MECHATRONICS

WEEK 1

1

The Instructor….
Engr. Prof. Dr. S.M. Usman Ali shah
Professor & Chairperson
Department of Electrical Engg.
NED University of Engg. & Technology

2

The Course….
Pre-requisites

Under-graduate courses in:
• Instrumentation and Controls
• Digital Electronics
• Microprocessors and Applications
• Computer Architecture & Organization

3

The Course….
Tentative Course Plan
Week1
• Introduction to the subject and areas of applications.
Week2
• Transducers
Week3
• Transducers (continued..)
Week 4
Signal Conditioning Elements
Week 5
• Signal Conditioning Elements (contd.)
Week 6
• Data Acquisition Systems

4

Week 7
• Control Systems Engineering

Week 8
• Process Control

Week 9
• Process Control (contd.)

Week 10
• Belts and Gears

Week 11
• Belts and Gears (contd.)

Week 12
• Mechanical Systems and Mechanical Processes

5

Week 13 • Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Week 14 • Mechatronics applications in MEMS Week 15 • Mechatronics applications in MEMS (contd.) Week 16 • Applications of Computers in Mechatronics 6 .

powers and applications! 7 . • Electrical and electronic systems can be integrated with mechanical systems and processes because of their fantastic features. • Conventional mechanical systems started going electrical/electronics from 1970. Mechatronics • Mechanisms and Electronics.

• Thru mechatronics atomized and efficient manufacturing/production systems for high quality products! 8 . • It’s the synergistic integration of mechanical engineering with electronics and intelligent computer control in designing. manufacturing processes and production.• Mechatronics can be defined as a multidisciplinary approach to product and manufacturing system design.

monitoring and control of welding process. 9 . temperature controllers etc.• Applications of mechatronics are in every field of production. intelligent robotic control using ultrasonic measurements. consumer products.

Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object.• Ultrasonic sensors (also known as transducers when they both send and receive) work on a principle similar to radar or sonar which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. 10 .

• Mechatronics is truly a multidisciplinary field! 11 .

Mechatronics Design Elements 12 .

• Sensor: The combination of a transducer and a signal processor. • Signal Conditioning element may perform the following operations: • Signal boosting • Noise Reduction • Removal of dc offset if any • Resolving Compatibility issues • Removal of wrong/in access or duplicate information present 13 .

differentiator. integrator. subtractor. sample and hold amplifiers. A/D converters are used as SCEs. 14 . • Other signal conditioning elements (SCE) are adder.• Most commonly. • For a computer based system. instrumentation amplifiers etc. current/voltage or voltage/current converters. signal conditioning units would include op-amps with suitable passive elements.

• Mechatronic systems employ actuators which are part of the physical process being monitored and controlled. its output high output signals (physical quantities) that are applied to the process as input. • Actuation…. • Actuator’s input low power signal from computer or signal conditioning units. 15 .result of a direct physical action on a process.

• Actuator examples: Solenoids. • Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) industrial devices used for interfacing and controlling analog to digital devices. steeper motor etc.. • Can u differentiate a sequential and a combinational logic device? • PLC generates output signal according to logic operations performed on the input signals. • A PLC is a sequential logic device…. 16 .

logic and peripherals before process implementation. 17 . a graphical method of laying out the connectivity and logic between system inputs and outputs. signal processing.• The major difference between a computer controller and a programmable controller? • Programmable controllers are designed to interface directly whereas a computer systems requires data acquisition. • PLC are programmed with ladder logic. memory.

• A typical PLC would include: – Integrated Power Supply – Central Processing Unit (CPU) – Memory Elements – Programmer/Monitor – Input/Output Modules 18 .

memory input/output capabilities and other on-chip resources. 19 . • Large mechatronic systems would employ desktop/personal/laptop computers as control platforms. • Microcontroller ? • A microcomputer on a single integrated circuit containing microprocessor.• A Microcontroller provides a small flexible control platform and it can easily be embedded in a mechatronic system.

conceptual. 20 . preliminary. Scope of Mechatronics • Better design planning CAD (computer aided designing) based designing that involves computers in the designing in three stages…. final.

