2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA

Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6-10, 2013

Wheel Transformer: A Miniaturized Terrain Adaptive Robot with
Passively Transformed Wheels
Yoo-Seok Kim, Student Member, IEEE, Gwang-Pil Jung, Student Member, IEEE, Haan Kim,
Kyu-Jin Cho, Member, IEEE and Chong-Nam Chu

Abstract— A small mobile robot that uses round wheels has a
stable ride ability on flat surfaces, but the robot cannot climb
an obstacle whose height is greater than the length of its wheel
radius. As an alternative, legged-wheel robots have been
proposed for their better climbing performance. However, such
legged-wheel robots have a poor driving performance on flat
surfaces since their center of mass is vertically changed.
Transformable wheels are used to make the robot drive with
round wheels on flat surfaces and climb an obstacle with
legged-wheels. However, the design of previously developed
transformable wheels is complicated because it needs actuators
for the transformation. Thus, it is not suitable for small robots.
In this paper, a simple robot platform called Wheel
Transformer that uses a new kind of transformable wheel is
described. The transformation process is passively operated by
an external frictional force, so it does not need any actuators.
We fabricate the transformable wheel as well as the robot
platform based on analysis of transformation mechanism. The
robot can climb an obstacle whose height is 2.6 times greater
than its wheel radius.
Fig. 1. Wheel Transformer, a miniaturized terrain adaptive robot with
I. INTRODUCTION passively transformed wheel.

A small robot can reach the places which humans find obstacle whose height is greater than the length of its legs.
hard to reach such as a collapse-endangered building. In such Mini-Whegs can also climb an obstacle greater than the
places, many small robots are particularly used for length of its legs [6]. RHex uses semi-circular shaped legged-
surveillance purpose and search and rescue missions (SAR) wheels and open loop control to climb stairs across a variety
[1]. In SAR missions, the cooperation of small robots using a of stair geometries [7] [8]. However, all legged-wheel mobile
swarm robotic system is useful [2]. However, a small mobile robots may have rough rides on flat surfaces due to the
robot that uses round wheels has limited climbing vertical displacement of their centers of mass. To solve this
performance because most man-made obstacles are relatively problem, Whegs walks using a tripod gait [4] [5] and Mini-
larger than the size of the small robot. Furthermore, a round- Whegs also uses four legs in an alternating diagonal gait [6].
wheeled robot cannot climb an obstacle taller than its wheel The design concept of a transformable wheel is terrain
radius because the contact point between an obstacle and a adaptiveness. It means that a transformable wheel keeps a
wheel is not placed above the center of the wheel and thus it round shape when the robots move on flat surfaces and
cannot generate sufficient torque to climb. For example, the transforms to a legged-wheel when the robots encounter an
robots in the Alice series that use round wheels have obstacle. In other words, a transformable wheel takes
difficulty in moving over a complex terrain [3]. advantages of both round wheel and legged-wheel. Usually,
Previously, many different types of legged–wheel mobile the transformation process is operated by an additional
robots have been proposed as an alternative because of their actuator. One example is Quattroped [9]. It uses
better climbing performance. Biologically inspired hexapod transformable wheels that directly change their morphology
robot called Whegs has been designed based on the of the wheels into two degrees-of-freedom legs. However, it
cockroach’s walking gait [4] [5]. Whegs is able to climb an needs additional servo motors for active transformation at
four wheels and it makes robot design and control algorithm
become complex.
*Research supported by the National Research Foundation of
Korea(NRF). (No. 2012-0000348) In small robots, the number of usable robotic components
Y. Kim, G. Jung, H. Kim and K. Cho are with the School of Mechanical is limited because of their size, thus a simple design is
and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak 1 Gwanak- important. A complex design will increase the robot size and
ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea (e-mail: yooseokteam@snu.ac.kr;
gwangpiljung@gmail.com; khn86@snu.ac.kr; kjcho@snu.ac.kr)
complexity of control algorithm. Specifically in SAR
C. Chu is with School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul missions, simplicity of robot design is critical since swarm
National University, Gwanak 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, robotic system that consists of small robots is needed in SAR
Korea (phone: +82-2-880-7147; fax: +82-2-887-7259; email: missions. For example, many small robots will be spread to

