Hum an Relations, Vol. 52, No.

8, 1999

Testing the Lon gitudinal Impact of Work
Variables an d Perform an ce Appraisal
Satisfaction on Subsequent Overall Job
Gary Blau 1,2

Using a longitudinal sample of medical technologists (MTs) this study found,
afte r controlling for prior overall job satisfaction, individual difference, and
organization-level variables, that task re sponsibilities and e mployee performance
ap prai sal sat isfac tion sign ifican tly affe cte d subse que nt ove ral l MT job
satisfaction. Ove rall job satisfaction significantly declined for re pe at-responde nts
ove r the 4 -ye a r pe ri od. D at a al so su gge ste d tha t t he im pa ct of tas k
responsibilities on overall job satisfaction can dissipate over time , and that the
supervisor’s role in affecting employee job satisfaction is important. Re sults and
limitations are discusse d.

KEY WORDS: job satisfaction; performance appraisal satisfaction.

Job satisfaction has probably be en the most ofte n re searche d work at-
titude in the organizational be havior lite rature . In his 1976 revie w of job
satisfaction, Locke (1976) note d that his e stimate of 3350 article s on job
satisfaction was conservative . Despite such exte nsive study, many causal re-
lationships conce rning ante cede nts to and conse quence s from job satisfac-
tion are still ope n to question (Cranny, Smith, & Stone , 1992) . More recent
rese arch on ante cedents to job satisfaction has focuse d on broade ning the
the ore tical base of causal factors affe cting job satisfaction, including: dis-
positional e ffe cts (Agho, Muelle r, & Price , 1993; Judge & Hulin, 1993;
Judge , Locke , Durham, & Kluge r, 1998); organizational obstacle s (Brown
& Mitche ll, 1993), and pe rceptual mediators (Carlopio & Gardne r, 1995) .
HRA Departme nt—SBM, Te mple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122.
Re quests fo reprints should be addressed to Gary Blau, HRA Departmen t— SBM, Temple
University, Speakman Hall-# 34, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122. (e-mail: gblau@


0018-7267/99/0800-1099 $16.00/1 Ó 1999 The Tavistock Institute

Work-re lated variable s (e. Agho e t al. 1985) has shown that such immediate or “ proximal ” work-relate d variable s directly im- pact on employe e job satisfaction. Ze itz. A more comprehe nsive study design. & Alle n. Jiang. 1989. The physical- economic approach emphasize d ade quate physical working conditions.g. Cardy.1100 Blau This pape r will continue to broade n the causal base for job satisfaction by conside ring a thus far unte sted ante cedent. Empirical re search (e. 1987). Agho et al. full/part-time employme nt.g. 1993. job change . Noe . 1985). ge nder. This study will also addre ss this issue.. downsizing. Moe ller. 1996) . including an over-reliance on imme diate work variable ante cede nts and ne gle ct of organizatio nal-le ve l variable s (Porter. In addition. i. age . social. perceived control ove r procedures) are conside red to be important for unde rstanding work at- titude s.. Satisfaction with per- . Carlopio & Gardne r. & Platz-Vie no. The nature of work perspective emphasize d e mploye es feeling satisfie d due to mentally challe nging tasks. Gerhart. Smith. accuracy. Howeve r. would consti- tute a more powerful methodological te st for the impact of more proximal work-re lated variable s on ove rall job satisfaction. such as job satisfaction. Smits.e. shift. & Hoy.g. 1993. Be gle y & Czajka. Dwyer. the re has be en le ss atte mpt to first control for the impact of other relevant variable s on job satisfaction. Loher.. 1993. job characte ristics. 1979. prior job satisfaction (Staw & Ross. pe rformance appraisal satisfac- tion. individual differe nce s (e. research on job satisfaction has suffered from re se arch design limitations (Stone .g. Frost & Jamal. to not use more comprehe nsive study designs. workload. Pe rformance appraisal satisfaction has bee n a neglected “ process” sat- isfaction face t which should positive ly impact ove rall job satisfaction. 1990) . Loscocco. individ- ual diffe rence and organization-le vel variable s. and organizational- le vel variable s (e. and nature of work. such as job satisfaction. Porte r (1996) re cently la- mented the ge neral tendency for organizational be havior rese archers studying certain “micro” topics. Pe r- form anc e ap praisa l satisfaction de als with such issue s as e mploye e s ’ e valuating time line ss. marital status.. 1993. 1995. & Ganster. goal se tting proce dure s and fe e dbac k mechanisms (Dobbins. The social approach focuse d on the importance of effective supe rvision and co- hesive work groups. Begley & Czajka. individual diffe rence and organizational-le ve l variable s. prior to assessing the impact of such work-relate d variable s. Locke (1976) note d three major “ schools ” of thought about cause s of job satisfaction: physical-e conomic. 1995. Fox. task responsibilitie s.. Hall. 1986) . & Fitzge rald. Work variable s will significantly impact on subse que nt ove rall job satisfaction beyond controlle d for prior job satisfaction. Therefore the first hypothe sis which this study will test is: Hypothesis 1. 1990. 1990). 1998) .. first controlling for prior job satis- faction.. 1993. Feldman. because these variable s create an immediate and strong situational influence (Davis-Blake & Pfeffer.