Lower Manufacturing Costs. Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP). High product quality. 21 . More logical and consistent process planning.• Better Process Planning Use of computer in process planning.

22 . reliable and high quality oriented products can be manufactured.• Reliable and Quality Oriented Manufacturing Because of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM).

23 . In power plants.• Intelligent Process Control Developments in digital computer systems have increased their use in process control. computer aided process control is used for passive and active applications. process and manufacturing industries.

process and plant optimization and tuning of various controllers for best operating performance.• Passive Applications include acquisition and manipulation (i.e monitoring and alarming) of data from various processes. • Active applications involve acquisition and manipulation with additional features like process control. 24 .

artificial neural networks are used in manufacturing systems for process control and inspection to improve production performance and production quality. in mechatronic systems.• Nowadays. 25 .

is a mathematical model or computational model based on biological neural networks.Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) • An artificial neural network (ANN). • In more practical terms neural networks are non- linear statistical data modeling tools. 26 . In most cases an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network during the learning phase. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. often just called a "neural network" (NN). They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data.

reliability and higher quality by incorporating intelligent self correcting sensory and feedback system. mechatronics helps industries achieve greater productivity.• In general. 27 .

General Parameters for designing an intelligent mechatronic system… • Analyze product design and development specifications • Select process variables. 28 . etc. • Design proper analog and digital circuits. set points. • Select mechanical components and devices. processes.

• Develop computer based system (real time interfacing). • Design accurate and precise control system for various process variables. • Develop necessary computer software and database 29 .• Design proper mechanical systems like hydraulic. • Select sensors. pneumatic etc. actuators and control components.

• Integrate the above stated parameters effectively. affordable to customers (low cost). The intelligent designing of mechatronic system is not only to produce high quality product but it should also be safe. portable and produced quickly. 30 . • Monitor the performance of designed system.

• Moreover it must be: – Serviceable – Maintainable – Upgradeable 31 .

nuclear inspection and robot manipulators 32 .Applications of Mechatronics • Automatic Washing Machines. VCR controllers • Document Scanners. Dishwashers • CD Players. MI Equipments • IC Manufacturing Systems • Robotics that used in welding.

Hard Disk drive head positioning systems • Air-conditioners and elevator controls • Flexible manufacturing systems • Automotive mechatronics (like outdoor locking. collision avoidance.• Fax and Photocopier machines • Laser Printers. anti-roll systems…ABS) 33 . ignition systems.

MECHATRONICS (SP-506) WEEK 2 1 .

is a mathematical model or computational model based on biological neural networks.Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) • An artificial neural network (ANN). 2 . • In more practical terms neural networks are non- linear statistical data modeling tools. often just called a "neural network" (NN). In most cases an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network during the learning phase. They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a connectionist approach to computation.

mechatronics helps industries achieve greater productivity.• In general. 3 . reliability and higher quality by incorporating intelligent self correcting sensory and feedback system.

• Design proper analog and digital circuits. • Select mechanical components and devices. processes. General Parameters for designing an intelligent mechatronic system… • Analyze product design and development specifications • Select process variables. etc. 4 . set points.

actuators and control components. • Develop computer based system (real time interfacing).• Design proper mechanical systems like hydraulic. • Develop necessary computer software and database 5 . • Design accurate and precise control system for various process variables. • Select sensors. pneumatic etc.

portable and produced quickly. The intelligent designing of mechatronic system is not only to produce high quality product but it should also be safe. affordable to customers (low cost).• Integrate the above stated parameters effectively. • Monitor the performance of designed system. 6 .

• Moreover it must be: – Serviceable – Maintainable – Upgradeable 7 .

