DEFINING STANDARD

PHILIPPINE ENGLISH
Its Status and
GraIlnnatical Features

MA. LOURDES S. BAUTISTA

.

.

2504 Leon Guinto Street Malate 1004. Manila. INC. Lourdes S. Bautista DE LA SAllE lJNivERSiTY PRESS. Philippines .DEFINING STANDARD PHILIPPINE ENGLISH: Its Status aJl1lJ GJraltllJl1t1la1:icali FeatuJres Ma.

English langnage-Philippines. TLCOO-1851 ii . No part of this publication may be reproduced. 1068 Defining Standard Philippine English: .dlsu. English language-Variation 1. Bautista All rights reserved. Ma.) Malate 1004.ph Homepage: hrrp://WW\v. electronic. mechanical. 148 p. Lourdes S. stored in a retrieval system.edu. Inc. ISBN # 971-555-317-6 1.: (632) 536-1761. Manila1 Philippines Tel. em. No. Bautista. Lourdes S. photocopying. 2. Lourdes S. recording or otherwise-without the \vritten permission of the cop)'Tight O\vner. 2000.Manila: De La Salle Cni

ersity Press. B38 .edu. 2000 x. or transmitted in any form or by any mcans--whether virtual. Title.Published in 2000 by De La Salle University Press.dlsu.ph/press Copyright © 2000 by Ma.. 2504 Leon Guinto St. CATALOGCJNG-JN-PUBLlCATION DATA PE Bautista. Telefax: (632) 526-5139 E-mail: press@mail.P6 Its Status �md Grammatical Fearures I Ma.

with love and gratitude iii . To my mother.

.

In its excellent comprehensive review of literature on Philippine English. entitled Defining Standard Philippine English: Its Status and Grammatical Features. FOREWORD The monograph by Professor Ma. Lourdes S . These features include seemingly irregular instances of agreement between subject and verb.. Other types of subject-verb disagreement she classifies as acquisition errors. article use. The study breaks new ground in its careful application of Kachru's distinctions and D'Souza's criteria for the standard variety and thus enables the careful investigator to find more definite guidelines to answer Gonzalez's earlier question: When does an error become a [standardized) feature of Philippine English? v . tenses. systematicity (rule-governed ness). is a welcome addition to the body of scholarly literature on the Philippine variety of English and on the varieties of English which have arisen in different parts of the globe following the period of colonialism. Building on Kachru's distinction among innovations. prepositions (in collocations). it updates the interested student on the scholarly literature in the field and reviews the issues confronting adequate description and standardization of this variety of English. she focuses on grammatical features which based on carefully applied criteria have now become acceptable and part of the standard Philippine English grammar.. and mass versus count noun classification. The analysis uses a subset of written texts in the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English. performance and acquisition errors. Bautista of De La Salle University. using D'Souza's criteria for considering deviations as standardized when they meet benchmarks of frequency. and deviation. and use by educated exponents of the language. Moreover. she does the same for pronoun-antecedent lack of concord. Bautista makes an inventory of deviations in the sentences in the corpus (setting guidelines for distinguishing performance and acquisition errors from deviations).

especially in the area of sociolinguistics. her methodology yields a growing inventory of features which have by now become standard in the grammatical structures of the Philippine variety of English: variations of rules for subject-verb agreement. Andrew Gonzalez. texts which display not only similar characteristics of the written text but likewise differences because of shifts in registers and contexts. variation and change in language. shifts already noted in the different types of writing in the corpus of written texts. the and 0. and the dynamics of language change in general brought on by social forces of different kinds. Thus on the basis of these applications. Bautista rightly states that linguistic investigation in the Philippines. She includes the past and present studies on the Philippine variety of English as another field of special inquiry within sociolinguistics in which interested students of varieties of English (study of post-colonial varieties of English. but likewise to spoken. the emergence of new varieties or standard dialects of English) may profitably delve into for insights not only in methodology but likewise in substantive discovery. an. We look forward to further work on Standard Philippine English from the painstaking work of Professor Bautista as she applies her analysis not only to written. In her conclusion. tense choice based on an altered time orientation with regard to verb forms (including modals) and reclassification of nouns from mass nouns (in Standard American English) to count nouns in Standard Philippine English. the process of standardization and the discovery of the process in its various stages and its multiple possibilities. nativization of a nongenetically related language into the matrix of a society and culture that has its own set of indigenous languages. a different subset of rules for the use of articles a. yields insights that have contributed to world scholarship. Especially intriguing are indications that scientific-technical writing and journalism writing provide some contexts in Philippine English which give rise to deviations which have now become acceptable. T h e monograph therefore merits the attention of t h e international scholar interested in examining the problem o f post­ colonial Englishes. FSC Manila October 1999 vi . local collocations of verb/adjective and preposition combinations as well as preposition­ noun co-occurrences.