1992). and working condi- tions (Spe ctor. Spe ctor. and Glassman (1992) supports this distinction be - twe e n “ outc ome ” vs. the causal impact of prior employe e performance appraisal satisfaction on subsequent ove rall job satis- faction has not been tested. Performance appraisal can affe ct the distributive outcome s (e . such as pay. individual diffe re nce. 1967. Job Satisfaction Surve y (JSS) . work. O ne ’s immediate supe rvisor most ofte n administe rs/ove rsees an e m- ploye e ’s pe rformance appraisal. JDS. Pasmore . and JSS.Testin g th e Lon gitu din al Im pact 1101 formance appraisal is not a specific face t in any validate d multiface t overall job satisfaction scale (e. supervision. The Q uarste in e t al. & Hulin. McAfe e . job security. promotions. subordinate s) can also be involve d (Cardy & Dobbins. (1992) table of situational characte ristics affe cting one ’s ge ne ral job satisfaction close ly corre spon ds to the “ outc ome ” satisfaction face ts found across the JDI. & Read.g. Hackman & O ldham.g. co- workers. Performance appraisal satisfaction will significantly im- pact on subse que nt overall job satisfaction beyond prior job satisfaction. supervision. Job Descriptive Inde x (JDI). 1994). MSQ . customers. promotion. Haldeman. e mployee satisfaction with per- formance appraisal should be positive ly linke d to subse quent satisfaction fac- ets affected by performance appraisal. This leads to the second study hypothesis: Hypothesis 2. 1988. Anderson & Terborg. We iss.. Therefore. JDS. although othe r relevant sources (e. Min- ne sota Satisfa ction Q ue stionn aire ( MSQ ) . 1982) suggests that em- ployee satisfaction with a process positively affe cts e mploye e satisfaction with outcome s base d on that process. bene- fits. 1975. change in work responsibilitie s. and co-worke rs.g. supervision. and work variable s.. Job Diagnostic Surve y (JDS). 1993) . A re cent article on situational occurre nce s affe cting job satisfactio n by Q uarste in. Smith. co-worke rs.. & Shani.g. the Board of Registry of the American Socie ty for Clinical Pathologis ts be gan a longitudina l study of care e r patte rns for re cently . pay. Milkovich. METHOD Sam ple an d Proced ure In 1993. 1969. To the author ’s knowle dge. Pe rformance appraisal issue s fe ll unde r Q uarste in e t al. and JSS all measure “ ou tcom e” satisfaction face ts such as pay. This argument is similar in logic to proce dural justice or “ proce ss” affe cting distributive justice or “ out- comes ” (Folge r. organization-le vel. 1997). The JDI. ’s (1992) table of proce ss-orie nte d situational occurre nce s. promotion. job se curity) an employe e receives (Bretz.. Kendall. 1985) . Dawis . work itse lf. Work redesign re search (e . E ngland. MSQ . “ proce ss” job satisfaction face ts. Francis. & Lofquist.