978-1-4673-5642-8/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE 5605

The asymmetric pins and slides arrangement. since external forces should cause asymmetrically place the pins and slides at the legs and the this passive transformation. Thus. The feature of the transformable wheel. When the slide rotates the pin. 2). Furthermore. Pins and slides could be placed on the legs Slide at t he for ce T rigger leg or the force transmitter. 5606 . Wheel Transformer. legs are unfolded. 3(b)) is not suitable for Therefore. Fig. the slide driving system (Fig. In the following sections. 3(b) shows the slide driving system. Wheel Transformer employs two dc T he front T he back motors to drive two transformable wheels and it can change its moving direction without additional servo motors. Furthermore. so the rotating force of the slide cannot have an effect on the desirable path of the pin. 4. All three legs are linked to each other to make one arrow3 and arrow4 at the start and end point of rotation is 90 degree-of-freedom by pin and slide linkage system. II. the the pin driving system is about 20 Nmm. 2. 3(a). As indicated B. if the trigger leg is rotated. The rotating mechanism in the pin and slide linkage system: (a) The There are two design issues in the transformable wheel: a pin driving system. for a simple robot design. called the trigger leg. Group food retrieval in some ant species is already investigated as a role T rigger leg model of multi-robot collective transport strategies in this viewpoint [10]. we also rotated. Therefore. A simple robot platform. 3(a) shows the pin driving t ransmit t er system and Fig. arrow4 is perpendicular to arrow3. 5). is not the same as the other two. (b) The slide driving system. Pin and slide arrangement in the graph. TRANSFORMABLE WHEEL DESIGN A. Features of the transformable wheel The transformable wheel consists of five components – the wheel-base. one degree-of-freedom transformation and a small trigger force. We will also provide a passive transformation process the robot adopts to climb an obstacle. points (Fig. Because the Slides at t he legs transformation rate is its maximum when the angle between Fig. Fig. We will conclude with discussion about the performance of our transformable wheel and robot platform. an initial contact point is placed where the angle between arrow1 and arrow2 is less than 90 degrees. arrow1 indicates the rotating force of the pin and arrow2 indicates the desirable path of the slide. degrees. we will report on the design. 4) (see video). the simplest design with a low number of usable robotic components that provides the robot with necessary functions is an additional goal of this paper. it can avoid the rough ride on flat surfaces and improve the climbing ability. Thus. the three legs and the force transmitter (Fig. in Fig. Sequentially. However the trigger leg also rotates the force transmitter. The role of the wheel- base is to place the other components in the right position and to fix the wheel to the motor axle. The force transmitter contains one slide and two pins and it links the three legs. a necessary trigger torque for transformation in When an external trigger force rotates the trigger leg. which uses transformable wheels. all three 120 Nmm. Fig. In comparison. When the pin rotates the slide. 1). modeling. arrow3 indicates the desirable path of the pin and arrow4 indicates the rotating force of the slide. leg Force t ransmit t er W heel. the trigger leg has a pin and the other two legs have slides. manufacturing and performance of the transformable wheel in more detail. the necessary trigger torque in the slide driving system is about force transmitter also rotates other two legs and then. the necessary trigger force should force transmitter so that the pin rotates the slide at all three be small. A simulated result (performed by Recurdyne) also shows the same result (Fig. 3(b). Wheel Transformer (Fig. the other two legs are the transformable wheel design. We will present a simple robot platform design. One of the three legs.find something or deliver something together. described in this paper uses two modes: a driving mode with round wheels and a climbing mode with legged-wheels. 3.base the transformation process is passively operated when it encounters an obstacle. In Fig.

