ArcelorMittal USA

Plate
A516 and A387 Pressure Vessel Steels: A Technical Overview

Introduction • PVQ steels at ArcelorMittal that are melted in an electric arc
ArcelorMittal is the major producer of carbon and alloy plate for the furnace meet specification requirements using scrap that is among
petroleum, petrochemical and chemical processing industries in the the most carefully selected in the world.
United States. We operate three facilities in Pennsylvania and Indiana • The molten steel is then refined in a ladle metallurgy station that
with five rolling mills for the production of plate. includes a ladle furnace (LRF). A tank degasser is available for ad-
ditional removal of undesirable gases when required.
Many of the more than 450 grades of carbon and alloy plate steels • High levels of cleanliness are available. When specified,
produced by ArcelorMittal are pressure vessel quality (PVQ) grades 0.001% maximum sulfur, 0.005% maximum phosphorus and
used in the design and fabrication of process vessels. In addition, we 0.003% maximum oxygen can be achieved for certain grades.
offer the thinnest, thickest, widest and heaviest plates available in The lowest sulfur levels are achieved through Finleline® pro-
North America. For a comprehensive list of PVQ grades and availabil- cessing that includes calcium treatment for inclusion shape
ity, refer to our Plate Steel Specification Guide. control.
• Improved accuracy and precise control of chemical compo-
Two pressure vessel plate steel specifications comprise, by far, the sition is achieved, making it possible to offer the stringent
most popular process vessel applications. Based on ArcelorMittal’s carbon equivalent (CE) maximums required by our customers.
experience, ASME SA516 (ASTM A516) carbon steel and ASME • Microalloying elements (B, Ti, Cb, V) are not intentionally
SA387 (ASTM A387) alloy steel are detailed technically in this bro- added to PVQ steels, unless permitted by customer specifi-
chure. cation. This practice addresses industry concerns about the
unpredictable response of hard heat affected zones contain-
Production Practices ing these elements during welding and subsequent post weld
ArcelorMittal’s PVQ steels are manufactured to stringent metal- heat treatment (PWHT) of fabricated process vessels. How-
lurgical practices in steelmaking shops located in Burns Harbor, IN ever, when specifically approved by our customer, microalloy-
and Coatesville, PA. Plate products manufactured at our Coatesville ing additions may be considered to achieve special properties.
electric arc furnace (EAF) facility (Figure 1) provide the basis for all • PVQ steels are bottom-poured into ingots or continuously cast
the information described in this brochure. into slabs, depending on plate size and weight. Based on final
product dimensions, our PVQ steels are rolled on our, 110, 140 or
206-inch wide rolling mills.
Figure 1 • Depending on specification requirements, PVQ steel can be heat
Coatesville Steelmaking Process Plan treated in car-bottom or continuous furnaces. If the steel is
intended for hot forming applications, ArcelorMittal will perform
Electrodes
Automatic
Automatic
Alloys
a capability test on laboratory heat treated samples from the
Alloys
Wire Feed
as-rolled plates in accordance with the provisions of A20.