Wine fie ld & Tigge rman. Howe ver. Matching was done using subje ct social se curity numbe r. some re sponde nts did not answer all items on the surveys. age . The highe r initial and subse que nt subje ct “ mortality” rate ove r time le d to the enclosure of pocke t cale ndars with the surveys to help ensure highe r subje ct response (Harve y. Such a loss in subje cts ove r a 4-ye ar time frame is not uncommon (e. They are re sponsible for the accurate pe rformance of tests that de te rmine the pre se nce or abse nce of disease . the numbe r of response s for e ach variable analysis varie s. shift. and 18% in a rural location. 1995 and 1996.g. Surve ys were sent to the same randomly stratifie d sample of recently graduate d MTs in 1993. Most subje cts had re cently earne d certification as medi- cal te chnologists (MTs) and were thus e mploye d. Information on demographics. and task responsibilitie s data. work variable . In 1994 (Time 2). 60% were not married. Based on a variable numbe r of re- sponde nts in a survey ye ar. with a range from 21 to 55 ye ars old. salary. Although the re were 672 re pe at-responde nts across the four surve ys. 76% were women. in 1996 (Time 4) for 672 of 1156 (58% ) matche d subje cts.. In 1993 (Time 1). mas- te rs. responde nts were aske d not to re- spond to organizational-le ve l.. work force reduction.1102 Blau graduate d medical te chnologists (MTs). and performance appraisal satisfaction were colle cted. 832 of 1156 (72% ) surve ys were returne d by matched subje cts. 1156 (58% ) usable surve ys containing de mo- graphic (i. 63% of the sam- . By 1996. inde pe ndent laboratorie s). Finally. while 40% were married. of the 2002 surve ys maile d out. task re sponsibilitie s and overall job satisfaction data were voluntarily returne d. 1976) . 739 of the 1156 (64% ) matche d subje cts voluntarily responde d to the third survey colle cting de mographics. gende r. Colle cting 1993 to 1995 inde pe nde nt variable data and 1996 depe nde nt variable data allows for stronge r causal infe rence (Kimbe rly. 1994. Also. overall job satisfaction and de mo- graphic data were colle cted. MTs work in a laboratory in a va- rie ty of health-re late d se ttings (e . 1990) . or satisfaction ite ms for that surve y year if they were not curre ntly e mploye d in a laboratory. as well as missing data. 1% . hospitals. The basic re quire ment for e ntry into medical te chnology is a baccalaure ate degree and initial training or work expe rie nce in the laboratory. In 1995 (Time 3). 1987) . 23% in a suburban location. At this point the cohort change d to subje cts who initially re sponde d. and 59% worked in an urban location. doctorate ).e . and 4% had advance d de gree s (3% . subje cts were still kept in the sample database in case they became em- ploye d in a laboratory at a later date . schedule . 96% had a baccalaure ate degree ..g. marital status). work force reduction. A 1993 de mographic breakdown of the initial sample showed that: me- dian age was 25.

