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Chapter 1


The following chapter introduces the main perspective of the current study, along with

a brief description of the keywords and terminologies involved within the thesis.

1.1. Language

According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2016, October 16) Retrieved from language is a system of symbols which are

spoken, written and manually used by human beings to communicate and express themselves.

According to Henry Sweet, an English language scholar, language is the tool by which ideas

are expressed using speech sounds and ultimately turning them into words and sentences.

Language is the ability of human beings to communicate by using the complex system which

is developed from different signs, codes, symbols, letters and words. The language is the real

source of transmitting our thoughts, messages, expressions, emotions, feelings, experiences

and our plans into concrete shape which is visible or discernable for other people around us.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure.

According to (Sapir, 1921) Language is purely human and non-instinctive method of

communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. This

definition is however disagreed by (John Lyons, 1981) but it can be understood by the

definition that language is a definitive set of words and utterances that conveys messages.

However, it can be contested that language is purely a human character since animals also

communicate among themselves using a high pitched sound that is not heard and detected by

human ears. The notion of desires, emotions and ideas are true since most of the human

communication revolves around these primary needs.


According to (Bloch & Trager, 1942) a language is a system of arbitrary vocal

symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. This definition of language is brief

yet it professes that language is something limited to spoken words and sentences. It declared

language as a system but perhaps failed to describe it in a more detailed and structured


According to (Trask & Stockwell, 2007) accent is the particular and specific way by

which a group of people pronounce and speak a language. Almost every language apart from

some few people has diversity in terms of geographic, regional and societal differences. The

distinctive manner in which different people speak the same language is due to ethnic settings

as well. The diversity of the accent can be noticed in the United States where the accent of the

Southern people is quite different from the accent of people living in Eastern and Western


The language still at large considered being the mode of communication and

expression, however, according to (Michael Toolan, 1998) language also very important to be

used as literary texts. The focus of the text may include poems, short stories, extracts from

novels, advertisements, childrens writing, etc. One can understand that the language plays a

decisive role in the lives of societies and nations. It is the basis of literature which acts as the

biography or perhaps an autobiography of nations.

There are many types of English language according to Quizlet (2016, October 16)

Retrieved from The

details are mentioned below:

Archaic language:
o It has become obsolete but is used occasionally to reflect the old-fashion.
Colloquial language:
o It is the use of common language.
Figurative language:

o The use of figurative language is all about metaphorical, and not the literal

Formal language:
o It is about the technical use of language.
Subjective language:
o It is about the use of language overshadowed by bias and emotion.
Objective language:
o It is aimed to express opinion by remaining neutral and unbiased.
Informal language:
o It is pretty much relaxed language and most used informally.
o It is the language in which special vocabulary is used by particular group.
Literal language:
o It is about the use of language in its most basic meanings.
Vernacular language:
o It is the use of native language or dialect.
o It is the simplified language which is actually the result of people from

different language backgrounds.

According to Poetry Foundation (2016, October 09) Retrieved from Robert Frost

had a very much common use of language. Some analysts believe that Frost confused his

readers by his use of native language instead of a formal or strictly proper language. His style

was dominated by setting the traditional meters against the natural rhythms of speech. His

language was completely vernacular and he refrained from the use of artificial poetic diction

by using gentle voice of his local setting.

According to (Winters, 1957) has criticized Frost in his book The Function of

Criticism that Frosts style was pretty much close to conversation. While apart from the

critique of Winters, one can argue that perhaps Frost was a poet of a common man who

wanted to tear his heart open for his readers and aimed to address common folks to deliver

his thoughts and ideas.


In the poem, Fire and Ice, Frost has used simple yet convincing words to describe the

end of the planet earth. It seemed that he was skeptical of human intentions and the element

of death dominated his thinking patterns.

For instance, if one looks at the poem Fire and Ice; then it would reveal that the poem

has two lengths of lines and three rhymes in it. Each line has four or eight syllables. The

language as mentioned earlier is pretty much easy to understand but delivers a pivotal

message. The question raised by the poet is directly related to death. His assertion was a

comparison between fire and ice and the choice of human beings to use either of them to die.

Perhaps Frost tried to indicate fire as weapons and ice as the diplomatic means and the use of

both to end the human race.

According to Faggen (2008) Frost has used figurative language in his poems Fire

and Ice and A Question. He has used imagery by employing the ideas of fire and ice. By

fire he tried to represent light but with it he also represented fire for destruction. Ice, where

represents peace, it also reflects stagnation and death as well. Frost developed unique style in

his poetry. His many poems are overshadowed by humour coupled with the use of irony and

mockery. He told and expressed many deep things with a great digestible style that readers

found it simple. But in fact, he used simple words to discuss great life and social phenomena.

According to Faggen, (2008) Robert Frost poetry revolved around three major

concerns. First, he emphasized sound in poetry and especially he called it sound of sense.

Second, He emphasized upon figurative language by using metaphors to express the complete

idea or thought. Third, Frost maintained a complete native and vernacular rural landscape in

his poetry. Thus, he was able to draw a difference of thinking process between rural and

urban settings. Since evolution, man needed a mode of communication in order to express

his/her emotions and inner thoughts to one another. This desire to communicate and converse

encouraged man to establish a method, either written or spoken, consisting of words in a

structured and conventional way. The system of words and signs which man used to

communicate and express his/her thoughts and feelings to one another is known as language.

1.2. Linguistics

The scientific study of language is called as linguistics. It is a scheme of systematic

analysis of language and anyone who engages in this study is known as a linguist. With the

study of relationship between language and society,linguists have defined language in many

different ways, including the exploration of syntax, grammar and phonetics. Like many other

sciences, Linguistics has pure and applied sides. The pure aspect covers theories and analysis

of language at different levels. The applied side is concerned with the application of

knowledge in teaching of languages and enhancement of speech disorders etc.

John Lyons (1981) argues that linguistics in the study of language that is

fundamentally based upon scientific methods and practices. It is the study of language and

investigates that how the language faculty of the mind works and in what ways language

itself works. According to Laura Wright and Jonathan Hope (1995), linguistics differentiates

between words those have grammatical function and those words which have referential

meaning. It has named one as closed class words and the other as open class words.