Argon Stirring
Argon Stirring

Ladle Furnace Ladle Degasser

Continuous Bottom
Cast Slabs Poured Ingots

Electric Arc Furnace
Ladle

Grade 70 w/o PWHT 0. Tensile strength rises linearly as CE increases.48 0. 60.32 Employing special melting practices can control both carbon and CE. Plate thicknesses to 15 inches. and 70. situations depending on thickness. 200 CVN Absorbed Energy . ArcelorMittal produces A516 Carbon Equivalent (IIW) steels to restricted carbon and CE levels. Toughness of A516 ness and resistance to degradation of properties due to post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Effect of Heat Treatment on Transverse CVN bon and CE levels. certain amounts of carbon. if even more aggressive requirements are desired.40 Grade 65 All Conditions Figure 3 shows the CE levels that can be achieved for the various 0. 65. while it may be important 0. lengths to 1525 inches and pattern weights up to 50 tons can be produced. Furthermore.55 Due to the concern for weldability. depending on a combination of specification and 95 size requirements. Our advanced facilities make possible the produc. bon equivalent maximums we can offer will vary by grade. Quenching and tempering also improves tough. Figure 4 quench and temper (Q&T) heat treatment will allow even lower car. Normalized 100 As-rolled 50 0 -110 -60 -10 40 90 140 190 240 Temperature (F) Pressure Vessel – Page 2 .38 grades of A516. other unique chemical restrictions (such as Pcm).5” to 3” thick fall within shaded area.Ft lbs Q+T The improvement in Charpy V-Notch (CVN) toughness realized by 150 Q&T is illustrated in Figure 4.000 psi per 0.35 0.44 CE Maximum ments need to be present in order to achieve minimum mechanical 0.46 to restrict CE. 80 Tensile (KSI) ments.3 0.4 0. toughness requirements or PWHT considerations. Grade 70 w/PWHT 0. The car.36 Grade 60 All Conditions a function of plate thickness. Thus. As shown by the data in Figure 2. This is especially true for Grade 70 as thickness increases. manganese and other ele.induced cracking (HIC) testing require.01 increase in CE. generally at the rate of 0. 90 tion of A516 to a variety of customer and industry specifications. widths to 195 The Effect of Carbon Equivalent inches. thickness and post-weld heat treatment requirements. 0 1 2 3 4 5-8 Improvements can be achieved with special melting for individual Plate Thickness. while still maintaining the required strength levels as 0. 60 55 Carbon Equivalent Controls 0.5 0.42 properties. when requested. 75 70 There are no heat lot ordering requirements for any of the quality 65 levels of A516 produced by ArcelorMittal. 80% of all results for plates 1. 85 including rigorous hydrogen. 0.45 0.50 1.34 CE = C + Mn/6 + (Cu + Ni)/15 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 0. in.A516 Carbon Steels Figure 2 ArcelorMittal produces the full range of A516 plate steels in grades Tensile Strength of Normalized A516 55. carbon and other elements Figure 3 that comprise the most commonly used CE formula [C + Mn/6 + Available CE Maximums for Normalized A516 (Cu+Ni)/15 + (Cr+Mo+V)/5] are important for providing strength.

In this example. The necessary chemistry controls can be condition when subjected to a PWHT cycle of 1175ºF for 8 hours. % of Original Energy @ -50ºF Guidelines for Adjusting CE Requirements 100 Due to the Effects of PWHT 3" 80 TEMP Hours of PWHT 1-1/2" % of Original Ft-lbs (F) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 60 1125 0.062 0 1250 0.034 0.036 0. 65 and is shown to drop by as much as 75 percent from the as-normalized 70 on normalized plates. and given the predict.2 hrs 1175F. Figure 8 The Effects of PWHT on Impact Properties Figure 5 LMP vs.038 40 1175 0.8 hrs 1225 0.044 0. The Effects of PWHT on Impact Properties* ate the need for nearly four additional points of CE to achieve the LMP vs. 40 able relationship between CE. a PWHT cycle of 1150 degrees F for eight hours will cre.040 0. achieved in our ladle metallurgy facilities.042 0. Figure 7 depicts the actual absorbed energy values but a more dramatic representation of the data is illustrated in Figure 8.068 0.033 0.065 0.030 0.053 0. The effect of PWHT on 80 lowering strength levels is shown in Figure 6.057 0.024 0.027 0. This is shown by the matrix found in Figure 5 which is based on the 100 accumulation of thousands of data points as well as the result of 1-1/2" specific heat treat studies by ArcelorMittal.013 0.2 hrs 1175F.049 0.051 0.019 0.010 0. 0 As Norm 32 33 34 35 36 Figures 7-9 further summarize the results of testing on 1-1/2 and Larson-Miller Parameter 3 inch thick A516 Grade 70 plate and show the degradation of toughness as PWHT severity increases.016 0.043 0.065 0. CVN Energy @ -50ºF same strength as in a plate of the same thickness without PWHT.038 0. thickness and strength for normalized 20 plate typified in Figure 2.026 0.025 0.018 0.029 0.041 0. an approximation of the effects of PWHT can easily be derived.8 hrs -60 90 1-1/2" -80 88 As Norm 32 33 34 35 36 -100 1125F.045 0.035 0.028 0. 35 Ft-lb Transition Temperature 98 0 % of Original Tensile 96 -20 94 Temperature (F) 3" -40 92 1-1/2" 3" 1125F.052 0. toughness at –50ºF We will consider multiple certification of A516 to Grades 60.032 0.048 0.* In this example.037 0.060 0.8 hrs Larson-Miller Parameter -120 30 As Norm 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 * ArcelorMittal uses the Larson-Miller time-temperature parameter to assist in identifying the effects of PWHT on properties.02 0. Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) Figure 7 In general.059 0.021 0. Figure 9 displays the effects when measured by the 35 ft-lb transi- tion temperature and shows a shift of over 60ºF from the same PWHT cycle.050 0. Larson-Miller Parameter Results of 1-1/2" and 3" plates Pressure Vessel – Page 3 . the CVN (Ft-lbs) 60 3" reduction of tensile properties is shown as a percentage of the start- ing as-normalized tensile strength.056 0.070 30 As Norm 32 33 34 35 36 Larson-Miller Parameter Figure 6 The Effects of PWHT on Tensile Properties* As a % of Original Strength Figure 9 The Effects of PWHT on Impact Properties 100 LMP vs.046 1200 0. As a result.054 20 1125F.041 0.030 1150 0.049 0.2 hrs 1175F.