Item re sponse s were made using a 4-point format. 1990) is measure d by asking about . 1995) . age ). This change from 1994 to 1995 for downsizing (M = 1. 1980) than the routine tasks scale (Ludlow. which MTs pe rform (Rudman. Su rvey Item s Individua l Difference Variables. whe re 1 = ye s (18% ) and 2 = no (82% ). Subje cts were asked in 1994 (Time 2) and 1995 (Time 3) about employme nt perceptions using two items: “ did your institution downsize ? ” (1 = yes. p < . 3 = some time s. and 62% indicate d no reduction..88. “ colle ct and prepare specimens ” ) to comple x (e. Items within each factor were summe d to create Rou tin e Tasks and Com plex Tasks scale s. 2 = no) (Institu tion Down size).Testin g th e Lon gitu din al Im pact 1103 ple were marrie d. and 2 = part-time (11% ). while schedule was 1 = full-time (89% ).01] . 2 = male ) and Marital Status was indicate d as 1 = not married. and 61% indicate d no downsizing. In 1994. Shift was measure d as 1 = day (51% ). where 1 = never. 2 = rarely. is base d on se lf-reporte d hourly income code d to the neare st dollar.g. 2 = no) (Lab Reduction). in 1994. routine tasks (nine ite ms) and comple x tasks (18 items)(Ludlow. “ re cognize normal and abnormal value s” . p < . G ender was reporte d (1 = fe male . at 1993 (Time 1). “ e s- tablish te chnical proce dure s” .g. In 1995. Lunz. in pre ss). Wage (in 1995 or Time 3). in press. This change from 1994 to 1995 for staff re duction (M = 1. Task responsibilitie s data were colle cted in 1993 (Time 1) and 1995 (Time 3). and 4 = fre quently... Job change was measure d by asking “ did you change jobs during 1995? ” . For lab staff re duction. Shift. Schedule and Job Chan ge data were colle cted. 46% reporte d re ductions and 54% said no. Perform ance Appraisal Satisfaction (At 1994 or Tim e 2). & Summe rs. Age is base d on subje cts’ filling in the ir ye ar of birth. 39% of re sponde nts re porte d that the ir institu- tion downsize d. and 2 = nonday (49% ). 49% in- dicate d downsizing and 51% said no. 2 = marrie d. The com- plex tasks scale contains tasks which are highe r on pe rceive d job scope (Hackman & O ldham. “ pe rforms routine laboratory te sts” . The othe r demographics e ithe r re maine d stable or in- creased as e xpe cted (e. Organizational-Leve l Variables. t(597) = 3. while in 1995. “ purchase re age nts ” ). Performance appraisal satisfaction (Dobbins et al. and “ was the numbe r of laboratory pe rsonne l re duce d? ” (1 = yes. 38% indicate d there were reductions..01. Work Variables.57) was significant..65¯ 1. 1995) . [t(600) = 4.54) was significant. Task responsibilitie s were identifie d using 30 items comprise d of laboratory tasks ranging from routine (e .66 to 1. This information was transforme d to the individual ’s age in 1993.26. while in 1995.g. “ trouble shoot lab instrume nts ” . Factor analysis identifie d two factors. Rudman e t al.

and 4 = very satisfie d. as is ofte n done with multiface ted scale s such as the MSQ . . fe edback) . 2 = some what satisfie d. co- workers. Based on the se repeat-responde nts.20.62. and the work itself.27) . The othe r significant positive correlate s to 1996 overall job satisfaction are 1993 age . setting goals.52) to 1996 (M = 41. which sup- ports the construct validitie s of the two task re sponsibilitie s scale s (Camp- bell & Fiske. marital status. RESULTS Means. the numbe r of re sponse s for e ach corre lation analysis varie s. which asks about the outcome face ts of pay.40) . while 1995 routine tasks was negative ly re lated. Tim e 4). proce dures. Adding satisfaction outcome face ts toge the r. Due to missing data and sample size fluc- tuations across surve y years. Overall job satisfaction is measure d using Hackman and O ldham ’s (1975) 15-ite m scale . and a significant mean in- crease in perceived comple x tasks from 1993 (M = 29. the re was a sig- nificant mean de crease in ove rall job satisfaction from 1993 (M = 46. in- stitution downsize . or JDS. This is supporte d by the above -mentione d significant mean de crease in re pe at-responde nt overall job satisfaction from 1993 to 1996. re liabilitie s and corre lations of continuous variable s are reporte d in Table I. Item re sponse s were made using a 4-point format. . t(586) = 13. shift. 3 = satisfie d. 1959) . and . and 631 re pe at-responde nts on 1993 and 1995 comple x tasks. 3 = agre e.32. whe re 1 = strongly disagre e. had internal consiste ncies of at least . JDI. 1997) . Response s were made on a 4-point scale . supe rvision.34 be twee n 1993 and 1996 ove rall job satisfaction sugge sts that MT satisfaction is not ve ry stable over the 4 years. t(630) = ¯ 12.20) to 1995 (M = 33. can re pre se nt ove rall job satisfaction (Wanous. Correlations are not reporte d for gende r. and 4 = strongly agre e . Overall job satisfaction (At 1993. since the se variable s are cate gorical. and job change . standard de viations. whe re 0 = not available .60) tasks vs. Corre lation re sults include stronge r positive re lationships be twe e n 1993 and 1995 routine -routine (.01. There were 587 re pe at-responde nts on 1993 and 1996 overall job satisfaction. p < . Multi-ite m scale s.01. lab re duction. p < . The correlation of only .70 using Cron- bach ’s alpha (Nunnally. Reichers. Tim e 1. 1996. 1978) . job security. 2 = disagre e . & Hudy. .26.68) . 1994 performance appraisal satisfaction and 1995 comple x tasks and wage . sche dule . 1 = not satisfie d. mixed routine -comple x task combinations (.49) and comple x-comple x (. with the exception of 1995 routine tasks (.88) .1104 Blau subje ct satisfaction with four proce ss characte ristics of the ir pe rformance appraisals (time line ss. The correlations with 1995 wage sugge st that olde r MTs who do more comple x tasks earn more mone y.26.