Language from a general point of view and from a scientific stand point can be

studied and understood. The scientific method gives an advantage in terms of in-depth

analysis supported by logic and evidence that has two fold effects. One, that the

understanding becomes reason-based. Second, the analytical skill enables a person to process

language in a more organized and efficient way.


According to Paul Skandera and Peter Burleigh (2011) there exists a constant struggle

between prescriptivism and descriptivism. The advocates of prescriptivism rely on the works

and rules established by Greek and Latin in explaining the origin of words. They are driven

by personal biases and prejudices. Despite the fact, that linguistics aims to explain language

from an objective point of view. Descriptive linguists on the other hand try to observe

language in a natural manner to discover the rules of a language.

1.3. Branches of Linguistics

According to John Lyons (1981) the main sub-fields of linguistics are: the sounds of

language, grammar, semantics, language change, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, language

and culture. However according to (Paul Skandera and Peter Burleigh, 2011), the system or

structure of a language (langue or competence) can be discussed at four dissimilar stages

which are actually the central part or base of linguistics. These four elements are also known

as micro-linguistics. These include i). Phonetics and phonology deal with the pronunciation

and the sound system. ii). Morphology takes in to account the structure of words. iii). Syntax

explains the patterns of sentence. iv). Lexicology and semantics focus on the vocabulary and

explore different meanings associated with language.

Paul Skandera and Peter Burleigh (2011) argue that apart from the core aspects of

linguistics there are other branches of linguistics as well. These include dialectology, ethno-

linguistics, discourse analysis, contrastive linguistics, neuro-linguistics, computational

linguistics, applied linguistics, historical or diachronic linguistics and comparative linguistics.

Link of linguistics with different sciences has steered its development into many branches of


1.3.1. General Linguistics

It is the study of language in its general terms and concepts. This study provides us

the different kinds of categories and rationales to analyze any kind of language.

1.3.2. Descriptive Linguistics

It is study of the particular language, therefore it is contrary to the general linguistics.

The purpose of it is to reject or accept the terms and proportions which are presented in the

general linguistics. These two fields are very much related to each other.

1.3.3. Diachronic Linguistics

It is the study of language through the history. Linguists of the 19 th century had a

particular interest in this field. It is the study of language how it developed through the

history in different ages.

1.3.4. Synchronic Linguistics

It is absolutely opposite to the previous field because it the study of language on some

particular given time in history.

1.3.5. Theoretical Linguistics

It is to form some particular theory about the structure of language without any regard

to the application of the language in practice. Theoretical linguistics deals with understanding

the nature of language with a view to visualize their structure and functions. It includes

searching the reasons for common properties in all languages. Its major sub-branches include

cognitive linguistics, generative linguistics, quantitative linguistics, phonology, morphology,

syntax, lexis, semantics, pragmatics, and functional theories of grammar.


1.3.7. Descriptive Linguistics

Descriptive linguistics is the branch of linguistics which is concerned with the

analysis of how language is used by a group of people in a community. Its aim is to observe

the principles of linguistics. Important sub-branches include anthropological linguistics,

comparative linguistics, historical linguistics, phonetics and sociolinguistics.

1.3.8. Applied Linguistics

Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics that identifies,

investigates, and offers solutions to language related real life problems. It discusses wide

range of language related matters to apprehend their roles in communication. Few

subdivisions of applied linguistics are psycholinguistics, computational linguistics,

evolutionary linguistics, forensic linguistics, language assessment, language documentation,

language development and education, first and second-language acquisition.

1.3.9. Micro Linguistics

It is the narrow view of the language for splitting the inner sound system and the inner

structure of the language.

1.3.10. Macro linguistics

It is rather the broader study of language because it is concerned to the Process of

acquiring, storing and applying the language at social level.

1.4. Stylistics

All literary texts come in different styles and use of language. The study of such style

of literary texts is known as Stylistics. It is the most important area to understand and

interpret the literature. It the branch of Applied Linguistics which studies the texts for

analyzing their tones, style, and linguistics properties. It is analysis how the artist has applied

different literary devices and styles on the given text. The tone of the work is seen in terms of

rhymes, intonation, meter, tone, and the other syntactical measures.

There are seven levels of stylistic analysis.

a. Phonetic level is the investigation of sounds, including its characteristics and


b. Phonological level studies the combinations of different sounds in order to

form the units of speech.

c. Graphological level studies the arrangement of words, the appearance of

words on the page, use of punctuation, paragraphing and capitalization etc.

d. Grammatical level studies the arrangement of words in a sentence and

describes how these elements function in a sentence.

e. Lexical level studies the form of words and the pattern of words, e.g. whether

words are repeated or synonyms and pronouns are used.

According to Paul Simpson (2004) in its generalized definition it can be said that

stylistics deals with the style in literary texts. But stylistics also focuses to explore language

by discovering the creativity in the use of language. While conducting stylistics analysis it

must be kept in mind that it should be rigorous, retrievable and replicable. Rigorous means

that, it is done by a definite structure of analysis. By retrievable, it means that analysis is

based upon agreed and defined set of standards. And by replicable, it does not mean copying,

but it reflects the credibility of the analysis that it can be done on by others to confirm its

versatility. According to Ilya Romanovich Galperin (1977) Stylistics is often called linguo-


Per Michael Burke (2014), linguistics due to its importance has two feet, one in the

language studies and other in the literary studies. Linguistics stylistics are the most important

and wholesome form of stylistics. According to (Ronald Carter and Paul Simpson, 2005) in

this form students try to study the language and style in a refined form from analytical point

of view. It can be concluded that this study helps in forming an assumption regarding the


There are many levels of language and stylistics; however major levels are given below:

i. Phonology:
The sound of spoken language and the way words are pronounced.
ii. Graphology:
It is about the contours and patterns of the written language.
iii. Morphology:
It deals with the structure of words.
iv. Syntax:
It focuses on the way in which words combine with other words to form

v. Lexical:
It deals with the vocabulary of the language.
vi. Semantics:
It is study of words and their meanings.
vii. Pragmatics:
It deals with the use of language with respect to its context.

1.5. Statement of the Problem

Stylistics is the branch of Applied linguistics which makes judgements on different

styles of different texts. Without the proper study of the stylistics, it is really a difficult task to

evaluate any kind of literary text. Most of the students of literature dont have a perfect grip

on the subject, therefore they cant make the best interpretation about the literary piece of art.

