
Stargates
Space Technology & Applications Int’l Forum – 2005
Feb. 1317, 2005, Albuquerque, NM
Session F04. Potential Frontiers Revisited
Eric W. Davis, Ph.D., FBIS
Institute for Advanced Studies at
Austin
4030 W. Braker Lane, Ste. 300
Austin, TX 78759
ph: 5123422187, FAX: 5123463017
ewdavis@earthtech.org, tachyondavis@hotmail.com
U.S. Air Force Teleportation
Physics Study
• Reference:
Davis, E. W. (2004), Teleportation Physics
Study, AFRLPREDTR20030034, Air
Force Research Laboratory, Air Force
Materiel Command, Edwards AFB, CA
vmTeleportation
• Teleportation – engineering the vacuum or
spacetime metric
¾ the conveyance of persons or inanimate objects
across space by altering the properties of the
vacuum electromagnetic (EM) parameters, or by
altering the spacetime metric (geometry)
Puthoff. Maccone. 1999. 2003. 2000) induce a flatspacetime version of the Stargate via engineering the vacuum EM parameters . 1915) • FasterThanLight (FTL) solutions of the Polarizable Vacuum Representation of General Relativity (Davis.Two Kinds of vmTeleportation Identified for the Air Force Study • Traversable Wormhole engineered as a “STARGATE” (via Einstein’s General Relativity Theory field equations. Puthoff.
What are Traversable Wormholes? – pt. which can: ¾ connect together remote regions within our universe ¾ connect together different universes ¾ connect together different space dimensions (for higher dimensional wormholes) ¾ connect together different chronological periods within the same space region (backwards time travel!) . I • Hyperspace tunnels thru spacetime.
cubic shaped.What are Traversable Wormholes? . polyhedral shaped. etc. generic shaped.pt. ¾ flat entry/exit openings are possible – a true STARGATE or flat doorway through spacetime & dimensions! . II • Traversable Wormholes possess: ¾ normal or backwards time flow ¾ normal or nonexistent gravitational stresses on space travelers ¾ entry/exit openings (or throats) that can be made to be spherically shaped.
Traversable Wormholes .
Traversable Wormholes .
Engineering Wormhole Stargates • Specifications: – Travel speed thru tunnel/throat should be << c – Proper time as measured by travelers should not be dilated by relativistic effects – Travelers (made of ordinary matter) must not couple strongly to material that generates wormhole curvature → no tidalgravity forces – No event horizon at wormhole tunnel/throat – No singularity of collapsed massenergy residing at wormhole tunnel/throat .
Engineering WormholeStargates: Exotic/Negative Energy . I • Energy density of material required to create & thread a traversable wormhole must be “negative” – Negative in the sense that “exotic” material must have massenergy ≤ stresstension → this violates the Hawking Ellis energy condition hypotheses → “negative” is just a misnomer – ordinary matter has massenergy > stresstension and obeys the HawkingEllis energy condition hypotheses • Mathematical theorems guarantee that “negative” massenergy is present at wormhole throat • All the energy condition hypotheses have been experimentally tested in the laboratory & experi mentally shown to be false – 25 years before their formulation – further investigation showed that violations of the energy conditions are widespread for ALL forms of classical & quantum matterenergy .pt.
Traversable Wormholes .
II • Examples of energy conditionviolating “exotic” (or “negative”) massenergy: – static radial electric or magnetic fields are borderline exotic if their tension were infinitesimally larger than a given energy density – squeezed states of the electromagnetic field & other squeezed quantum fields – gravitationally squeezed vacuum electromagnetic zero point fluctuations (more about this later) – Casimir (vacuum electromagnetic zero point) energy – other quantum fields/states/effects .Engineering WormholeStargates: Exotic/Negative Energy .pt.
pt. U ≤ −1 degenerate wormholes . U ≤ − 12 ∗ Inequalities mean we exclude 3 − handle. U ≤ 0 2 − handle. g = 2 → χ e = −2. g = 3 → χ e = −4.Engineering WormholeStargates: Exotic/Negative Energy . III • What kind of wormholes can one make with less effort? χe χ e = 2(1 − g ) U ≤ 4 surface energy Euler number g is genus ( number of handles / throat ) GaussBonnet Theorem relating local (WH) G = c =1 geometry (LHS) to the global topological (Euler no. 1 − handle WH ( flat torus or spherical topology ) g = 1 → χ e = 0.) invariant of the spacetime (RHS).
mass of planet Earth .3 ME MJ = 1.6 ME . Mwh 1000 −709.Engineering WormholeStargates: How much negative massenergy is required? Negative Mass Required to Create Wormhole of Given Size Wormhole throat radius.90 x 1027 kg. mass of planet Jupiter ME = 5.1 MJ 1 −0.9 MJ 100 −71 MJ 10 −7.01 −2.1 −22. rthroat (meters) Required mass.976 x 1024 kg.71 MJ 0.