4 Errors and Features 17 2. CONTENTS Tables and Figures ix Acknowledgments x l. The Status of Standard Philippine English 1. Methods 2.1 Preliminaries 33 3.2 An Overview of the Deviations 35 3.6 Tenses 56 3.2 The Procedure 27 2.1 Philippine English as a New English 1 1.3 Standard Philippine English 6 1. The Grammatical Features of Standard Philippine English 3.3 Subject-Verb Agreement 38 3.4 Articles 44 3.2 Studies of English in the Philippines 3 1.3 Data Analysis 29 3.1 The Corpus 24 2.5 Prepositions 51 3.7 Mass and Count Nouns 62 vii .

Conclusion 4. Subj ect-Verb Agreement 103 II.8 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 65 3.3 Last Word 81 References 83 Appendices Appendix A: The Print Subcorpus of the Philippine 91 Component of the International Corpus of English Appendix B' Sample Pages from the Concordance 100 Appendix C: A Listing of the Deviations in the Data 103 I.9 Others 67 3.1 Summary 71 4.10 Closing Comment 69 4.2 Discussion and Recommendations 72 4. Prepositions 122 IV. Other Deviations 142 viii . 3. Mass and Count Nouns 136 VI. Articles 114 III. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 140 VII. Tenses 128 V.

Number and Percentage for Each Type of Wrong Prep osition Usage 52 6. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Tense Deviation 58 7. TABLES I. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Prep osition Usage Deviation 52 5b. Number of Deviant Cases Found for Each Grammatical Category 36 2. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Mass/Count Noun Deviation 63 8. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Subject-Verb Deviation 39 4. Bull's Framework for Tenses 57 ix . Number of Deviations Based on Text-Type 37 3. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Pronoun-Antecedent Deviation 65 9. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Deviations in "Others" 67 FIGURE I. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Article Usage Deviation 47 Sa.

Related Interests

ersity Press. B38 .edu. 2000 x. or transmitted in any form or by any mcans--whether virtual. Title.Published in 2000 by De La Salle University Press.dlsu.ph/press Copyright © 2000 by Ma.. 2504 Leon Guinto St. CATALOGCJNG-JN-PUBLlCATION DATA PE Bautista. Telefax: (632) 526-5139 E-mail: press@mail.P6 Its Status �md Grammatical Fearures I Ma.

with love and gratitude iii . To my mother.

.

In its excellent comprehensive review of literature on Philippine English. entitled Defining Standard Philippine English: Its Status and Grammatical Features. FOREWORD The monograph by Professor Ma. Lourdes S . These features include seemingly irregular instances of agreement between subject and verb.. Other types of subject-verb disagreement she classifies as acquisition errors. article use. The study breaks new ground in its careful application of Kachru's distinctions and D'Souza's criteria for the standard variety and thus enables the careful investigator to find more definite guidelines to answer Gonzalez's earlier question: When does an error become a [standardized) feature of Philippine English? v . tenses. systematicity (rule-governed ness). is a welcome addition to the body of scholarly literature on the Philippine variety of English and on the varieties of English which have arisen in different parts of the globe following the period of colonialism. Building on Kachru's distinction among innovations. prepositions (in collocations). it updates the interested student on the scholarly literature in the field and reviews the issues confronting adequate description and standardization of this variety of English. she focuses on grammatical features which based on carefully applied criteria have now become acceptable and part of the standard Philippine English grammar.. and mass versus count noun classification. The analysis uses a subset of written texts in the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English. performance and acquisition errors. Bautista of De La Salle University. using D'Souza's criteria for considering deviations as standardized when they meet benchmarks of frequency. and deviation. and use by educated exponents of the language. Moreover. she does the same for pronoun-antecedent lack of concord. Bautista makes an inventory of deviations in the sentences in the corpus (setting guidelines for distinguishing performance and acquisition errors from deviations).