VCR controllers • Document Scanners.Applications of Mechatronics • Automatic Washing Machines. Dishwashers • CD Players. nuclear inspection and robot manipulators 8 . MI Equipments • IC Manufacturing Systems • Robotics that used in welding.

anti-roll systems…ABS) 9 . collision avoidance.• Fax and Photocopier machines • Laser Printers. ignition systems. Hard Disk drive head positioning systems • Air-conditioners and elevator controls • Flexible manufacturing systems • Automotive mechatronics (like outdoor locking.

Transducers 10 .

11 . • Their classification depends upon method of conversion. INTRODUCTION • It’s a converter of one form of energy into the other. electrical. optical etc. nature of the output signal and applications. • Energy can be mechanical. acoustical.

MAIN SECTIONS OF INSTRUMENTATION • Sensing device (input device) • Signal Conditioning or Signal Processing Stage. • Output Stage 12 .

e resistive.g Piezoelectric Crystal Transducer. CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSDUCERS • 1) Based upon the method of transduction i. these are self generating e. capacitive. 13 . • 2) Active and Passive Transducers • Active Transducer: Do not need an external supply. inductive etc.

• Passive Transducers: They do need an external supply for generating the output e. 14 .g a potentiometer etc.e continuous function of time such as a thermocouple. • Digital Transducers convert input physical quantity into a digital signal in terms of 0s and 1s such as a rotary encoder. • 3) Analog and Digital Transducers: Analog transducer converts any physical quantity into analog current /voltage output i.

• 5) Primary & Secondary Transducers: Consider the following diagram for that: 15 .• 4) Transducers and Inverse Transducers: Inverse transducer converts electrical/electronic signals into a mechanical output either linear in nature or rotary.

LVDT : LINEAR VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER 16 .

SHOCKS. HUMIDITY. MOISTURE.) 17 . SELECTION PARAMETERS OF TRANSDUCERS • LINEARITY • STABILITY • REPEATABILITY • SENSITIVITY • ACCURACY • ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS (CORROSION. FRICTION ETC.

• FREQUENCY RESPONSE (FLAT AND STABLE DESIRED) • RUGGEDNESS • LOADING EFFECT (MUST BE MINIMAL) 18 .

Resistance Transducers 19 .

• Shown below: 20 . • Examples: Potentiometers whether translational or rotational and strain gauges.• R=ρ L /A • Operating Mechanism: Resistance of the sensing element changes with the physical quantity.

21 .

22 .

23 .

POWER RATINGS 24 .

LINEARITY AND SENSITIVITY OF POTENTIOMETERS 25 .

• Thus linearity and sensitivity must be adjusted properly because: 26 . • For good linearity the resistance of the pot should be low. but this would increase the power dissipation.• For higher sensitivity the input voltage should be high which demands high value of resistance RP.

linearity gets improved. the linearity gets improved but power dissipation increases. • RP small. • RP small. • Also the sensitivity gets decreased since Ein is small and Eout will also be small.• RP small. • Linearity can be improved by connecting a resistor RLin with Rm as shown below: 27 . it handles low input voltage.

28 .

• For rotational POTs. maximum stroke. • Generally calculated thru voltage. the maximum stroke rate is 15V /degree. current and power rating. Sensitivity…. • Shorter the stroke of the device. • Another key factor…. higher the sensitivity. 29 . and for translational POTs it is 300V/inch.

001 to 0.002. Resolution of POTs. 30 . • Depends upon: • Construction of the resistive element and its size. • For translational POTs. • For getting higher value of resistance. resolution is limited to 0. metal wire (resistance) is placed in a small area for rotary POTs.

12 to 0. shocks.24/D where D is in inches. humidity. operating temperature. Selection of potentiometer for a particular application would depend upon resolution.• The best angular resolution is given by: 0. vibration etc. 31 .