07 .03 ¯ .16** (NA) Measured in 1996 9.01 (two-tailed)].5 ¯ .34** . Table I. *p < .10* (NA) 3.3 (.6 . and Correlations of Continuous V ariables (N = 495¯ 903) Variable s M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Measured in 1993 1.05 ¯ .26** .05 (two-tailed).17** .20** .8 3.0 7.7 . Comple x Tasks b 33.02 (. **p < .9 7.89) Measured in 1994 5.11* . Wage d 14. c Coefficient alpha.04 . Age 27. Routine Tasks 30.01 . Overall Job Satisfaction a 41.91) Measured in 1995 6. Comple x Taskb 29. b Significant diffe re nce for N = 631 repe at-responde nts on Complex Tasks [t(630) = ¯ 12.32** (.62. Perf Appraisal Satisfaction 9. Means.1 .03 .27** (.6 .08 .03 (.4 7. p < .68) 7.4 .60** . Overall Job Satisfaction a 46.04 .5 .01 (two-tailed).10* . NA = not applicable.11* (.49** . d Reported as nearest $/h.18** . Standard Deviations.6 3.02 (.01 (two-taile d)]. Routine Tasks 31.11* ¯ .85) a Significant diffe re nce for N = 587 repe at-responde nts on Overall Job Satisfaction [t(586) = 13. p < .90) 8.6 6. 1105 .6 8.26.7 3.01 .70) 4.12* ¯ .01 .86) c Testin g th e Lon gitu din al Im pact 2. Re liabilities.0 3.16** .10* .06 .24** ¯ .03 .20** .23** ¯ .4 .

and demographic ite ms. while for the ne w group it was 41. This differe nce le aves 26 “ ne w” MTs who fille d out the 1996 overall job satisfaction scale .79. individual diffe re nce . Staw & Ross.1106 Blau Additional analyse s were conducte d to test for the significant de cline in repeat-re sponde nt ove rall job satisfaction be ing “ re al” as oppose d to a function of sample mortality. The repeat- responde nt 1996 job satisfaction mean was 41.88. these additional analyse s support the significant decline in re pe at-responde nt 1993/1996 job satisfaction as being legitimate . The re were 613 MTs who fille d out the 1996 job satisfaction scale.] The 636 continuing re sponde nts had a mean of 46. The results are shown in Table II.e . these 26 MTs were not e mploye d in a laboratory setting so the y did not fill out the 1993 overall job satisfaction scale .60.58. 636 MTs also re sponde d to the 1996 ge neral survey while 456 MTs did not. certification.. p > . An inde pende nt sam- ples t-te st comparison betwee n the re pe at-re sponde nt (N = 587) vs.32 while the 456 “ drop outs ” had a mean of 45. but not the 1996 job sat- isfaction scale . the n organizati on-le ve l variable s. O f these 1092. The large r gene ral surve y N of 636 is be cause subje cts who were not e mploye d in the laboratory in 1996 would have fille d out basic em- ployme nt. (i.27.. O f the se 636 MTs who participate d in the 1996 general survey. The orde r of subse que nt variable block en- try. An inde pende nt sample s t-te st comparison be tween these two groups on 1993 overall job satisfaction was non-significant [t(1090) = ¯ 1. 1985) .e. i. as note d above there were N = 587 “ matche s” on 1993 and 1996 overall job satis- faction. t(611) = . Colle ctively. the longitudinal impact of work variable s (H1) and performance appraisal sat- isfaction (H2) on subse quent overall job satisfaction beyond controlle d-for variable s. First. . be fore te sting for the impact of work variable s (H1). and the n also controlling for work variable s before testing for performance appraisal satisfaction (H2). Controlling for prior overall job satisfaction also create d a more rigorous te st by “ forcing ” performance appraisal satisfaction to transce nd the general influe nce of prior overall job satisfaction on sub- seque nt overall job satisfaction. p > . for the 1993 sample the re were 1092 MTs who comple ted the 1993 overall job satisfaction scale . 1987. This nonsignificant 1993 job satisfaction diffe r- ence be tween continuing re sponde nts and drop-outs at le ast indicate s that the continuing responde nts did not start out in the longitudinal study more “ unhappy ” than those subje cts who at le ast te mporarily droppe d out of the sample . Hierarchical regre ssion was use d to te st the two study hypothe ses. Prior ove rall job satisfaction is e ntered first to control for a pote ntial dispositional influe nce (Gerhart.50.11. new (N = 26) groups was non-significant. In 1993. only unhappy MTs responding) . of which 587 were re pe at-re sponde nts from 1993. rathe r than due to sample mortality.