0 Time(s) Time(s) (a) (b) Fig. Moreover. so the absence of a A. When the left motor rotates Slide backwards and the right motor rotates forwards. Fig. C.0 0. 7. Transformer uses only two wheels. A schematic sketch of the collision: (a) A collision between the leg force. Slide design for minimum interference A slide bounded by straight lines is not suitable for rotation since the pin path is an arc and it will increase necessary trigger force due to interference between the pin path and the slide path. motor power using PWM method. When only one wheel is transformed during climbing. In the same way. C. Body arc2 The dimensions of Wheel Transformer are determined by a geometric analysis to prevent overturning when it climbs an obstacle. ROBOT PLATFORM DESIGN If the motor rotates very quickly. Suspension ground reaction force is even more critical than in hexapod robots such as Whegs. (b) Arc1 consists of arc3 and acr4 that indicate the half portion of the pin path. Wheel design should be simple for its small size. III. Steering Wheel Transformer can easily change its moving direction Pin since it uses just two wheels. the robot turns its head towards the left. (c) The curvature of boundary arc is Two 7. this is inspired by biological principle.0 0. the robot cannot drive forwards because of that uses the transformable wheels was developed.5 1.2 V lithium polymer batteries were used as power identical with the curvature of the pin path. Thus we used linear springs at the Fig. 100 100 Torque(N•mm) Torque(N•mm) 50 50 0 0 0. A process of slide boundary design: (a) Arc1 indicates the pin path D. the body is tilted in a lateral direction. the repulsive force is so big that all three legs are simultaneously in a non-attachment A very simple robot platform called Wheel Transformer phase. B. a cockroach (a) (b) makes a stable contact by changing its body posture while climbing an obstacle [11]. As a microprocessor. When it comes to body arc3 arc4 flexion. A simulated result of necessary torque for the transformation: (a) The pin driving system. The robot also turns right (d) (c) when the motors rotate in the opposite directions. As a result. the body arc1 could be overturned in a longitudinal direction because it will be tilted while climbing an obstacle. Specifically. Fig. and the ground surface. 5607 . Electronics and arc2 indicates the slide path. center of mass is vertically changed when the robot is in a legged-wheel mode.5 1. 5. In the same way. (b) Non-attachment phase of three legs in same time. 6. The robot communicates with a remote computer by Bluetooth. (b) The slide driving system. the arc boundary comes from the pin path so that the pin smoothly rotates the slide with a small amount of necessary trigger Fig. 6 shows the features of slide whose boundary shape is an arc. so it is possible for it to be overturned. (d) The pin smoothly glides into sources. the body of Wheel Transformer is passively bent because of the weight of its tail so that it makes a stable contact with the upper surface arc3 arc4 of an obstacle. The robot the absence of a ground reaction force. They will make a stable between the leg and the ground surface because the robot’s contact between the legs and terrain. ATmega 128 controls the the slide.0 0. 7 schematically shows the collision occurring motor mount for shock absorption.

Step 1 describes the initial contact state and the frictional forces at Fig. the force transmitter is rotated by on the force transmitter. (a) A schematic sketch in step 1. IV. Actually. Fig. transformation. In the same way. as shown above in fig. Since the transformable wheel does Point A not contain any actuators for transformation.  is the designed angle of the trigger leg. point C also becomes to a flat surface so that it can prevent any slippery movement of the Fig. important roles in Transformation mechanism. We analyzed each step to realize passive Following leg t orsion spring clim bs an obst acle . the contact point between the wheel and an obstacle is a line so it is not a stable contact. point C should not slip while the wheel rotation is continued. Trigger leg is indicated as leg 1. All position in transformation process. That is to say. the 1 legs should start unfolding when the transformable wheel makes contact with the side surface of an obstacle. C. In step 2. mas2 is the moment the trigger leg and the wheel-base so that it folds the trigger arm of slide on the other leg. (b) A schematic sketch in step 2. the frictional force at point B is generated by the vertical reaction force at the same point. 10(a) and (b) – to + and  is a variable which indicates the rotation respectively indicate the initial position and an arbitrary angle of the force transmitter ranging from – to +. map2 is the moment arm of pin leg (Fig. The point A. A schematic process of climbing 2 1 1 Point C 3 The transformable wheel is optimized to climb a vertical 3 3 1 obstacle such as stairs. a frictional force Ver t ical react ion force Ver t ical react ion force is generated by a vertical reaction force at the surface where (a) (b) the contact occurs. TRANSFORMATION MECHANISM st ep 1 st ep 2 2 2 Point B A. 11. 9. point A and point B are converted to flat (c) surfaces. In Fig. which is 45 degrees. The driving force generates reaction force at point B and this 2 2 reaction force also generates frictional force that causes the 1 1 initial unfolded state of the trigger leg. Generally. B and C take point A and point B start to unfold the trigger leg. Point A indicates the contact 3 point between the wheel and the ground surface. A comparison between contact state of a line and a flat surface. A schematic process of climbing. Fig. the largest force is needed at this nadir for transformation. Point B 1 indicates the contact point between the trigger leg and the st ep 3 2 2 2 side surface of an obstacle. 8. A torsion spring is placed at the joint between moment arm of pin on the trigger leg. a indicates the rotation angle of the trigger leg ranging from geometrical analysis was performed. To make the trigger leg unfold. Passive transformation 1 : Unfolding mechanism 1 3 1 D riving force Fig. (c) trigger leg (Fig.5 seconds. 12). st ep 1 st ep 2 2 the wheel goes into its folded state again to drive as a round wheel. an external force is needed to cause the transformation. in a three 3 3 dimensional view. 9(a) and (b) show a schematic sketch in the step 1 3 Frict ional force and 2. Sequentially. map1 is the flat surfaces. Point C indicates the end part of 3 Folding due t o the trigger leg. the y value remains 0 until  = -26 degrees because the trigger leg rotates without any contact point with the force transmitter. The ratio has the smallest value at  = 0 degree. frictional forces at Frict ional force point A and point B are essential. Thus. 5(a). the driving force is generated by motor torque. At point A. To make a Frict ion zone Frict ion zone stable contact. Passive transformation 2 : Folding mechanism (1) After the robot climbs an obstacle. 9(c)). 8 shows a st ep 4 schematic process of climbing. The torque at the joint of components in (1) except r and  are expressed in terms of the leg (T3) is given as . the following leg climbs the obstacle and in step 4. 2 React ion force B. To model the behavior of the transformation mechanism. In step 3. mas1 is should be folded again to make a round wheel for driving on the moment arm of slide on the force transmitter. 11). the transformable wheel where T1 is the torque at the joint of the trigger leg. which indicates that only 10 % of T1 has an effect on T3. so the ratio of T3 to T1 is given as a function of  (Fig. In order to climb the highest obstacle.  is a variable which 5608 . This result is consistent with the tendency of torque reaching its maximum at time = 0.