High internal pressure can eventually cause the inclusions to be initia. This cracking can come basis.002% or less and employs calcium treatment for inclusion FeS Fe ++ H2 Had Had shape control. or stepwise cracking (HIC) CTR. hydrogen ions generated by mens. the thickness (HIC). Examples of CLR values obtained from testing HIC-Tested A516 are illustrated in Figure 13. the standard used for the test. and CSR) are also shown. Blister Besides cleanliness. and other information specified by the purchaser. which reduces sulfur H+ H+ H+ levels to 0. The facility at the Coatesville plant for ArcelorMittal has produced HIC-Tested A516 plate steels since 1990 for use in a variety of pro- cess vessels where there is a concern for HIC in aqueous hydrogen Figure 10 sulfide service or other hydrogen charging environments.A516 Steels for Sour Service Applications ArcelorMittal’s HIC-Tested A516 can be produced in plate thickness- Pressure vessel steels. HIC testing of these steels is performed as outlined in the in the form of blistering on the surface. Pressure Vessel – Page 4 . Both normalizing and Q&T heat treatments are available and help meet other proper- microcrack ties as well. step-wise cracking through specifications found in Figure 11. • Test reports for all HIC-Tested A516 steels include values for CLR. use of lower sulfur steels with restrictive CE and prohibitions against the use of microalloys Exterior Vessel Surface may suffice. environments that are subject to certain operating conditions can be Other thicknesses and weights will be considered on an individual susceptible to hydrogen-assisted cracking. CTR. Maximum levels of phosphorus and oxygen may also be accepted.000 pounds. Stepwise Cracking Mechanism To meet HIC testing requirements. the ions nucleate at these “voids” and form • The Testing Solution A of NACE TM0284 (the low pH solution) is hydrogen gas pockets. appearing as blisters on the steel’s surface. and more commonly A516. ArcelorMittal will Hab not perform HIC tests on unheat-treated products. More recently there has been attention to a phenomenon termed stress-oriented • HIC testing is performed according to NACE TM0284. it is imperative to have very clean steels with low inclusion contents. However. hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC). in the steel. The formulae used to determine various HIC test parameters. inclusions are present. • Note that requirements are based on average values of all speci- As shown schematically in Figure 10. (CLR. corporate specifications requiring individual specimen or cross- tempt to pass through the steel shell containment boundary. we may impose additional quality extras or employ the creating an iron-sulfide scale at the reaction interface. If there section maximums. and CSR. we have found heat treating to be very impor. or sulfide stress cracking (SSC). of external stress. for use in refinery es from 3/8 through 6 inches and plate weights to 55. this is done harmlessly while standards. To accommodate these more restrictive is an absence of inclusions in the steel. All HIC-Tested A516 steels are H+ Service-Side Vessel Surface produced to our exclusive Fineline® process. while SSC and to be cut from one plate of each thickness rolled from each heat of SOHIC require the combination of hydrogen activity in the presence steel. Blistering and HIC cracking • Figure 12 depicts the orientation and size of three test specimens can occur without the presence of external stresses. (H2 gas) Where less severe conditions are expected. ArcelorMittal recognizes that there are increasingly more the reaction of steel with a sour process environment (wet H2S) at. Elongated Non-Metallic Inclusions Hab tant in attaining satisfactory results with HIC tests. tion sites for further “hydrogen -induced”. A more detailed review of this subject is contained in NACE Publication 8X194. if use of Q&T heat treatment. Materials and Fabrication Practices for New Pressure Vessels Used in Wet H2S Refinery Service.