This is the research project which will emphasize on the importance of the stylistics in any

type of literary criticism. We shall try to get a clear view of having the approach to stylistic

analysis of any given poem.


In this discussion, the research team aims to find out the stylistics and language used

by Robert Frost in his two poems; Fire and Ice and A Question. Frost is considered an

authority when it comes to poems and it puts heavy pressure on the students of literature to

find and highlight his peculiar use of language and stylistics. According to (Nina Nrgaard,

Beatrix Busse and Roco Montoro, 2010) stylistics is considered as the branch of linguistics

and it helps to understand literature from the perspective of linguistics. Stylistics analysis is

often conducted in relation to literary texts.

The purpose of this investigation is to analyze statistically two Poems Fire and Ice which is

one of Robert Frosts early poems, and A Question. Both the poems are short but carry

deep meanings of the world order and are considered a piece of Art by Robert Frost.

The above mentioned two poems of Robert Frost are the main subjects of the research

project and it will be determined that how the poet was influenced by his personality and

motivation to use certain language, style and stylistics in these two poems. It is very much

important to understand Frost, since he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in literature for four

times during his lifetime.

1.6. Objectives

The foremost aim of the project is to point out the authentic method to make the analysis of

the poem by using the stylistic knowledge.

To make the students able to use stylistics analysis properly.

To make them clear about the application of stylistics devices.
To point out the mistakes in applying stylistics on poetry.
To make the reader able to trace the stylistic devices used by the author.

Furthermore, research has been conducted to analyze two poems of Robert Frost

which are; i.) Fire and Ice; and ii.) A Question; from the perspective of stylistics. The research

is also aimed to focus the similarities in his writings of these two poems from linguistic point

of view.

1.7. Rationale

Fresh students cannot make the proper interpretations of a given poem, therefore ,it is

necessary for them to have some glimpses of this paper because it has the knowledge of using

the stylistics while interpreting a given poem. Students often make mistakes while touching a

poem critically. The paper is about the right order of making the application of stylistic rules

upon a work of art. The paper will provide us with the proper steps taken towards stylistic

analysis of the given poem.

Research can be said as the basis of knowledge and relative truth. The reason for

naming it as relative truth is that there is no such thing that can be regarded as ultimate truth

because of the very reason that people have different views and opinions. Research enables a

person to dig out the surface facts by reviewing the available literature and in the light of that

effort opinion can be drawn.

The rationale behind this research project is to study not only the two poems of

Robert Frost but to also study and review the available literature on linguistics and stylistics

and their sub-fields. This project has multi-vectored implications since it does not remain

limited to one particular thing. It would provide the research team a unique opportunity to

search and find relevant data from many sources and ultimately to cite the data in an

academically acceptable manner. This project would have long lasting effects on the research

team and will be pretty useful for them in future endeavors.

1.8. Research Questions

i. What are the stylistics features of Frosts writings?

ii. What stylistics attributes are common between A Question and Fire and Ice?

1.9. Significance of the Study

The study is unique in this regard that there exists hardly any study which has

analyzed the above mentioned two poems from the stylistics stand point. The study will also

take into account the personality and motivation of Robert Frost and his early life events

those were decisive in shaping the poetry of Frost.

The research is important for its revision of some previous researches on the topic.

But it has some deviation as well from the traditional interpretation of the term Stylistics as

well. There is a kind of innovation in use of the terms and rules of Stylistics. It is also about

the clarification the important steps towards the right interpretation of a poetic work of art.

The paper is significant for those who are students of literature and it is of same importance

for those who have real interest in reading the standard kind of poetry with all its superficial

and hidden meanings as well.

This research will help the readers understand and analyze two Poems of Robert Frost

i.e. Fire and Ice and A question. The text is stylistically analyzed at phonetic,

phonological, grammatical, graphological and lexical levels to enlighten the reader with the

text, the style and the use of language, and the linguistic creativity of Robert Frost by

choosing the right words and structures which takes us to his world. It will also help future

researchers to carry out research in the allied fields.


Chapter 2

Literature Review

This chapter gives an overview of the past studies conducted within the jurisdiction of

the concerned title of the thesis.

2.1. Style

Style is a strategy/technique of compositions utilized by the author which recognizes

him from alternate scholars in a similar sort of writing. It additionally changes starting with

one creator then onto the next and relies on sentence structure, tone and words. It can

likewise be portrayed as a voice that perusers listen to when they read the work of an author.

Style may allude to a few or the greater part of the dialect propensities for one individual as

when we discuss Shakespeare's style (or styles), or the style of James Joyce, or when we talk

about inquiries of debated origin all the more regularly, it alludes along these lines to a

determination of dialect propensities, the infrequent phonetic quirks which portray an

individual's uniqueness.

Essentially, style may allude to a few or the greater part of the propensities shared by

a gathering of individuals at one time, or over a timeframe, as when we discuss the style of

Augustan artists, the style of Old English courageous verse, the style in which common

administration structures are composed, or styles of open talking.

Style is given a more confined importance when it is utilized as a part of an

evaluative sense, alluding to the adequacy of a method of expression. This is inferred by such

well known meanings of style as saying the best thing in the best path or as great behavior.

As indicated by Leech (1969) style is the route in which something is talked, composed or

performed. It alludes to utilization of words, sentences, structures and talking style. Identity

of the author is associated with his specific style. It uncovers that how a man adequately and

perfectly delineates his thoughts and considerations. It portrays the method for individual's

talking and composing. It is gotten from the Latin word elocutio which implies style and

means lexis in Greek. Bloodsucker and Short (1981) is of the view that the word style has an

uncontroversial significance. Style relies on upon the setting for a given reason for which the

dialect is being utilized. Birch (1989) trusts that both dialect and style can't move past an

utmost on the amazingness of words. He emphatically trusts that these words contain

implications which varies it from the conventional dialect. Bloodsucker and Short (1981)

additionally said that it is the choice of the words from a great etymological vocabulary.

Style is included in both, talked and composed, artistic and nonliterary sorts of dialect

however it is especially connected with composed type of the abstract writings. Parasite and

Short (1981) additionally expounds that style is the dress of considerations. It is the method

for the essayist to pass on the message to the perusers. It is upon the essayist that how he

makes his content justifiable that the implications are passed on. Styles presumably change as

indicated by place, time, uniqueness and methodology.