• Pots are often attacked by noise that disturbs the resolution and linearity of Pots. • Dust collected b/w wiper surface and winding (resistance). Noise occurs due to: • 1) The output voltage variations or fluctuations when arm slides over resistive elements with inadequate damping. 32 . • Wiper bouncing on the resistive element at higher speed.

MECHATRONICS (SP-506) WEEK 3 1 .

• Thus linearity and sensitivity must be adjusted properly because: 2 .• For higher sensitivity the input voltage should be high which demands high value of resistance RP (the total resistance of the Potentiometer). but this would increase the power dissipation. • For good linearity the resistance of the pot should be low.

• RP small. the linearity gets improved but power dissipation increases. • Also the sensitivity gets decreased since Ein is small and Eout will also be small.• RP small. • RP small. linearity gets improved. • Linearity can be improved by connecting a resistor RLin with Rm as shown below: 3 . it handles low input voltage.

4 .

• Another key factor…. Sensitivity…. and for translational POTs it is 300V/inch. current and power rating. • Shorter the stroke of the device. maximum stroke. • Generally calculated thru voltage. • For rotational POTs. higher the sensitivity. 5 . the maximum stroke rate is 15V /degree.

• For translational POTs. Depends upon: • Construction of the resistive element and its size. metal wire (resistance) is placed in a small area for rotary POTs. 6 .002.001 to 0. resolution is limited to 0. • For getting higher value of resistance. Resolution of POTs.

humidity.12 to 0. shocks. 7 .• The best angular resolution is given by: 0. Selection of potentiometer for a particular application would depend upon resolution. vibration etc.24/D where D is in inches. operating temperature.

• Dust collected b/w wiper surface and winding (resistance). Noise occurs due to: • 1) The output voltage variations or fluctuations when arm slides over resistive elements with inadequate damping. 8 . • Wiper bouncing on the resistive element at higher speed.• Pots are often attacked by noise that disturbs the resolution and linearity of Pots.

INDUCTIVE TRANSDUCERS 9 .

• Displacement or positional change. • How? by the variation in number of turns. converted into a change in inductance. geometric configuration and permeability of the magnetic circuit. • Self inductance = L=N2/S. • S=1/μoμrA • μo=Permeability of Free Space • μo=Relative Permeability • A=Cross Sectional Area of the Coil in m2 10 . N=number of turns in the coil and S is the reluctance of the magnetic coil.

11 .

12

LINEAR VARIABLE
INDUCTANCE TRANSFORMER
(LVDT)

13

• Linear motion is converted into
electrical signals.

14

• Two winding Primary and Secondary
on a Cylindrical former,.
• Former must be mechanically rigid to
absorb shocks, vibrations and
temperature.
• Secondary windings are wound on
opposite sides of the primary.
• Moveable core (usually of Nickel-Iron
alloy to reduce eddy currents)
connected with a non-magnetic handle.
15

16

Mode 0 output is Zero as ES1=ES2
Mode 1 output is ES2-ES1
Mode 3 output is ES2-ES1
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18

• Improper isolation between the windings.• At null position. a small output voltage is present due to: • Stray Electric & Magnetic field between the windings. 19 . • Harmonics present in the input voltage Ein. • Temperature Effects.

20 . Applications of LVDT • Used as a secondary transducer for the measurement of force. liquid level. • Also utilized in thickness measurement. temperature etc. • Mainly LVDT is used for the measurement of displacement in the range 1.25mm to 250mm. level indicators and numerical machines. pressure.

as opposed to manually controlled via handwheels or levers or mechanically automated via cams alone. 21 . Numerical Controls & Machines • Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium.

Numerical Controls & Machines • The outdated servo based design control systems have been replaced by the modern computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the design process! 22 .

• Lesser Power Consumption. • Non Contacting Sliding Core hence. minimal Frictional Losses. Advantages of LVDT • Tolerance to high degree of shocks and vibrations. • Good resolution. 23 . high sensitivity about 40V/mm and low hysteresis. • No requirement of an output amplification stage.