• The weldability of A516 is primarily addressed through the control of carbon and carbon equivalent levels that may permit the use of Figure 12 lower preheat levels. Average • The most aggressive CVN impact properties for A516 steels can HIC-A-5 A Overall 5 1 0. 10 2 1 Section Max • Through-thickness tensile properties may be specified per A770 for plates up to 6-inches thick.010% max. A516 steels. can be welded with conventional welding techniques. sulfur or Fineline® 0.5 0. 40% RA and 25% RA are available with Fineline® with 0. Please inquire your specific requirements. please inquire.375 be met using a variety of sulfur controls. whether HIC tested or other- Determining Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) wise.005% Note 3: SSC testing per NACE TM0177 available with inquiry. sulfur processing. when purchased to Fineline® with 0. ksi 50 40 30 20 10 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Figure 13 Temperature ºF HIC-Test Performance (TM0284. Figure 14 shows test results for three plates of various thicknesses. HIC-A-10 A Overall 10 3 1 this specification requires a minimum of ArcelorMittal Fineline® Average with . Figure 11 Other Available Testing Available NACE TM0284 Acceptance A variety of additional property controls for A516 steels are available from ArcelorMittal . such as ASTM A578/ Average ASME SA578 Level C may be specified.5 and heat treatments. Figure 14 Elevated Temperature Tensile Strength of A516-70 80 70 Ultimate Tensile 60 Strength Yield Strength Strength.002% max. sulfur. max. HIC-A-15 A Overall 15 5 2 Average 15 5 5 HIC-A-15S A Specimen 15 5 2 • Ultrasonic internal quality requirements. up to 50%. including reduction of area (RA) Note: 1: Available in strand cast sizes. Depending on plate size. respectively. for reference purposes. Some of these require more restrictive chemis- REF Solution Criteria CLR % CTR % CSR % try control and/or heat treatment.010% max. Note 2: Inquire more restrictive criteria. inquire for ingot product. chemistry adjustments Average 5 1. However. Resistance NACE Specification TM0284 • High temperature tensile properties are not usually specified for A516 steels. HIC-A-10CS A Cross. Solution A) Plate Thickness: 3/4" 2" 12" Cumulative Results Since 1995 100 90 80 70 Cumulative % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 10% 15% CLR Overall Average Pressure Vessel – Page 5 . More restrictive requirements HIC-A-10S A Specimen 10 3 1 will be considered on request. sulfur. For plate thicknesses over 6 inches.

as well The maximum levels available by grade are: as more stress relief. J Factor Regular Melting Controlled Chemistry In applications where improved toughness. The effect of chemistry balance on strength is illustrated in Figure 17.A387 Alloy Steels Figure 15 ArcelorMittal is the major supplier of A387 PVQ alloy steels in North Distribution of J Factors for A387 Grade 22 Utilizing America producing a full range of A387 grades.008% Sulfur 0. 186-inches wide and 600-inches long.010% Phosphorus 0. Figure 16 restricted levels of tramp elements considered impurities may be Distribution of X bar for A387 Grade 22 Utilizing specified. 5. depending on the combination of specifica- tion and size required. A387 plates can be produced in accordance 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 with requirements of API 934. 11 150 12 More will also be said about this in the section on toughness.010% 0. will be considered on a case-by-case basis.005% 0. chemistry and PWHT must be considered carefully. In this example. 22. Guaranteed Maximum Levels (When Specified)* Grades 11 and 12 Grade 22 Antimony 0. the effects of both additional chemistry. 21. with weights up to 100.004% 0. Other less commonly specified grades such as 2. These restrictions can normally be obtained by taking special care in scrap selection and subsequent treating of the molten Melting Practices to Control Tramp Elements steel at our ladle metallurgy facility. discussed in more detail later. Grades 11. Regular Melting Controlled Concern about temper embrittlement. or concern over reheat-cracking in Grade 11 are needed. More restrictive levels of individual tramp elements. Melting Practices to Control Tramp Elements 12. The distributions of J and X bar data for Grade 22 are shown in Fig- ures 15 and 16. ArcelorMittal has found X bar = (10P + 5Sb + 4Sn + As) that there is an excellent correlation between strength.010% 0. PA location. which may be required to factors. In the chart. or J and X bar factors. represented by a conventional carbon equivalent. is plot- ted against Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP). Pressure Vessel – Page 6 . 9 and 91. Plates up to 12-inches thick. including Grades 11. Somewhat higher J factors for Grade 11 may be required to allow is normally addressed by specifying limits on one of two chemical for higher Mn and minimum silicon levels. are shown. tensile strength of Grade 11 plate. A542 is also available including Type Number of Heats D (22V). 100 {elements in ppm} chemistry and time-temperature parameters such as Larson-Miller {P = T(C + log t) x 1000}.005% 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Arsenic 0. All grades of A387 are melted at our Coatesville. 12 and 22 are most commonly used in process ves- sels and are the primary focus of this review. represented by higher LMP factors. 21L and 22L are also available if ordered in sufficient quantity.000 pounds can be produced. Number of Heats Heat Analysis. usually greater than 100 tons. J = (% Si + % Mn) (% P + % Sn) x 104 1-3/8 inch thick in the normalized and tempered condition. temper embrittlement resistance. Grades J Factor X Bar When trying to achieve Class 2 properties of 75 KSI minimum tensile 12 110 12 strength. J and X bar defined by the following equations: meet strength levels in thicker plates and/or when extensive PWHT is required. thickness.010% X Bar * Inquire if more restrictive levels are required.002% 0.004% Tin 0. 22 90 15 Distribution for J and X bar factors for Grade 11 are depicted in Figures 18 and 19. The following controlled impurity levels are available for fine grain A387 steels.