2.2. Stylistics

Stylistics can be overall depicted as the investigation of style of dialect utilization in

various settings, either phonetic, or situational. However, it appears that because of the mind-

boggling history and assortment of explored issues of this review it is hard to state definitely

what stylistics is, and to check clear limits amongst it and different branches of etymology

which manage content investigation.

What has been the essential enthusiasm of stylistics for a considerable length of time

is the investigation of the sort, vacillation, or the purpose behind picking a given style as in

any dialect a solitary thought can be communicated in various routes relying upon

undertones, or sought outcome that the message is to create. Accordingly, stylistics is worried

with the examination of language structure, lexis, semantics, and additionally phonological

properties and desultory gadgets. It may appear that similar issues are researched by

sociolinguistics, and without a doubt that is the situation, however sociolinguistics

examinations the previously mentioned issues seen as reliant on the social class, sexual

orientation, age, and so on while stylistics is more keen on the criticalness of capacity that the

style satisfies.

Also, stylistics inspects oral and composed messages with a specific end goal to

decide significant trademark etymological properties, structures and examples affecting view

of the writings. In this manner, one might say that this branch of semantics is identified with

talk examination, specifically basic talk investigation, and pragmatics.

Inferable from the way that toward the start of the advancement of this review the

significant part of the expressive examination was worried with the investigation of artistic

writings it is once in a while called scholarly phonetics, or abstract stylistics. These days, in

any case, language specialists concentrate different sorts of writings, for example, manuals,

formulas, and books and ads. It is key to include here that none of the content sorts is

segregated and thought to be more imperative than others. Notwithstanding that, in the late

years supposed 'media-talks', for example, movies, news reports, tune verses and political

addresses have all been inside the extent of enthusiasm of stylistics.

Short and Candlin said that stylistics is an etymological way to deal with the

investigation of the abstract writings. Widdowson characterizes stylistics the investigation of

scholarly talk from an etymological introduction which varies stylistics from the abstract

feedback and considers semantics as its connecting procedure. Carter (1988) has of same

view that stylistics is an extension train amongst etymology and writing. Stylistics is the

investigation of those gadgets utilized as a part of dialect, for example, explanatory terms and

linguistic gadgets that are utilized to make expressive or scholarly style. Along these lines,

Stylistics is that review which touches both abstract feedback and additionally etymology as

its morphological structure proposes. As per Widdowson stylistics communicates implies

though dialect and writing as a subject.

The content investigated by stylistics can be seen from various edges and as

satisfying no less than a couple capacities. Along these lines, it is said that writings have

interpersonal capacity, ideational capacity and printed work. While depicting a capacity, a

few issues are contemplated. Along these lines, interpersonal capacity is about the

relationship that the content is building up with its beneficiaries, the utilization of either

individual or indifferent pronouns is breaking down, and also the utilization of discourse acts,

together with the tone and inclination of the announcement.

While depicting the ideational capacity language specialists are worried with the

method for speaking to the truth by the content, the way the members are spoken to, and in

addition the game plan of data in provisions and sentences. The printed capacity is the

reference of sentences advances and in reverse which makes the content strong and

cognizant, additionally other digressive gadgets, for example, ellipsis, reiteration, and

anaphora are examined. Notwithstanding that the viability of picked elaborate properties of

the writings is broke down with a specific end goal to decide their reasonableness to the

apparent capacity, or commitment to general understanding.

2.3. Levels of Stylistic Analysis

The accompanying is the levels that beauticians/language specialists test when they

go for breaking down a bit of content, either composed or talked.

1. Phonetic Level: - An examination of sounds; the investigation of the attributes and

potential utility of human vocal commotion

Graphetics the investigation of composed or printed shapes (visual simple of phonetics)

2. Phonology (Phonemics) - the investigation of the sound arrangement of a given dialect; the

formalized standards of articulation

Graphology (Graphemics) the undifferentiated from investigation of a dialect's written

work framework; the formalized tenets of spelling

3. Punctuation both the syntactic and morphological levels should be talked about; the

point is to investigate the inside structure of sentences in a dialect and the way they work in

groupings; as it were, conditions, phrases, words, things, verbs, and so on should be

recognized and put through an examination to discover what is the standard (foregrounding)

and what is some way or another degenerate (against the standard)

4. Vocabulary on the lexical level it is the investigation of the path in which singular

words and figures of speech tend to design in various etymological setting; on the semantic

level regarding stylistics, it is the investigation of the significance of extends longer than

the single lexical thing (in phonetics, it is the investigation of the importance of a solitary

lexical thing)

5. Discoursal/Textual Level around there, for example, the intrigue lies in data handling

(subject rheme), and to what degree a content is cognizant and what strong gadgets were

utilized to accomplish the specific level of intelligence of the content.

2.4. Previous Studies

The investigation of style has long held a focal place in Old English artistic reviews.

One explanation behind this reality is the uncommon character of Old English verse, and

certain cases of early Middle English verse too, when contrasted and any verse in the later

history of English writing from Chaucer to the late nineteenth century.

Elaborate components of Old English verse as the utilization of exceptional lovely

phrasing, a lot of it allegorical. Each of complex components has gotten sufficient

consideration in the basic writing. The style of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has gone under

investigation. All things considered, a readiness to the expressive impacts in play in

individual Old English ballads appears to have been at its top amid the 1970s, as New

Critical motivations separated into the feedback of Old English writing from different times

of artistic reviews.

2.5. Biography of Robert Frost

Robert Frost was an acclaimed American Poet, conceived in San Francisco on March

26, 1874. He saw a globally commended writer who won the acclaimed Pulitzer prize for

four circumstances. He moved to New England (Massachusetts) as a youngster after his dad's

passing. Ice experienced budgetary and monetary challenges until he chose to move to

England (United Kingdom) when he was 38 years of age. By doing this, he figured out how

to distribute his function abroad, getting to be distinctly prominent in America. He then


returned in 1915, at 41 years old and after one year composed his perfect work of art The

Road Not Taken. His verse concentrated on topics of nature in which he installed the current

and philosophical issues of his time. His style of verse is exceptionally basic and simple and

clear. He is thinking about the numerous decisions he made for the duration of his life, and

considering how diverse would his life be in the event that he had settled on different choices

(by taken other street). Another translation, because of a few imageries in the ballad

recommends that Frost felt that his life was completion, in this way thinking about his lost

open doors.

