The gastrointestinal tract

In this introductory video, I'm just going to outline the basic anatomical position of the
gastrointestinal tract. And also outline the function and, therefore, put some of the anatomy into
context. So let's just be clear that the gastrointestinal tract really starts up in your mouth where you
put the food that you're going to eat. So we can see the food passing into the mouth, and then it's
going to pass all the way down through the pharynx before it gets into the abdomen.
So we can actually see part of the gastrointestinal tract in the thorax, and we can do that by
removing some of the lungs-- here and here from the model-- and also removing the heart. And
what you can do when you remove the heart is immediately see lying posterior to the heart we have
the oesophagus. So we just got the heart in position here. We remove it, and we can see the
oesophagus.

So the oesophagus is running directly behind the heart. Therefore, some reflux of acid from the
stomach into the oesophagus can irritate within the heart region of the thorax. That's why we call it
heartburn when you have that oesophageal reflux of acid from the stomach into the oesophagus. So
here we can see the oesophagus. And that passes into the abdomen by going through the
diaphragm. And to see that, we need to remove the liver.

So if we remove the liver here, we can then see the oesophagus passing through the diaphragm
here.

It also has a shorter curvature here known as the lesser curvature. And we can lift the stomach out and we can have a closer look at it. to see it's C-shaped course. the duodenum. C-shaped tube that's sitting around the pancreas. . The duodenum is continuous with the stomach. and then there's the ilium. there's three parts of them. we can see it here. This is known as the greater curvature. And if we keep hold of it. But to see it properly. And then it passes it into the small intestines. So let's just remember that here's the duodenum. the opening to the duodenum from the stomach. which we removed. Now.Oesophagus passing through the diaphragm. the stomach is responsible for mechanically churning the food. and we can pick it up as it goes into the stomach. and actually turn it around. but turn it around. we can still see we've got the duodenum here. mechanically churns this food. The small intestines. So here's the duodenum. it squeezes. So the ingested food is passed down the oesophagus to the stomach and it contracts. The duodenum. then there's the jejunum. we need to remove the stomach and then also remove this chunk of organs. and we can see that it's a C-shaped tube. We can see the stomach's got this nice long curvature here. So here we can see the oesophagus passing into the stomach. And we can clearly see one of these three parts.

we can see that the duodenum is then continuous with these coils of small intestine. So it's been mechanically churned by the stomach and then enters into the duodenum. what's the function? The small intestine is important in absorbing the nutrients from the ingested food. . So the small intestines. And these coils of small intestine here can reach sometimes 6 metres in length. And these are your jejunum and the ilium. which is helping to now chemically break down the food. which is receiving various enzymes from the pancreas.If we turn it back around. It's really a continuous tube that leads to the large intestines. There's no clear way to differentiate between jejunum and ilium.

a region known as the caecum. transverse colon. Once it gets to the spleen. Remember. . So we've got the caecum. which we can see here. The small intestines are continuous with the large intestine. which was here. So the small intestine is important in absorbing the nutrients of the ingested food. and these nutrients pass into the veins. the jejunum. Before it then turns to the left is the transverse colon. ilium. And then to see the sigmoid colon. It then ascends upwards to assume this inverted U-shaped path. So here we've got the beginning of the large intestine. the descending colon. we removed the liver. once again. it then descends down the left portion of the abdomen as it's heading towards the rectum. and heads towards the spleen. but this portion is known as the ascending colon. is continuous with the large intestine. And here we can just about make out the ileocecal junction. which are draining the blood away from the small intestines. we need to remove this portion of intestines. And they'll go to the liver where they can be processed. the ilium. where the distal portion of the small intestine.It then passes into the entire length of the small intestine. ascending colon. It then heads towards the liver. We can see we've got the caecum. And we can see that here if we remove this little window at the beginning of the large intestine.

So we hold where the sigmoid colon is here. and that's where your faeces leave the gastrointestinal tract when you defecate. The rectum is then going to lead out towards the anus. and also a short way up into the sigmoid colon.is then continuous here with the rectum. And we can see the rectum here. and if we turn it around. we can see the sigmoid colon-- these bendy parts-. where they're formed and . The faeces that are being prepared for defecation are stored in the rectum.

the small intestines have absorbed all the nutrients out of the body. One structure I want to identify whilst I'm holding the organs like this is this structure here. not a great deal. If we just put it back in position for just one moment. really. are the products of that gastrointestinal tract. What's the function of the large intestines? Well. it was used in lower order mammals. that we move. like I said. we can see that here we've got the cecum that I identified. [End of transcript] . It's really a vestigial product. And what's left. and we can see that the appendix is attached to the cecum. What happens to large intestines is they absorb the water. which is the appendix. it's a remnants. So in this video. and they're going to be expelled by defecation. and that creates those hard stools that we defecate. What does the appendix do? Well. it helps to produce lymph for immune cells. and we just hold that region and we turn it around.they're ready for defecation. But in the humans it maybe has some lymphoidal function. we've briefly outlined the basic course and also some key features along the way of the gastrointestinal tract. in humans. They're the products that are leftover.