Temperature on Tensile Influence of Processing on the Strength of N+T 1-3/8” A387-11 Toughness of A387 Steels 95 Fineline 90 Double-O-Five CVN Impact Toughness 85 Fineline Tensile (ksi) Q+T 80 75 Baseline N+T 70 65 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Test Temperature Larson-Miller Parameter Temperature . PWHT also has a significant effect on notch-toughness that will be discussed later.68 CE Figure 18 Charpy V-Notch Toughness Distribution of J Factors for A387 Grade 11 Utilizing Improved Charpy V-notch toughness properties can be met for Melting Practices to Control Tramp Elements A387 steels with Fineline processing.58 CE . As previously discussed. but particularly phos- phorus and tin. a quench and temper heat treatment may be required. When thick plates are specified with high CVN toughness requirements or when PWHT requirements demand it. a phenomenon known as temper Controlled Melting Regular Melting embrittlement. Distribution of X bar for A387 Grade 11 Utilizing Melting Practices to Control Tramp Elements Figure 21 Effect of Temper Embrittlement on 40 Ft-Lb Transition Temperature Number of Heats As Received Step Cooled CVN ft lbs 40 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Delta T40 X Bar Regular Melting Controlled Temperature Pressure Vessel – Page 7 . including vacuum degassing and calcium treatment for inclusion shape control. 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Tramp elements may cause degradation of CVN toughness over time J Factor in vessels with long-term service. The general effects of Fine- line processing and heat treatment on toughness are shown in Figure 20. The effect is shown schematically in Figure 21. certain tramp elements. In all cases. Figure 17 Figure 20 The Effect of Time . we highly recommend that our Speci- fication Metallurgy Department be contacted for CVN capabilities before specifying design criteria. are restricted to minimize the temper embrittlement Figure 19 susceptibility of A387 steels. Multiple austenization cycles may also be utilized to Number of Heats meet increased toughness requirements.