Much dissimilar to his expert life, Robert Frost's own life was loaded with pain and

misfortune. He lost his folks at a youthful age. As though this were any less, Frost needed to

concede his more youthful sister Jeanie to metal doctor's facility. She passed on there simply

following nine years. At 20 years, old, in 1894, he proposed marriage to Elinor Miriam

White, who thus denied needing to complete school first. The next year, having graduated,

Elinor concurred and the two tied the marital bunch. They had six kids to be specific child

Elliot, little girl Lesley Frost Ballantine, child Carol, little girl Irma, little girl Marjorie and

little girl Elinor Bettina Elliot kicked the bucket of cholera in 1904, Carol conferred suicide,

Marjorie passed on of puerperal fever after labor and Elinor Bettina kicked the bucket post

three days after her introduction to the world. Ice's significant other contracted bosom disease

in 1937 and kicked the bucket of heart disappointment in 1938. He himself passed on in

Boston on January 29, 1963 at 88 years old years.


Chapter 3

Research Methodology

Methodology is an agenda in which one can be on familiar terms with the principles

of the selected model and it makes available the fundamentals and techniques of the study. In

this research, we clarify the viewpoints, methods and structure slot in for the study.

Methodology consist of an assortment of possessions that is essential to recognize the unique

perspective which the research aims to look for. It also provides the basics of strategies of

study and enables us to understand the concept, idea, unique approach and personal idea.

Methodology is a process in which one can be aware with the principles of the

selected model and it gives the fundamentals and techniques of the study. This section of the

research clarifies the viewpoints, methods and structure slot in for the study. Methodology

consist of an assortment of possessions that is essential to recognize the unique perspective

which the research aims to look for. It also provides the basics of strategies of study and

enables us to understand the concept, idea, unique approach and personal idea. The current

study is a qualitative study based research on close reading and inductive analysis of the text

in the two poems of Robert Frost Fire and Ice and A Question.

3.1. Research Paradigm

A well-known model established by a line of investigation is explained as research

paradigm. For example interpretive model is one of the models of investigating inside

sociology it comes within the reach of communal knowledge which is in opposition to the

positivism of any normal discipline.

Disciplines tend to be used by paradigms, such as Interpretivism and Construction.

3.1.1 Interpretivism

Interpretivism is a paradigm of research within sociology and it involves interpreting

elements of learning which opposes the positivism of natural science. In selected two poems

of Robert Frost Fire and Ice and A Question we will use this technique. within this

paradigm, the development of a dialogue between researchers is critical. It is through this

dialectical process that a more informed and complicated understanding of the social world

can be created. All understandings are based in a moment. Interpretivism is linked between

quality and quantity of researchers approach.

3.1.2 Constructivism

Constructivism is a theoretical view point about the nature of knowing. In the current

poetry based research this approach reflects clearly. There are many theorists who give

theories about constructivism but one famous theorist which is known for his constructivist

views is Jean Piaget. Piaget focused on how humans make meaning in relation to the

communication between their experiences and their thoughts. The theory of constructivist

learning by Piaget describes and explains how knowledge comes to mind and practices are

put into a verbal communication for understanding.

Constructivism is an ability to figure out any situation from the given information.

Constructivism actually describes how knowledge occurs, when the researchers use their

practices to comprehend a speech or any other form of discourse. It can also be called as an

educational directive which endorses energetic knowledge. Its basic belief is that a person

extracts knowledge, its meaning and relation between things, people and events by

constructing ideas in his mind.

3.2. Research Method

This research is a qualitative study based on the inductive analysis of the text being

used by the help of close reading strategy, the researchers recognized the situation in the text

where model expressions had been used to create shading prototype in the above mentioned

two poems of Robert Frost Fire and Ice and A Question.

3.2.1 Close Reading and Inductive Analysis


It highlights the cautious, continued understanding of a brief passageway of the text.

Robert Frosts Fire and Ice discusses the question of whether the end of the world will

come in ice or fire, and while that question is part of the meaning, is the question as to

whether cold or heat is the more painful, not just in terms of destruction but also emotion and


In the second poem A Question Frost describes the feelings of a lonely person.

Disappointment is in every word of the poem. We can feel pains and grief of the poet which

is his personal. Nature is not friendly to show the cruelty of nature.

3.3. Theoretical Framework

Using the theoretical framework, the researcher comprehends the supposition and

perception to the topic of the research. It permits the researcher to review obtainable

information and answer the query of why and how. In theoretical framework, we scrutinize

different solutions and develop logical relations with the guidelines of the already formulated

model or framework. The analysis of the articles has been conducted by combining the

following theoretical approaches collectively.

3.3.1 Power and Interpersonal Relations

In order to make their written work more effective, productive, widespread and

valuable similar authors uses their writing powers to make their articles powerful and

appealing. similarly, the reader and researchers use control to understand the concealed

genuineness at the back the screen of expression so that they probably will find it more un

touched. An interpersonal friendship is sandwiched between the reader and writer. Writing

power of the author offer often forces the reader to acknowledge and submit to the authors


3.4. Population

The whole set of items or personal deliberate for a study is called population. The

population for the current study consisted of two poems Fire and Ice and A Question

written by Robert Frost.

3.5. Sampling

For this research, we will use convenience sampling technique to collect the data for

these two poems. This sampling technique is non-probability sampling; in this technique

researcher takes those samples, which are easily available. These samples have primary

information about the phenomenon. So, we can rely on data collection from those population

members who are conveniently available to participate in study. To analyze this poem, we

will study the complete poem, because it is not a larger poem. So, we can easily find different

analyst to study the poem.

Chapter 4

Analysis and Findings


This chapter would discuss on the outcome of the current study. Using the

aforementioned research methodologies and paradigms, the deducted results would be

highlighted and elaborated in detail.