04 Lab reduction (T3) . 1993 overall job satisfaction and age .11* Step four total . and 1994 pe rformance appraisal satisfaction have significant positive be ta value s.07 Routine tasks (T3) ¯ ..08 Age (T1 ) .78** a T1 = Time 1 (1993) . Individual Difference.16** satisfaction (T2 ) Step five total .260 .018* 10.072* . Hie rarchical Regressio n Te sting for the Impact of Prior Overall Job Satisfaction.02* .Testin g th e Lon gitu din al Im pact 1107 Table II.044* 7.12* Sche dule (T3 ) .04 Job Change (T3 ) . Organizational-Level.59** Step five Performance appraisal .259 . Work V ariables and Pe rformance Appraisal Satisfaction on 1996 (Time 4) Subse quent Ove rall Job Satisfaction Change Overall Predictors B R2 Adj R2 R2 Adj R2 F Prior ove rall job satisfaction (T1) a . Spe ctor.116 . each variable block. refle cts a more distal to proximal orde ring of job satisfaction ante cedents (Cranny et al. the ir job satisfaction in- .237 .49** Work variables Routine tasks (T1) ¯ .05.34** Step one total . In addition. The positive relationship betwee n lab reduction and job satisfaction indicate s that if MTs pe rceive no work force re duction.01 Step three total .064* 6.173 .136 .02 Lab reduction (T2) .18** Shift (T3 ) ¯ .01.286 . afte r prior (Time 1) overall job satisfaction.58** Organization-level variables Institution downsize (T2) . 1995 lab re duction has a significant posi- tive be ta value .06 Institution downsize (T3) . explaine d a significant amount of subse quent (Time 4) ove rall job satisfaction variance . As the change in R2 value s show.027* . T2 = Time 2 (1994).74** Individual difference variables Gende r (T1) .02 Complex tasks (T1) . Within each block and consiste nt with the correlations in Table I.06 Step two total . **p < .129 . 1992.051* . while 1995 routine tasks has a significant negative beta value .187 .10* Marital status (T1 ) .111 43.19* Wage (T3) .023* 6. 1995 wage and comple x tasks. T3 = Time 3 (1995) . while 1995 shift has a significant negative be ta value . *p < . 1997) .10* Complex tasks (T3) .