ArcelorMittal encourages 200 Absorbed Energy (ft lbs) impact testing at -80ºF with results of 40/35 ft. which summarizes the influence of increasing PWHT cycles on longitudinal CVN toughness of a 2-inch thick A387 Grade 22 plate by showing the resultant “shift” in the transition curve.8 Hours 1350ºF .4 hours count for any subsequent weld repairs that may be made during the life of the vessel. The number of 2" Plate – Test Temperature (ºF) cycles applied to the tests representing the plates usually will ac- As N+T 1275ºF . Temperatures on N & T A387-11 84 82 80 Tensile (ksi) 1250ºF + 1350ºF + 1200ºF . In Figure 26. the effects of the extended heat treatment on toughness Normalized and Tempered & PWHT 1325ºF for 20 hours.-lb. as PWHT temperatures and hold times are increased. In lieu of step cooling. This is il- lustrated in Figure 22. this shift. due to the coarsening of carbides at the grain boundaries as shown in the Normalized and Tempered photomicrographs (Figure 23) is more than is normally encountered when evaluating for temper embrittlement.6 hrs 78 76 Cl.Step-cooling simulations performed are to determine the steel’s Figure 22 susceptibility to temper embrittlement. ArcelorMittal will perform The Effect of PWHT on N & T A387-22 stepcooling treatment and meet commonly specified requirements that limit the amount of shift in the 40 ft. The differences are sometimes not apparent but the com- bination of such increases to accommodate either hardened HAZ’s or to address reheat cracking concerns is evident in Figure 25. a common request from design engineers. transition tempera- ture. Figure 23 Grain Boundary Embrittlement A387-22 Extensive stress relief treatments are also found to have a dramatic deleterious influence on notch-toughness in A387 steels. Coalescence of carbides in grain boundaries of A387-22 after excessive exposure to time-temperature. Looking back on the step-cooled data from Grade 22. lbs. Extended 0 time at the PWHT stabilizes and softens the microstructure of the -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 as-welded heat affected zone after fabrication. one measure of the severity of a particular PWHT cycle is the Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP). What is also demonstrated is the improvement in resistance to PWHT property degradation with quenched and tempered Grade 11. the ability of the chemistry of each grade to achieve the tensile strength requirements of the specification is limited.-lb.-lb.6 hrs 1300ºF . 160 120 Post Weld Heat Treatment ( PWHT) 80 End users and fabricators typically impose various post-weld heat- treatment (stress relief) requirements when specifying A387 steels 40 T40 = 43º that are driven by the applicable ASME construction code. par- ticularly when using normalize and temper heat treatment. The effect of ex- tended stress relief on Grade 11 is illustrated in Figure 24 and shows the drop in tensile strength by increasing the normal tempering temperature and PWHT by 100ºF. CVN transition tem. As footnoted earlier. Figure 24 Figure 27 shows the microstructural damage that progresses with The Effect of a 100ºF Increase in Tempering increasing LMP. transition tempera- ture is 43ºF as the result of a PWHT cycle of 1350ºF for 4 hours. However. In this example. 2 Min Tensile 74 33 34 35 36 37 38 Larson-Miller Parameter Pressure Vessel – Page 8 . the shift in the 40 ft. as contained in API 934A. showing the increase in 40 ft. are illustrated. 240 perature (ΔTT40).

5 36 36. 32. Microstructural Effects of Time-Temperature in N+T As toughness requirements become even more restrictive.5 38 38. 4 Hrs.08 Pressure Vessel – Page 9 .40 34. when the steel is produced with Fineline® processing. especially for Grade 11. 31. It is clear that for test temperatures below 0ºF.5 35 35. 33.00 Ultrasonic Quality A387 plates to 6-inches thick and over 50.5 37 37.46 1 strength levels are also being specified. For plates thicker than 6 inches.6 hrs -20 -40 1350ºF + ArcelorMittal’s experience is that loss of toughness as the result 1300ºF . Figure 25 Figure 28 Time Temperature Parameter . please inquire. particularly when quench and tempered heat treatment is specified. Figure 28 illustrates the reduction in 34 35 36 37 38 39 overall absorbed energy for Grade 11 that is subjected to increas- ing time-temperature (LMP) as a function of percentage loss and Total Larson-Miller Parameter test temperature.34 37.86 LMP 36. To improve performance.70 36. making it even more difficult to achieve minimum requirements when sub-zero impact test temperatures are required. Percentage Loss of Original CVN Toughness with Illustrative Example Increasing PWHT After Initial N + T as f(test Past Practice Current Trends temperature): A387-11 2" Plate 1250ºF for 1 hour tempering 1350ºF for 1 hour tempering 100 + + 90 1200ºF for 6 hours PWHT 1300ºF for 6 hours PWHT 80 -20ºF The combination of tempering and PWHT = 0º 70 +40ºF 34.94 LMP 60 -40ºF 50 % Loss 40 30 Figure 26 20 The Effect of LMP on Toughness of A387-11 10 0 80 34. 1 Hr.18 35.38 35.000 pounds can be ordered to meet the requirements of A578 Level C. the A387-11 PWHT cycle will dictate that plates will need to be quenched and 1160ºF 1275ºF 1340ºF tempered to maintain toughness as well as strength. N+T Q+T the degradation of toughness is accelerated. something that is becoming more Figure 27 prevalent in the industry. higher PWHT temperatures are be- 1/2 ing specified.91 34. Due to the increasing demand for improved resistance to creep embrittlement and concerns for reheat cracking.5 60 LMP 40 Ft-lb Transition Temp (F) 40 -40ºF -20ºF 0ºF +40ºF 20 1250ºF + 0 1200ºF . Class Hr.6 hrs of extended PWHT time and temperature is also dependent on -60 -80 the CVN test temperature. This allows lower carbon and CE levels to be achieved.