• A demodulator circuit is necessary if the receiving instrument operates on dc. Disadvantages of LVDT • Performance can be degraded due to stray magnetic fields and temperature. • Limited Dynamic response due to frequency of exciting signal and mass of sliding core. 24 .

Sensitivity of LVDT Depends upon: • Constructional Parameters • Excitation Supply • Primary Winding Current • Linearity • Low Voltage at the null position. 25 .

26 .

ROTARY VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER (RVDT) 27 .

• Construction same as one primary and two secondary windings but….the sliding core in RVDT is cam-shaped and rotated inside the windings thru shaft as shown: 28 .• Used for the measurements of the angular displacements by converting them to electrical signals. • Operating principle same as that of LVDT.

29 .

CAPACITIVE TRANSDUCERS 30 .

31 .

32 .

33 .

MECHATRONICS (SP-506) WEEK 4 1 .

2 . Sensitivity of LVDT Depends upon: • Constructional Parameters • Excitation Supply • Primary Winding Current • Linearity • Low Voltage at the null position.

3 .

ROTARY VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER (RVDT) 4 .

• Operating principle same as that of LVDT.• Used for the measurements of the angular displacements by converting them to electrical signals. • Construction same as one primary and two secondary windings but….the sliding core in RVDT is cam-shaped and rotated inside the windings thru shaft as shown: 5 .

6 .

CAPACITIVE TRANSDUCERS 7 .

8 .

9 .

10 .

PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS 11 .

which generates electric charge or electric potential across the surface of the crystal.e application of a electric potential across the crystal results in the change in change in dimensions of the crystal due to deformation. 12 . • Its reverse is also true……i.• The Piezoelectric effect: • Application of force on the piezoelectric crystal results in the change in dimensions.

13 .

• For the piezoelectric crystal the generated charge Q is given by: Q= d x F coulomb Where F is the applied force and d is called the charge sensitivity. 14 . • Due to the applied force the thickness of the crystal changes. • The charge sensitivity is defined as charge generated per unit force applied to the crystal.

Y/ t ) ∆t Where F= applied force. A = Area of the crystal =WL in m2 t= thickness of the crystal in m Y = Young’s modulus for the material of crystal in N/m2. W= Width of the Crystal in m L= Length of the Crystal in m 15 .• F = (A .

so it is used as a frequency generator or oscillator. Advantages of Piezoelectric Transducers… • More Stability • Not affected by temperature variations and humidity • Maximum output • Useful for dynamic parameter measurements • Quartz crystal has good stability. 16 .

Typical Applications • Vibration pickups • Accelerometers • Pressure Sensors • Velocity Measurement • Sound Pressure Measurement 17 .

Strain Gauges 18 .

its resistance changes due to change in length. resistivity and cross sectional area.• Work on the principle of piezoresistivity. 19 . • If a metallic wire or conductor is stretched or compressed.

Classification of Strain Gauges 20 .

21 .

Bonded Metal Foil Strain Gauges (0.0002 inches thick) 22 .

025mm thick of polymide. 23 . • Foil type gauges are mounted on flexible insulating carrier films of about 0.• The surface area increases for the same volume! • This means much greater heat dissipation capacity and better bonding. phenolic etc. glass.

Bonded semiconductor strain gauges (for the measurements of micro- strains) 24 .

Temperature Transducers 25 .

Thermocouple 26 .

27 .

28 .

resistivity decreases. • Can be thought of as resistance has decreased. Thermistors (Semiconductor Temperature Sensors) • Resistance varies with temperature changes. • Recall the property of emission of electrons inside a semiconductor as temperature increases…. conductivity increases…. 29 .

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31 .

32 .

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) 33 .

34 .• Basic concept: The electrical resistance of different materials changes with the change in temperature.

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37 .

Benefits…. 38 . friction etc. • Operating Point • Fast Response • Environmental Conditions • Ability to withstand corrosion.