Since the role of the torsion spring is just as a trigger for folding.6" video). 13. T1 kind of transformable wheel were fabricated (Fig. The width of Wheel (a) (b) Transformer was 190 mm.4" steering is nearly zero. Its dimensions were determined base initial position. T3/T1% Wheel transformer can move using round wheels on flat surfaces and can climb an obstacle with legged–wheels (see 0. The transformation is passively operated by an 0. V. the trigger leg is perfectly folded because of the robot’s own weight when the trigger leg makes a contact with ground surfaces. Folding the transformable wheel using torsion spring.7 V. r θ When it was unfolded. Because only trigger leg can fold all legs. RESULTS A miniaturized terrain adaptive robot with passively transformed wheels called Wheel Transformer and a new Torsion spring T rigger leg Fig. If it starts to fold the trigger leg. All its components were T2 α fabricated using CNC milling machine. it does not need to perfectly fold the trigger leg. trigger leg and also folds the other two legs. 400 mAh per pack) θ (degree) Fig. the radius was 60 mm and m as1 transformation rate was 171 %.5" external trigger force and torsion spring. Fig. just one torsion spring is needed. m ap1 13). The modeling of behavior of the transformation mechanism: (a) The total weight was 350 g. 12. T3 / T 1 0. (b) The position when trigger leg makes first contact on force on geometrical analysis to prevent it from overturning during transmitter. The features of transformable wheel. The joint is the only point where a torsion spring could be placed because only the trigger leg can fold the other two legs using the same mechanism as when it unfolds the other legs. The ratio of T3 to T1. 11. It can climb up to a 90 mm height obstacle (Fig.2" Wheel radius (fold) 35 mm 0. climbing. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS FOR WHEEL TRANSFORMER 0. its length was 210 mm and its Fig. The turning radius during 0. 14).1" Wheel radius (unfold) 60 mm Body size 190 x 210 x 70 mm 0" Body mass 350 g (including batteries and electronics) *45" *35" *25" *15" *5" 5" 15" 25" 35" 45" DC motors DnJ hobby motors x 2 (gear ratio : 1/316) Batteries lithium polymer x 2 (3. 10. The radius of the transformable wheel was 35mm and its α weight was 50 g and the material used was polycarbonate. its spring constant should be as low as possible since it has a negative effect on the transformation when the trigger leg is unfolded by an external force. 1 and Fig. a V-shaped anti- slip rubber pad (Misumi Corporation) was attached at the contacting surface of the wheel. Transformable wheel T3 δ m ap2 was assembled using bolt and screw thread holes on the m as2 wheel-base. Furthermore. 5609 . To increase its frictional force.3" TABLE I.

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