especially in the area of sociolinguistics. her methodology yields a growing inventory of features which have by now become standard in the grammatical structures of the Philippine variety of English: variations of rules for subject-verb agreement. Andrew Gonzalez. texts which display not only similar characteristics of the written text but likewise differences because of shifts in registers and contexts. variation and change in language. shifts already noted in the different types of writing in the corpus of written texts. the and 0. and the dynamics of language change in general brought on by social forces of different kinds. Thus on the basis of these applications. Bautista rightly states that linguistic investigation in the Philippines. She includes the past and present studies on the Philippine variety of English as another field of special inquiry within sociolinguistics in which interested students of varieties of English (study of post-colonial varieties of English. but likewise to spoken. the emergence of new varieties or standard dialects of English) may profitably delve into for insights not only in methodology but likewise in substantive discovery. an. We look forward to further work on Standard Philippine English from the painstaking work of Professor Bautista as she applies her analysis not only to written. In her conclusion. tense choice based on an altered time orientation with regard to verb forms (including modals) and reclassification of nouns from mass nouns (in Standard American English) to count nouns in Standard Philippine English. the process of standardization and the discovery of the process in its various stages and its multiple possibilities. nativization of a nongenetically related language into the matrix of a society and culture that has its own set of indigenous languages. a different subset of rules for the use of articles a. yields insights that have contributed to world scholarship. Especially intriguing are indications that scientific-technical writing and journalism writing provide some contexts in Philippine English which give rise to deviations which have now become acceptable. T h e monograph therefore merits the attention of t h e international scholar interested in examining the problem o f post­ colonial Englishes. FSC Manila October 1999 vi . local collocations of verb/adjective and preposition combinations as well as preposition­ noun co-occurrences.

4 Errors and Features 17 2. CONTENTS Tables and Figures ix Acknowledgments x l. The Status of Standard Philippine English 1. Methods 2.1 Preliminaries 33 3.2 An Overview of the Deviations 35 3.6 Tenses 56 3.2 The Procedure 27 2.1 Philippine English as a New English 1 1.3 Standard Philippine English 6 1. The Grammatical Features of Standard Philippine English 3.3 Subject-Verb Agreement 38 3.4 Articles 44 3.2 Studies of English in the Philippines 3 1.3 Data Analysis 29 3.1 The Corpus 24 2.5 Prepositions 51 3.7 Mass and Count Nouns 62 vii .

Conclusion 4. Subj ect-Verb Agreement 103 II.8 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 65 3.3 Last Word 81 References 83 Appendices Appendix A: The Print Subcorpus of the Philippine 91 Component of the International Corpus of English Appendix B' Sample Pages from the Concordance 100 Appendix C: A Listing of the Deviations in the Data 103 I.9 Others 67 3.1 Summary 71 4.10 Closing Comment 69 4.2 Discussion and Recommendations 72 4. Prepositions 122 IV. Other Deviations 142 viii . 3. Mass and Count Nouns 136 VI. Articles 114 III. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 140 VII. Tenses 128 V.

Number and Percentage for Each Type of Wrong Prep osition Usage 52 6. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Tense Deviation 58 7. TABLES I. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Prep osition Usage Deviation 52 5b. Number of Deviant Cases Found for Each Grammatical Category 36 2. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Mass/Count Noun Deviation 63 8. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Subject-Verb Deviation 39 4. Bull's Framework for Tenses 57 ix . Number of Deviations Based on Text-Type 37 3. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Pronoun-Antecedent Deviation 65 9. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Deviations in "Others" 67 FIGURE I. Number and Percentage for Each Type of Article Usage Deviation 47 Sa.

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