39 . Applications • Suitable for temperature sensing of fluids and gasses.

MECHATRONICS (SP-506) WEEK 5 1 .

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) 2 .

3 .• Basic concept: The electrical resistance of different materials changes with the change in temperature.

4 .

5 .

6 .

Benefits…. • Operating Point • Fast Response • Environmental Conditions • Ability to withstand corrosion. friction etc. 7 .

Applications • Suitable for temperature sensing of fluids and gasses. 8 .

Signal Conditioning Elements 9 .

10 . • To amplify the output of the active transducers. Purpose… • To provide excitation source to passive transducers and also to amplify their output to suitable higher level.

subtractor. • Instrumentation Amplifiers are used to enhance small signals from transducers which are less than a few mV in amplitude. A/D and D/A converters etc. Commonly used signal conditioning devices • Amplifiers. integrator. bridges. differentiator. 11 . converters (voltage to current and current to voltage). adder.

Electronic measurement system 12 .

Types of Signal Conditioning Systems • DC Signal Conditioning Systems • AC Signal Conditioning Systems 13 .

DC Signal Conditioning System 14 .

• Produces low frequency noise signals in its output. • Drawback of the DC amplifier. • Bridge output is amplified thru dc amplifier since it is easier to calibrate at lower frequencies and not affected by the overloading effect. 15 . To avoid. we use drift amplifiers.• Calibration and zeroing circuit for indicating the unbalanced condition of the bridge circuit. the drift in its output level.

• A DC signal conditioning system is affected by drift problems so an AC signal conditioning systems is preferred.• Low pass filter rejects high frequency components from the output. 16 .

AC Signal Conditioning System 17 .

• Phase sensitive demodulator demodulates the amplified signal and carrier frequency is filtered out.• Transducer such as a strain gauge is connected in the arm of the bridge. • As the physical quantity changes. the carrier frequency gets amplitude modulated with the bridge output. 18 . that is driven by a carrier oscillator. • This modulated signal is amplified thru an ac amplifier.

• Carrier frequency is in the range 50Hz to 20kHz and it should be 5 times of the input signal frequency.• Phase sensitive demodulator is used so that polarity of dc output can indicate direction of the parameter change in the bridge output. • Final Stage is the filter to reject high frequency. • The problem with such a system is to maintain a stable carrier oscillator. 19 .

Operational Amplifier (Op- Amp)…a refresher • Basically a differential amplifier of high gain. high (almost ∞) input impedance and low output impedance. 20 .

21 .

22 .

Typical Applications of OP Amps as Signal Conditioning Elements 23 .

Inverting Amplifier 24 .

Non-Inverting Amplifier 25 .

A Voltage Follower 26 .

Summing Amplifier 27 .

• The output is an inverted sum of the inputs. then the circuit is called averaging circuit. • If Rf/R1=1/n. • Also called Scaling or Weighed Amplifier. • Output is proportional to the sum of the input voltages. 28 .

Subtractor Circuit 29 .

Sample and Hold Amplifier 30 .

31 .

Typically its around 50ns. Sample and Hold Command port. • Aperture time: If some delay is placed in the command mode from the sample mode to hold mode. • Command is either to sample or hold the input.• Three ports: input. output. 32 .

Logarithmic Amplifier 33 .

34 .

Transducer Bridges α=∆R/R Vout=VRα/4 Iout=(VR/R) {α/4(1+α/2)} 35 .

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS 36 .

• Generally they are used with
transducers.
• Purpose:
• To amplify low level input signals
• High Closed loop gain
• To provide high common mode
rejection ratio and low power
consumption
• To provide high input impedance and
low thermal drifts.
37

Features of Instrumentation
Amplifiers
• Simple Gain Adjustments
• High input and low output impedance
• High Common Mode Rejection Ratio
• Possibility of Handling Differential
inputs
• High Gain and Maximum Accuracy

38

MECHATRONICS
(SP-506)
WEEK 6

1

Sample and Hold Amplifier

2

3

output. Sample and Hold Command port.• Three ports: input. • Aperture time: If some delay is placed in the command mode from the sample mode to hold mode. • Command is either to sample or hold the input. 4 . Typically its around 50ns.