4.1. Analysis of Fire and Ice

It consists of only one nine-line stanza. Robert Frost is famous for writing deep

philosophical ideas through intense and exquisite imagery, he has been called the voice of

America. In the poem Fire and Ice symbolizes the end of world with emotions like fire

with desire and ice with hate. This poem is considered one of the most popular anthologized


4.1.1. Title

The title of this poem is very simple and easy to understand. The main agenda which

the poet has narrated in this poem is the equivalent destructive potentials of the elements fire

and ice. This poem is actually a literary irony which has extreme brevity in its wordy

expression. As far as title is concerned, it represents a contrast between Fire and Ice. It asks a

rhetorical question of how the world will end, on fire or ice. Besides, title is symbolic as Fire

is the symbol of desire and ice is the symbol of hate. The worlds fate is adhered with this ice

and fire and in this way title seems to be ironic as well. Although poem is small but it has a

huge title which covers end of whole world within only three words.

4.1.2. Theme

The major theme of this poem is greed and worldly desire which has been defined as

destructive forces to the earth. The poet has explained that the world itself a peaceful

destination but it is the human who demolishes it through hatred and greed. He has created

metaphors of fire and ice. The fire is greed and the hatred is ice which act in the same manner

and results to bring destruction for this world.

4.1.3. Diction and choice of words

The poet of this poem has selected very easy words to express his thoughts and

emotions for the ease of his readers but his selection of words is quite sensible. The most

prominent word in this poem is the word desire. This word has helped the poet to manage

his rhyme scheme in an absolute manner. The word desire here is used in the meanings of

hunger and lust not in the true sense of its literary meanings. In fact, if we can say that, here

the word desire has more stress on lust than anything else.

The poets selection for the words such as desire instead of using it into lust

seems to bring positivity of his impression. He kept a balance between the desire and lust.

The word lust comes out with severe negativity in its meanings which in a curtain of word

desire provides a message to avoid it for the betterment of humanity.

The other important word used by Frost is tasted. This selection defines huge

concepts of desire to several human experiences. In this regard, the Poet has left a vast choice

on his readers to conclude whatever meanings they want to assert from his poetry. The Frosts

diction in this poem has provided to his readers an unprejudiced space where they have huge

room to conclude his poetry with their own understandings.

4.1.4. Syntax or Grammatical Structures


Grammatical structures are significant in composition of a poem. In the opening line

of Fire and Ice, there is a pronoun some which helps to initiate the thought of poet. With

this indefinite pronoun, Frost starts his poem and complete his sentence with a comma after

fire and ends on ice. Second line and second last line are short, which helps in

maintaining rhythm and rhyme. Third line starts from a preposition From and then an

interrogative what which is used for a rhetorical purpose and the Subject verb and object

structure is followed. However, if we draw the tree diagram of the sentences of this poem,

there can be simple noun phrases and verb phrase drawn. Agent and goals are also obvious in

case of fire and ice.

4.1.5. Rhyme Scheme

This ironic styled, short poem (consisting only on 9 lines) has a great brevity and

conciseness in its expression of scheme. We find a great deal of words economy throughout

in this poem. This poem has been expressed in 9 lines stanzas which have extreme brevity in

its last couple of lines. The poet has casted his great creativity through experimenting the

mixing of Iambic tetrameter and Diameter in this poem. The rhyme scheme is following

the layout of, Terza Rima which is ABA, ABC, BCB.

4.1.6. Paradox

At the most essential level, a paradox is an announcement that is self-conflicting in

light of the fact that it regularly contains two proclamations that are both valid, however by

and large, can't both be valid in the meantime. In this short poem, a great paradox has been

defined. There is discordance in the belief of the worlds destruction. A scientific study says

that the world will be ended through a freezing or icing temperature while the other religious

and cultural believes of destructions suggests it will be by fire. So there is a big paradox has

kept in this poem by the poet. He has left it undecided that either mode of destruction shall

activate at time of ending this world.

4.1.7. Irony

Irony in the poetry is basically the selection of words which perform different

meanings in their functionalities rather their literal meanings. By the poet, it is also possible

to have a condition or a situation where the generally anticipated or prevailed belief is taken

in a total different context to the poetic language. Yet Irony is a great theme for this poem. It

has total ironic impression in all its words. The poet has represented his thought of irony

through two things: the fire and the ice. In this poem, the poet connoted the fire as the human

greed and ice is human hatred. These two concepts apparently are very concise but have a

great depth. The situation the poet has explained is a disturbed condition where this world

finally has to be finished. The irony which poet suggests is the ending of world through two

human actions, the fire which is desires and hatred which is ice.

4.1.8. Stylistic Devices Assonance

Similarity of sound between syllables of close-by words, emerging especially from the

rhyming of at least two focused on vowels, however not consonants (e.g. song, morning),

additionally from the utilization of indistinguishable consonants with various vowels (e.g.

cycle, psycho, syrup). In this poem, the poet had consumed fewer assonance. Only I is

repeated thrice as assonance in the entire poem. It can be seen in this line:

I hold with those who favor fire.

30 Cacophony

If we speak literally, cacophony points to a situation where there is a mixture of harsh

and inharmonious sounds. In literature, however, the term refers to the use of words with

sharp, harsh, hissing and unmelodious sounds primarily those of consonants to achieve

desired results. Consonance

The repetitive sounds of a sentence or phrase are called as consonance. The

consonance in poetry refers to the rapid sequence of chasing the sounds in a poetic line. For

example the driller and killer have consonance of the soundsll. In this poem, the consonance

as poetic device has not been used at all. Alliteration

The poetic device that repeats a particular speech sound in poetic line/phrase/words is

called as alliteration. Mostly it consumes consonants in the start of words to bring a match in

all the syllables of a poetic sequence. This device in poetic language has a special role as it

provides poetry a charm maintaining music and rhythms. In the selected poem, Ice and Fire

the poet Frost has used this device to maintain the charm of this poem. In the first to lines the

S has been used twice which is the alliteration.

Some say the world will end in fire,

Some say in ice.

Than in the 4rth line sound f is used twice.

I hold with those who favor fire


In the 5th line I sound is used two times.

But if it had to perish twice

In the 6th line I sound is again used more than one times.

I think I know enough of hate Onomatopoeia

Onomatopoeia is the word which poetry consumes in the imitation of natural sounds

for example the sound of rain, a sparrows voice or any other possible natural sound. So far,

this piece of poetry has not consumed any of the onomatopoeic sounds. Imagery

The imageries are the visuals parts of poetry which poet creates through his words for

the readers. These visual signs are always designed to display the human five basic senses of

feeling. The Frost as a poet of this poem has created two beautiful different visuals for his

readers by using the poetic device of imagery. The image of fire available in this poetry has

two things the sense to see something and to feel it deeply. We can also observe the word

tasted as an image of poets experience provide a full sense and an experience.