1987) .. within this situational impact. p. Ye t 1993 comple x and routine tasks were significantly re late d to 1993 overall job satisfaction.. beyond controlle d for prior job satisfaction (Gerhart. “ large ly associate d with specific and tangible aspe cts of the work e nvironme nt.1108 Blau creases. Staw & Ross. The significant impact of laboratory reduction and shift on subseque nt overall job satisfaction supports Porte r’s (1996) call for more compre he nsive rese arch designs whe n studying “ micro” variable s such as job satisfaction. howe ve r. Additional analyse s supporte d the significant decline in ove rall MT job satisfaction betwee n 1993 to 1996 as be ing more “ re al” than due to sample mortality. In comparing job satisfaction to organ- izational commitment. supports Porter et al. the se re sults sugge st that the e ffe ct of perceived task responsibilitie s on e mploye e job satisfaction may “ wear off ” ove r time (Roberts & Glick. 1987. & Boulian (1974. Porter. O the r longitudinal re search whe re job satisfaction measure s are separate d by at least four years (e. 1996 MT overall job satisfaction be ing influe nce d by 1995 laboratory re- duction. Gerhart.. 1981) . 608) spe culate d that job satisfaction was a more “ rapidly formed ” and “ transi- tory” work attitude . Ste ers. (1974) discusse d. As a more conse rvative e stimate of variance explaine d.g.g. as well as the some what “ mode st” corre lation of . and wage variable s would see m to reflect the “ spe cific and tangible ” work environme nt aspe cts which Porte r et al. The time “ gap ” betwee n measure s is one e xplanation for the nonsignificant re- lationship be tween 1993 task responsibilitie s and 1996 ove rall job satisfac- tion.34 be tween job satisfaction measure s se parate d by four years. 26% (Adjuste d R2 ) of 1996 overall job satisfaction was explaine d and both study hypothe se s were supporte d.” The pote ntial dissipation of task characte ristic effects on job satisfac- tion over time. task responsibilitie s. The present results sugge st that such a job satisfaction de cline . 1985) has found a similar size correlation versus re search (e . 1995 but not 1993 comple x and routine tasks affe cted 1996 ove rall job satisfaction. A lte rnative ly. 1994) . DISCUSSION The re sults support a significant situational “ impact ” on subse que nt job satisfaction. since job satisfaction re se arch is prone to se lf- report inflation (Crampton & Wagne r. the adjuste d R2 statistic is more appropriate . 1993) where job satisfaction measure s have a much shorte r time frame separation. Mowday. Pairwise de le tion of missing data capture d more of the ove rall sam- ple (Bateman & Strasse r.’s (1974) characte rization of job satisfaction as a more “ transitory” work at- titude . Agho e t al. 1984). Cumulative ly. shift. Howe ver. Listwise deletion results are consiste nt with those shown in Table II.

01) was found for MTs betwe en change in comple x tasks and change in overall job satisfaction. “ colle ct accurate information necessary for making decisions ” ). and goal-se tting. 1991) . job security. The supe rvisor ’s role in affe cting ove rall employe e job satisfaction (Locke .e. 1991. . Employe e sat- isfaction with the pe rformance appraisal process is logically relate d to the perceived “ fairne ss” of this proce ss (Organ. 850). (i. To the e xtent that MT supervisors influe nce the assignme nt of task re sponsi- bilitie s via delegation (Baue r & Gree n.” base d on the e mploye e ’s be lie f in a fair e valuation proce ss. Such a belief helps to e nhance the appraisal proce ss¯ dese rve d outcome s linkage for an employe e (Bre tz e t al. (e.. procedure s).. “ your supe rvisor conside red your vie wpoint ” ) (Moorman. such as pay.g. subordinate MT re action to task assignme nt se ems important for supe rvisors to monitor..e . Perhaps the positive ap- praisal satisfaction¯ overall job satisfaction re lationship found can be con- ce ptual ize d as re pre se ntin g a “ focuse d ” ap plic ation of the positive proce dural/inte raction justice to job satisfaction re lationship (Moorman. 1996) . Employe e satisfaction with per- formance appraisal spe cifically focuse s on fairne ss associate d with the ap- praisal.g. satisfaction de crease d. performance appraisal satisfaction see ms to be an important “ proce ss” sat- isfaction facet affe cting composite “ outcome ” satisfaction facets. 1988) . and othe r working conditions. such that as perceived comple x tasks de creased. Procedural/inte raction justice measure s the gen eral degre e to which fair (satisfactory. The laboratory staff re duction variable re pre se nts a more “ finely tune d ” measure than the nonsignificant “ gene ral” institutional downsizing variable . O rgan. A correlation of .. Job loss re search (e. Eve n if an e mploye e re ceive s le ss than what is e xpe cted from an appraisal. Despite the increase in mean le ve l of pe rceive d comple x tasks from 1993 to 1995. p. (e . (i. 1988) . If the appraisal process imple mented by one ’s su- pervisor is pe rceive d as satisfactory.. 1993) . s/he can re act by saying “ I’ll show them for next time. 1988) supports this finding. the key to an adve rse e mploye e re action to such outcome negativity is the process (Folge r.g. As such. This comparative finding points out that researchers need to conside r the “ scope of the construct ” (Adler & Weiss.19 (p < . 1988) formal proce dure s are use d by the organi- zation.. as well as how procedure s are carried out. Le ana & Feldman.Testin g th e Lon gitu din al Im pact 1109 is at le ast partially due to the incre ase in pe rceive d laboratory staff re duc- tions. 1988) the y are measuring. 1992) . time line ss. work itse lf. procedural fairne ss or satis- faction) (Organ. fe edback. 28% of the MTs indicate d that the ir le ve l of comple x tasks had droppe d betwe en 1993 and 1995. While an employe e may be unhappy with the outcome s received based on an appraisal. this positive ly affe cts overall employe e job satisfaction. 1976) is also supporte d by the significant influe nce found for 1994 performance appraisal satisfaction on 1996 overall job satisfaction.