Logarithmic Amplifier 5 .

6 .

Transducer Bridges α=∆R/R Vout=VRα/4 Iout=(VR/R) {α/4(1+α/2)} 7 .

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS 8 .

• Purpose: • To amplify low level input signals • High Closed loop gain • To provide high common mode rejection ratio and low power consumption • To provide high input impedance and low thermal drifts.• Generally they are used with transducers. 9 .

Features of Instrumentation Amplifiers • Simple Gain Adjustments • High input and low output impedance • High Common Mode Rejection Ratio • Possibility of Handling Differential inputs • High Gain and Maximum Accuracy 10 .

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER 11 .

12 .

13 .• RG here adjusts the gain. • A3 here is connected in differential mode.

14 .

• Monolithic three op amps based instrumentation amplifiers in IC form: • AD521 • INA101 • INA102 • INA104 15 .

CHOPPER STABILIZED AMPLIFIERS 16 .

• Advantages: • Low Drift • Higher DC gain • Wide Bandwidth 17 .

18 .

• AC amplification having low drift and higher gain.• DC signal is being converted into AC thru a chopper or modulator. 19 . • Converted AC signal is amplitude modulated using carrier frequency oscillator. • Peak to Peak amplitude of the converted AC signal is the same as that of the DC input signal.

• This amplified AC signal is demodulated for conversion to higher amplitude DC. • Chopper frequency is 2kHz with a bandwidth of 200 Hz. • Consider the following circuit now: 20 .

21 .

22 . • Function of the chopper amplifier is to increase the gain at lower frequency signals resulting in reduction of drift effect of dc amplifier.• A low frequency chopper amplifier amplifies the signal where high frequency signals are bypassed.

INTEGRATOR CIRCUITS 23 .

24 .

25 .• The system has an output voltage equation: • The equation indicates that the output voltage is directly proportional to the inverted integral of the input voltage and inversely proportional to the time constant R1C.

• Integrator circuit would convert cosine wave at the input. • Usually nTeflo. 26 . Polystyrene or Mica capacitors in the range . • Operating Recommendations: • Capacitor must have minimum leakage. similarly a square wave at the input into a rectangular wave etc.001 to 10μF are used. the time period T of the input signal must be more that the time constant. into sine wave.• For accurate integration.

DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUITS 27 .

• Such circuits provide an output voltage that is a derivative of the input voltage. • Consider the following circuit: 28 .

• RfC is the time constant of the differentiator circuit. 29 . which makes the circuit unstable. • This circuit has the following drawbacks: • 1) The gain Rf/XC increases with increase in frequency at the rate of 20dB/decade. generating noise signals at high frequency signals. • 2) The input impedance XC decreases with increase in frequency.

30 .• This is a practical differentiator in which these problems have been solved.

CONVERTERS 31 .

Voltage to Current Converter • 1) V/C converter using floating load • 2) V/C converter using grounded load 32 .

V/C Converter using floating load 33 .

V/C converter using ground load 34 .

Current to Voltage Converter (Transresistance Amplifier) 35 .

OP AMP PROTECTION 36 .

37 .

38 .

MECHATRONICS (SP‐506) WEEK 7 1 .

CONVERTERS  2 .

Voltage to Current Converter • 1) V/C converter using floating load • 2) V/C converter using grounded load 3 .

V/C Converter using floating load 4 .

V/C converter using ground load 5 .

Current to Voltage Converter  (Transresistance Amplifier) 6 .

OP AMP PROTECTION  7 .

8 .

9 .

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS  10 .