The imageries used in this poet have strong visuals that impact on our feelings and

senses. This poem has consumed two basic senses of human feelings, the cold and the heat.

The visual of fire, used in this poetry reflects heat. Fire for the heat can be destructive but in

moderation it is good for human beings. In the same manner, the concept of Ice works, its

consumption in limitation is useful but when it comes in larger quantity it has power to

destroy same as fire. Frost connotes through these visuals of fire and ice the emotions of

human desire and fire. Frost says the human desire is fire but only when it crosses its

limitations. In the same way, the visual of ice for hatred works. The bad thing in hate is its

nature which only brings destruction.

Sense Images Described

Sight Fire, Ice, and Desire on someones face, Hate

Sound Burning of fire, Crushing of ice, and desire in voice

Smell Nothing

Taste The mood I taste is desire

Touch nothing Personification

Personification is basically the human characteristics which are defined through

different object and non-human items. In this poem, the Ice and fire are two objects which

have been broached by the poet as non-human elements but are designed to spread the human

characteristics of hatred as worldly desires. Antithesis

Antithesis have opposite meanings in the poetry between two objects, phrases etc.

For example, the dark is the antithesis of bright and open is the antithesis of cold. In this

poem, the poetic device of antithesis has been great consumed. The word ice has extreme

opposite and contrastive word fire. We can see them through their literal meanings as well.

The ice refers to the cold and chill where the fire has opposite meanings to it. The fire is

greatly refers to the heat and warmth.

33 Metaphor

Metaphor is basically a tactic of comparing to the one object to another. In metaphor,

we see that it switches the name between the two. Fire and Ice uses a metaphor although it is

an implied metaphor where Robert Frost compares fire and ices without implying it or

pointing it out. In this poem two metaphors have been used where the word ice has a

metaphor to the word hatred and the fire is a metaphor of human desire but after creating to

metaphors, the poet has created an intra comparison between these two metaphors also. Symbolism

The entire poem hover about two great symbols. From its first and second lines even

we cant judge we are being told about symbols of fire and ice. In fact these two lines dictate

about scientific justification of reality. In later lines when Frost modifies his concepts of fire

and ice than we come to that these are symbols of hatred and human worldly desires. The

interesting part of reading these two symbols utilized by Frost is that, it never stops on a

narrow definition of hatred and desire but it provides a huge space to being into the definition

of provided symbols of fire and Ice. The readers are allowed by the Frost to add their own

experiences and imaginations with the concepts provided through the symbols of fire and ice. Connotation

In poetry, the poetic device connotation refers to those selected words and phrases by

the poet which do not explain the plain and common meanings attached to them. The

connotations may be descriptions of contexts related to the culture and emotions. In this

poem, the two words are greatly used as connotation. The ice and fire, these two words have

different context and meanings here rather their original literal meanings. The ice connotes

for the human hatred and the fire is human desire.


4.2. Analysis of A Question

4.2.1. Title

The title of the poem is the key to its understanding. The title best suits the content of

the poem as it has been written in the form of a question where the poet poses a question to

his readers. The theme of the poem revolves around a valid and compelling question about

the existence of human being on earth and the price they have to pay for their birth on the

earth. It is highly philosophical and abstract question in its very nature.

4.2.2. Theme

This poem is a recollection of those moments which have now become part of the

past. stands for one's reflection on their past life. The poem is about the complicated

phenomenon of life and death which is as absurd as man himself. Man suffers on this planet

earth for something which is ambiguous and vague. This poem, A Question primarily

unveils the invisible link between human life and death and the man is put in a situation

where he can question about what all good he has been doing and what are the implications

of these actions on his life. The man has to value his life as something that is worth-living.

Another perspective is that the man has to suffer in this worldly life. The poet is trying to

portray that a depressing image of human life and he says that man is just like a pawn in the

hands of fate and this suffering never comes to an end. The very nature of the poem is

beautifully described with the question word, Why which actually depicts the mental status

of the poet himself.

4.2.3. Diction or choice of words

The diction used in the poem, A Question is very vivid and elaborative which clearly

expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet, thus creating a pictorial image of human life,

death and sufferings. Although the poem contains a lot of images and symbolism, but still the

words and phrases help the reader understand the message of the poet.

4.2.4. Syntax or Grammatical Structures

The poem has simple grammatical structures but they have diversity in their used the

poet has successfully tried to employ these grammatical devices to give pictorial expression

to his feelings and thoughts. The verbs which have been used in the poem are mostly finite

and infinite. For example, the verbs, said, look, and tell are finite verbs while to pay is

an infinitive. First and third line of stanza are finite clauses which shows tense while second

and fourth line are non-finite clauses which contain a verb but does not show tense. Use of

commas, use of hyphen and full stop is used in the poem and it shows poet inquisitive and

dissatisfied nature. Poet does not have clarity about the purpose of life. Does life is the name

of sorrow and suffering?

4.2.5. Rhyme Scheme

This poem consists of only one stanza. Each line is composed by trochaic tetrameter.

Stanza of A Question has the pattern of rhyme scheme: ABAB pattern, For instance, in the

first stanza, stars rhymes with the word scars and earth rhymes with the word birth.

4.2.6. Paradox

A single voice is asking to look me in the stars instead of listening. One voice should

be associated to one star. Soul and body scars cannot be compared as a price to take birth on

earth. Soul and body are two different prospective of human life. Man having difficulties in

life may not necessarily be having hardship in his soul. Rather these two aspects of life are

contradicting each other in every religion; one is examined with in life i.e. physical human

body and the other is addressed after life i.e soul. If life is given by the God, then why He is

asking the men of earth about its price in form of soul and body scars?

4.2.7. Irony

Robert Frosts poetry is depleted with irony which is obvious in his poems which

typically depict the differences between human perceptions and realities. However not irony

is ever directed against mans nature to deceive himself. We can see ironic treatment of self-

deception in these lines. Though Frost is a pessimist in its very nature, but his vision of mans

dilemma is not negative as it is clear in these lines. The poet has great ability to represent the

horrifying essence of human life and his eagerness to recognize mans suffering from bumpy

patches is clearly mentioned in these lines.