D. “HIC Testing of A516 Grade 70 Steels. D. 3. B.com www. Gulya. February 1986 1. Welding Re.Metal Properties of ASTM A516 Steel”. port RPR 86-1. April 1993 4. ASME PVP Vol. “The Effect of PWHT on Normalized Base. “Properties and Behavior of Modern A387 Cr. Vol. May 2003 For more information. ASTM STP 755.” R. MPC-ASME Symposium “Advanced Materials for Pressure Vessel Service with Hydrogen at High Tem- peratures and Pressures.shick@arcelormittal. Kenneth E. Swift. “Effects of Composition and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of 300 mm gauge 2. However. Wilson. G. “Tougher Steels Improve Pressure Vessel Performance. D.” Emil G. In cases where specific properties are desired.” E. May 1981 plied may not apply in all situations. please contact Jerry Shick at A387 Steels +1 610 383 2589 or email: jerry.” June 1982 capabilities. ArcelorMittal USA reserves the right to change its product range at any time without prior notice. Orie and F. ASTM STP 755. characteristics described or im- Meeting. IL 60603-9888 Coatesville. ArcelorMittal reserves the right 3. Houston. “The Effect of Inclusions on the Fracture Properties of A387-22 Steel Plate. ArcelorMittal should be consulted for current information and/or peratures and Pressures.arcelormittal.1/4 Cr – 1 Mo Steel Plate.” J. “Fineline A387-11 Data.com February 2015 . “Improvements of the Mechanical Properties of 1 Cr-1/2 Mo Steel.arcelormittal. Roper.” June 1982 5. Fletcher. A. February 1986 Wilson. Corrosion 99. “Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) Resistance of A516 Grade 70 7. A. Houston.” R. MPC-ASME Symposium “Advanced outdated or obsolete. Gulya. 1976 The information provided herein is based on testing or ArcelorMittal 2. “Fineline A387-11 Data. K. Advanced Materials & Processes. Highway 12 18th Floor 139 Modena Road Burns Harbor.” A. Materials for Pressure Vessel Service with Hydrogen at High Tem. C.com www. Important ence. April 1999. TX 9. E. A. “Evaluation of A387-22 Steel Modified for Improved Toughness. “Performance Characteristics of Special Clean Pressure Ves. Lukens Steel Company Re- A516 Steels port RPR 86-1.” to make changes in practices which may render some information R.com 1. 10. Lukens Steel Company Re- 2.Technical Literature 6.” Swift. IN 46304-9745 Chicago. Hamburg and A. 4.arcelormittal. More Information search Council Bulletin 481. “High Toughness 2-1/4 Cr – 1 Mo Steel for Hydrocarbon Pro. Roper. AIME-TMS Properties of 300 mm gauge 2. Ken Orie and Charles R.” A. 632. Benusa and R. 1982 All information in this brochure is for the purpose of information only. “Effects of Composition and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Plate Steel. API Mid-Year at the time of publication. A. Wilson. Mexico.” R.1/4 Cr – 1 Mo Steel Plate. A. NACE. March 1993. PA 19320-0911 USA USA USA T +1 800 422 9422 T +1 800 422 9422 T +1 800 966 5352 www.Mo Steels. NACE. TX Wilson. R. Hamburg and Alexander D. ASME Petroleum Mechanical Engineers Confer. Fletcher. NACE Corrosion 93. A. Wilson. Swift.” A. Conference “Metallurgy of Vacuum Degassed Steel Products. A. ArcelorMittal USA ArcelorMittal USA ArcelorMittal USA Corporate Office Plate Plate 1 South Dearborn Street ARC Building 250 West U. Mexico City. Swift. J. 1992 Fred B.” J. Orie and 239. D.S. experience and is accurate and realistic to the best of our knowledge cess Pressure Vessels. Gulya. Swift and J. 143. sel Steel Subjected to SSC and HIC Testing”. Paper No. 1982 October 1989 8.” K. A.