Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

Resistance earthed systems 45 (I lags V) .Distribution systems (solidly earthed) 60 (I lags V) .) I0 (ZS0 + 3R) Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection . Directional Earth Fault Relays Relay Characteristic Angle 0 .January 2004 .Tranmission systems (solidly earthed) Zero sequence network :- ZS0 I0 ZL0 3R V0 V0 = ( .

January 2004 . The current polarising signal may be derived from a CT located in a suitable system neutral to earth connection. e. Current Polarising A solidly earthed. high fault level (low source impedance) system may result in a small value of residual voltage at the relaying point.g. If residual voltage is too low to provide a reliable polarising signal then a current polarising signal may be used as an alternative. OP POL DEF Relay Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

A.January 2004 . Directional Control Static Relay (METI + MCGG) Characteristic Selectable M.T. Selectable 51 I V 67 I Overcurrent Unit Directional Unit (Static) (Static) Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .

2V steps for example Application of Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection .6 to 80V in 0.90° Øc Øc + 90° -Is Polarising thresholds Reverse start Vp > 0.+ 180° forward start in 1° steps forward operation +Is Øc .6V Vop > 0. Numerical Relay Directional Characteristic Characteristic angle Øc Zone of Øc = -180° --.January 2004 .0° --.