• Data Acquisition System (DAS): Collection of  data in analog or digital format. • Stores and displays the data. pass on the data  to the processing control systems as and  when required. 11 . • Data? Voltage or Current signals from  transducers.

 accurately & precisely. • On line recording or monitoring at real time. 12 . • Must be Flexible for up‐gradations &  modifications in the system. Features of a DAS • Acquire data quickly. • Capability to process and forward the data.

Generalized DAS 13 .

Single Channel Data Acquisition  System DPM: Data Processing Module 14 .

  that takes further time! 15 . • Slow operation • Free Running internally determined rate of  processing • For handling binary operated instruments.  the BCD code has to be converted to binary. Drawbacks….

Multi‐channel Data Acquisition S/H Circuit increases the processing speed! 16 .

Microprocessor based instrument system  (Intelligent Instrument System) 17 .

18 . Advantages…. become automated. Totalization. adjustments.  Calibration. • Better Flexibility. • Modification. • Automatic Control System. alarming. • Increase in operational speed. Linearization. • Averaging. testing  etc. configuration changeover easy  thru software. • Memory interfacing provides storage of info  and data.

MICROPROCESSOR BASED DATA  ACQUISITION SYSTEM  19 .

20 .

CONTROL SYSTEM ENGINEERING  21 .

CLASSIFICATION • Open Loop Control System • Closed Loop Control System 22 .

Open Loop Control System 23 .

Closed Loop Control System 24 .

Closed Loop System: An example 25 .

26 . its called Stochastic Control  System. if the response to the  input is predictable and repeatable. the  system would be called Deterministic.Deterministic & Stochastic Control  System  • In any control system. • If the response is unpredictable and non‐ repeatable.

• Classification of control system on the basis 
of control signal used.
• SISO: Single Input and Single Output
• MIMO: Multiple Input and Multiple Output.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS BLOCK 
DIAGRAMS 

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31

32 .

TRANSFER FUNCTIONS IN BLOCK  DIAGRAMS 33 .

RULES FOR BLOCK DIAGRAMS  MINIMIZATION  34 .

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MECHATRONICS (SP‐506) WEEK 8 1 .

• If the response is unpredictable and non‐ repeatable. its called Stochastic Control  System. if the response to the  input is predictable and repeatable. the  system would be called Deterministic. Deterministic & Stochastic Control  System  • In any control system. 2 .

• Classification of control system on the basis  of control signal used. 3 . • SISO: Single Input and Single Output • MIMO: Multiple Input and Multiple Output.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS BLOCK DIAGRAMS   & BLOCK DIAGRAMS ALGEBRA 5 .

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TRANSFER FUNCTIONS IN BLOCK  DIAGRAMS 10 .

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RULES FOR BLOCK DIAGRAMS  MINIMIZATION  12 .

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(Rule 3) 19 .

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PROCESS CONTROL 24 .

Objective of Process Control… • To regulate or maintain a particular quantity  at reference value (set point) by avoiding  external interference. 25 .

Manual Process Control:  Limitations ‰ Slow Speed ‰Inaccuracy ‰Improper Control Action ‰Difficult to operate in hazardous working  condition ‰Repeatability Problems 26 .

Modern Process Control… Based upon: • Computer based (Digital) Controllers • PLC based Controllers • Fuzzy Logic Controllers  27 .

Concept of Process Control Circle: Indicates an algebraic function Rectangle: Indicates a dynamic function 28 .

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• Automatic control systems use a feedback  path for monitoring the controlled value. Process Gain…. • Process Gain: The ratio of change in the  output (dc) and the change in the input that  caused it (dm).  • Prime objective of process control is to  maintain the desired quantity at a fixed  value.  30 .

Automatic Controllers: Analog &  Digital • Their main functions: 31 .

Analog Controllers 32 .

Advantages: • Simple • Less Expensive • Doesn’t need A/D or D/A converters • Easier to interface with other elements of the  control systems 33 .

Limitations • Suffered by errors caused due to Hysteresis • Non‐Linearity • Drift 34 .

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