French. Prussia. Caranikas-Walke r. with successful delegation-pe rformance (leade r¯ membe r) interactions (Baue r & Green. this variable was re stricted by its ope rationalization. furthe r re se arch on the ante cede nts of job satisfaction se ems warrante d. more spe cific de tails on the pe rformanc e appraisal syste ms be ing use d could not be gathe red. this finding supports the call for in- crease d rate r appraisal training and rate r accountability within organiza- tions ( Bre tz e t al.e. and job change dichotomous variable s on job satisfaction. Pe r- haps by supple menting this measure with a pe rceptual variable . 1975) . including: turnove r (Hom. Frank. give n the dive rsity of organizations sample d. Me ro & Motowidlo. and organizational citize nship be havior (O r- gan & Ryan. Recent re se arch show- ing the de velopme nt of highe r-leve l le ade r¯ membe r e xchange to be a trust- building proce ss. 1995) . & Coope r. Harrison. 1995) . Al- though 1995 laboratory re duction was found to have a significant impact on job satisfaction.. The sample characte ristics of being predominantly full-time fe male . . family satisfaction. prese nts ide as for strengthe ning such an employe e belief. Russe ll. no dispositional variable s were dire ctly meas- ured (Judge e t al. Also. & Griffeth.g. 1992. but these were not include d in this study. the relationship be tween e mploye e pe rformance appraisal satisfaction and subse quent overall job satisfaction highlights the nee d for supe rvisors to enhance employe e belief in a fair e valuation process. abse nce (Dalton & Me sch. We ekley.g. & Pinne au. Cobb. limite d the impact of the gende r. In addition. and that it is important for supe rvisors to be aware of e mploye e reactions to their task de legation e fforts. as well as nonwork variable s (e. Frone. Pe te rs. From a practical standpoi nt. despite the large sample size and more comprehensive research design. i. this study has presente d evide nce that the effe cts of perceived task re sponsibilitie s on subse que nt overall job satisfaction may dissipate . & Erenkrantz. 1994) . 1996) . with little job change . 1994) . Fore most. Pe rceived resource constraints (e .. 1992) .. stronge r re- sults could have bee n found. job insecurity (Caplan. inade quate equipme nt) can also impact on job satisfaction (O ’Connor. late ne ss (Blau. 1991) . Although measuring prior job satisfaction controls for a dispositional influe nce on job satisfaction.. 1984) . To summarize . give n that job satisfaction has bee n found to be an important ante ce dent affe cting a numbe r of be haviors. despite its limitations. The nature of the sample .1110 Blau It is important to note various limitations of this study. From a re se arch pe rspective . schedule . Pooyan. variable ope rationalization and omitte d variable s are partial explanations for this. only 26% of the variance in ove rall job satisfaction was explaine d.. 1998) .

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