Engineering WormholeStargates: New Data on Negative Mass Energy Requirement • ALL Traversable Wormhole spacetimes now only require arbitrarily small quantities of negative massenergy (Visser. Kar and Dadhich. 2003): ρ = 0 (energy density throughout spacetime) ∫ pr dV → 0 (radial pressure volume integral ) NOTE: Nonlinearity of Einstein field equations dictates that the total massenergy of the wormhole system ≈ 0 .
1995).The Stargate Solution Diagram of a simultaneous view of two remote compact regions (Ω1 and Ω2) of Minkowski space used to create the wormhole throat ∂Ω.. . where time is suppressed in this representation (adapted from Bennett et al.
.The Stargate Solution The same diagram as in previous slide except as viewed by an observer sitting in region Ω1 who looks through the wormhole throat ∂Ω and sees remote region Ω2 (dotted area inside the circle) on the other side.
The Stargate Solution .
1 surface tensions Let wormhole have flat face / throat → ρ1 . ρ 2 = ∞ →→→ σ = 0. assumed ultrastatic wormhole with exotic matter confined to a thin layer. discarded spherical symmetry) σ= − c4 4π G ( 1 ρ1 + 1 ρ2 ) surface energy density θ1. θ1.2 = 0 ←←← .2 = − c4 1 4π G ρ 2 .The Stargate Solution • A traveler encountering a flatface wormhole will feel no tidal forces and see NO exotic massenergy: the traveler will simply be teleported into the other remote spacetime region or another universe (used Einstein junction condition formalism.
WormholeStargate .
WormholeStargate .
WormholeStargate .
ruler lengths. Puthoff (1999.PolarizableVacuum (PV) Representation of General Relativity – pt. in terms of a variable vacuum dielectric constant K in which permittivity ε0 → Kε0 . µ • Treats light speed. permeability µ0 → Kµ0 • Alternative representation of Einstein General Relativity Theory – Physics equivalent to Einstein GR Theory: ¾ important differences in strong gravity field regime ¾ important equivalences in weak gravity field regime . particle masses. gravitational force. energy states. 2000) • PVGR model treats metric changes in terms of equivalent changes in the vacuum EM constants ε . clock frequency. I • H. etc. E.
attractive gravitational force. objects/rulers shrink. Puthoff and Maccone. 2003): – requires negative energy density – total system energy is ≈ 0 (just like for traversable wormholes in GRT) . • K < 1 gives FTL solutions (Davis. light emitted is redshifted towards lower frequencies. etc. lower energy states. II • K is space & time components of spacetime metric • K acts like a vacuum index of refraction • K = 1 in “empty” space • K > 1 for planetary/stellar gravitational potential – speed of light decreases. effective mass increases.PV Representation of General Relativity – pt. clocks run slower.
ε = µ = ( H / T ) 1/ 2 ⎡ 2 ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎤ m c v Ld = − ⎢ 0 0 1 − ⎜ ⎟ + qΦ − qA v i ⎥ δ 3 (r − r0 ) ⎢ K ⎝ 0 c K ⎠ i ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎛ B2 2⎞ c0 4 1 ⎡ ⎛ ∂K ⎞ ⎤ 2 1 − ⎜ − K ε 0E ⎟ − 2 ⎢ (∇K ) − 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎝ K µ0 ⎠ 32π G K ⎢⎣ ( c0 K ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ∂t . III ε = Kε 0 µ = K µ0 → c (= 1/ µ0ε 0 ) → c / K (= 1/ µε ) ds 2 = − K1 c 2 dt 2 + Kdxi dx j g 00 = −1/ K .PV Representation of General Relativity – pt. gij = K . gij = 0 for i ≠ j L = ∫ £ dt = ∫ [− m0 (T − Hv 2 )1/ 2 + eAi v i ] dt .
Thorne & Yurtsever (1988): Construct (spherically symmetric) wormhole using Casimir Effect → construct two closely spaced (10−9 – 10−10 meters).Schemes for Generating Negative Energy – pt. concentric thin electrically charged hollow spheres the size of Earth’s orbit (~ 108 km) to create negative Casimir energy → an engineering nightmare! • E. I • Morris. W. Davis (1997): Generate wormholeinducing ultrahighintensity magnetic field (borderline exotic) by nuclear magneticcompression explosion → prevented by nuclear test ban treaty .