4.2.8. Stylistic Devices

Following stylistics devices are used by Robert Frost in this poem:-

a Assonance. It refers to the repetition of vowel sounds. For example, too much to

b Cacophony. The poet uses cacophony in this poem to describe a distressing

situation of human emotional upheaval. The poet uses words such as voice, look,

stars, soul and body scars, Pay for birth, with discordant sounds as descriptive words,

and tries to generate a dialogue between the humans and the God to display human

emotional state in the form of scars on body and soul that they have to pay to live on

c Consonance. It refers to the repetition of consonant sounds in nearby words. For

example, , said and stars

d Alliteration. We can also find a few examples of alliteration as well. For example,

Tell me Truly, too --- to pay, soul and scars, .

e Onomatopoeia

f Imagery. Robert Frost has frequently used ambiguous and abstract imagery in

his poetry to create a vivid picture of the subject at hand. The invisible voice

without being physically seen is the dominant imagery in these lines. I would say that

the voice is the voice of god. The stars rest in "heaven" which is where god would be.

This is supported because the voice is not that of a man. This deals with many

subjects. The poet was able enough to be very thoughtful about free will and the

survival of very evil. Similarly, body and soul scars is another example of imagery.

If you are to be free, then there are certain things an omnipotent, omniscient being

cannot save you from... those are the soul-and-body scars... If your mother smokes

cigarettes and does crack while you're a baby and you are born with three arms, don't

blame god. That's free will. You might also even say that, at least in the Christian

viewpoint, you have to prove yourself before god. That might be a soul-scar and you

are not born saved or good; rather the man has to prove it with his survival against all

g Personification. The start of the stanza with the words, A voice said is a clear

example or personification. Asking man to look me in the starts just like we see

different objects on the earth. That voice tries to compare itself with something

h Antithesis. Beauty of life is comparing with the hard ships in the form of soul and

body scars, is a clear antithesis of the poets thought and imagination of this world.

Although, it is a natural law that comfort cannot be achieved without bearing

hardships and difficulties, even then the poet considered these difficulties too much

for the sake of life on the earth.

i Metaphor. Frost compares scars on the soul and body as a cost for living in this

world. The poet poses a serious question that is it not a heavy price to pay for having

birth on the earth.


j Symbolism. This poem symbolically represents the pain and sorrow of humans

while living on the earth in the form of scars, presence of God in the starts having

qualities of listening and visualizing. The tone of the poem is always slimy but that

actually means that you can opt for any tone you feel you can absorb. This is also

called voice. You may hear an annoyed tone or an informal tone. What could be the

symbolic meaning of 'Voice'? At times, it is the Creator but it seems doubtful here. It

could be devil as well. There are no quotation marks, but the capital letter L after

the first comma suggests that he wants the remaining passage to look like a quote. The

philosophical drive is if the pang and suffering that we endure to feel the essence of

life, is really worth it. That is whether the life is to be enjoyed or do we only undergo

suffering through it?

k Connotation. The word scar is used as a representation of hardships and

difficulties, a man has to pay in return of life on earth. This word gives a feeling of

un-healing wound that a man carries after the death.

Chapter 5


The Poem fire and ice by Robert Frost is a literary Irony in which he has chosen to

talk about the darkest aspect of human world. He has stressed on the importance of ending

this universe and accounted two most potential elements of threats which may act like ending

agents for this world which are either Ice or the fire.

Robert Frost has included most visionary concepts in this poem. He has also given

metaphors to his lifted concepts of Ice and Fire. For him the Ice is in fact hatred and human

grudge and the fire is human desire (the greed of human for luxury and worldly material).

The two elements of fire and Ice are equally destructive for the poet which are

associated to the destruction of this world but by deeply analyzing these two concepts of fire

and ice it can be concluded that the element of Ice is however less destructive than the fire.

The metaphors in these two concepts dictate that human hatred acts like Ice which freezes the

sentiments but there is a chance of its restoration for example the ice again can be liquefy

same as the hatred can be turned into love and affection but the fire is an eventual end. The

destructions made through fire have no compensation. Once fire burns, it finishes the objects

completely there is no chance of renewal after the attack of fire which is human desire. So the

Ice has revival. It has capability to reinstate. Ice when melts turns into water which is a sign

of life and its flow offers the continuity of human life. From stylistic analysis of the poem, it

is inferred that the poem is an exquisite example of symbolic title. Fire represents desire

while ice symbolizes hate. The poem predicts the end of world if human beings keep on

hating each other or the desire of the one destroys the other. The eloquent use of imagery and

alliteration for deep philosophical purpose make the poem worth reading. Diction of the

poem is simple but it is evocative. The irony in the poem is that the poetic predicting about

the end of the world but he himself is not sure whether the world will end on fire or ice.

There is a deep pragmatic thinking in the poem. The analysis proves that Frost is true lover of

realistic nature.

The poem ' A Question' revolves around a vivid and compelling question about the

existence of human being on earth and the price they have to pay for their birth on the earth.

The diction used in the poem is very vivid and elaborative which clearly expresses the

thoughts and feelings of the poet, thus creating a pictorial image of human life, death and

sufferings. The poem has simple grammatical structures but they have diversity in their used

the poet has successfully tried to employ these grammatical devices to give expression to his

thoughts. This poem consists of only one stanza. Each line is composed by trochaic

tetrameter with a rhyme scheme of ABAB pattern. Robert Forst has used assonance,

cacophony, alliteration, personification, antithesis, metaphor, symbolism and connotation as

stylistic devices in this poem. Frost has also frequently used ambiguous and abstract imagery

to create a vibrant picture of the subject in hand.

This poem A Question is about a question as we can easily interpret from its title. It

is a question about life, suffering, pains and hardships of life. Human beings on the earth are

bearing number of hardships in number of ways which is actually a price for the precious gift

of endowed life. Different stylistics devices like: assonance, consonance, alliteration,

metaphor, cacophony, imagery, antithesis etc. are used in this poem. This poem is beautifully

adorned by word choice and diction. The poet conveys a huge message through limited set of

vocabulary. This poem is from every side is a complete; title is very suitable, theme is superb

and style is grand, these all make it beautiful and thought provoking.


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