Schemes for Generating Negative Energy – pt. II • Birrell and Davies (1982): A mirror moving with increasing acceleration generates a flux of negative energy that emanates from its surface and flows out into the space ahead of the mirror → this effect is known to be exceedingly small. and it is not the most effective way to generate negative energy .
III • Hochberg & Kephart (1991): Utilize naturally occurring negative vacuum energy densities. which arise from distortion of the vacuum EM Zero Point Fluctuations due to interaction with a gravitational field → gravitationally squeezed ZPF creates negative energy • Magnitude of gravitational squeezing can be estimated from the quantum optics squeezing condition for given transverse momentum and (equivalent) energy eigenvalues ( j ) of two electromagnetic ZPF field modes. this condition is subject to j (≡ 8πrS/λ) → 0 .Schemes for Generating Negative Energy – pt.
673 x 10−27 kg 2.7 x 10−24 m Proton = 1.01 x 10−25 m ≥ 2. rS ZPF mode wavelength.0 x 1030 kg 2.9 x 10−18 m 8 Starship ~ 10 kg Human ~ 68 kg (average) 1. λ Sun = 2.82 m −3 ≥ 0. there is no black hole collapse involved .87 x 10 m 1.5 x 10−53 m NOTE: rS is only a convenient radial distance parameter for each body.Generating Negative Energy via Gravitationally Squeezed ZPF Substantial gravitational squeezing of the vacuum occurs for those quantum EM ZPF field modes with λ ≥ 8πrS of the following example masses: Mass of body Schwarzschild radius of body.95 km ≥ 78 km ≥ 75 m 27 Jupiter = 1.976 x 10 kg 8.9 x 10 kg 2.23 m 24 Earth = 5.48 x 10−54 m ≥ 6.48 x 10−19 m ≥ 3.
IV Optically Squeezed Laser Light – 1: • Negative energy can be generated by ultrahighintensity lasers with an ultrafast rotating mirror system • A laser beam is passed through an optical cavity resonator made of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystal shaped like a cylinder with rounded silvered ends to reflect light • Resonator will act to produce a secondary lower frequency light beam in which the pattern of photons is rearranged into pairs → this is the quantum optical “squeezing” of light effect • Squeezed light beam emerges from resonator containing pulses of negative energy interspersed with pulses of positive energy • Negative/positive energy pulses are ≈ 10−15 second duration • Arrange a set of rapidly rotating mirrors to separate the positive and negative energy pulses from each other –– light beam is to strike each mirror surface at very shallow angle while the rotation ensures that negative energy pulses are reflected at slightly different angle from positive energy pulses • Small spatial separation of the two different energy pulses will occur at some distance from rotating mirror –– another system of mirrors will be needed to redirect negative energy pulses to an isolated location and concentrate them there .Schemes for Generating Negative Energy – pt.
+ . +  Resonator       Negative Energy   Pulses . Concentrated Negative Energy . + . + .Conceptual Schematic: Optically Squeezed Laser Light + + + + + + Positive Energy Rotating / Redirector + Pulses Mirror System + + Laser & LiNbO3 .
. . . two. photons apiece and combine them together to create squeezed states to order → Superimposing many such states could theoretically produce bursts of intense negative energy . .  Bursts of Intense Negative Energy . . . V Optically Squeezed Laser Light – 2: • Another way to squeeze light would be to manufacture extremely reliable light pulses containing precisely one. .Schemes for Generating Negative Energy – pt. etc. three.
UT): • power intensity ≈ 1015 – 1026 W/cm2 (1030 W/cm2 using SLAC).or Bfield using UltrahighIntensity Lasers (LLNL.Schemes for Generating Negative Energy – pt. UNR. VI Generate radial E. peak power pulse ≤ 103 fs • ponderomotive acceleration of electrons ≈ 1017 – 1030 g’s • Bfields ≈ several MegaTesla • Efields ≈ 1012 – 1016 V/cm • light pressure ≈ 109 – 1015 bars • temperatures > 1010 K .
aerospacecommission..gov/ . These energy sources should be the topic of a focused.” (pg 95) “In the longerterm.Aerospace Commission Report November 18.” (pg 96) In Figure 93.Executive Summary “New propulsion concepts based on breakthrough energy sources. basic research effort. Chairman “Achieve Breakthroughs in Propulsion and Space Power.. “zeropoint” is listed under “Breakthrough Energy Sources” http://www.” . . pg 99. must be credibly investigated in order for us to practically pursue human exploration of the solar system and beyond. could result in a new propulsion paradigm that will revolutionize space transportation. breakthrough energy sources that go beyond our current understanding of physical laws.. . Walker. 2002 Robert S..