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# Design Temperature

Specific Gravity 1
Pipe or Tubing Material: Pipe or Tube Dimensions:
CSA Z245.1 Gr.448
Hot modulus of elasticity E= 2.93E+07 psi
Hot allowable stress Sh = 20,000 psi
Design stress, Sh / FS Sa = 5,000 psi
Material density Pden = 0.2833 lb/in^3
Relative weight factor (vs. carbon steel) Mat = 1
Insulation
Density Ins 7 lb/ft^3
Density 4.06E-03 lb/in^3
Thickness Ti 2 in

## Minimum pipe thickness, t = Tnom - (Tnom * Mill % / 100 ) - c - h

Outside radius of pipe, R = Do / 2
Pipe moment of inertia (based on t ), I = / 64 [ Do4 - (Do - 2 t )4 ]
Pipe inside diameter, d = Do - 2 Tnom
Pipe section modulus, Z = / 32 (Do4 - d4) / Do
Metal area of pipe cross-section, Am = ( Do
2 - d2 ) * / 4
Conversion factor, water density, dw = 62.4 lb / cu ft
Conversion factor: n = 1 ft / 12 in
Pipe weight per unit length, Wp = Pden * Am / n
Pipe or liner or refractory inside diameter, dL = d - 2 Tr
Liner area cross-section, Ar = ( d2 - dL2 ) * / 4
Liner weight per unit length, Wr = Lden * Ar / n
Flow area, Af = d * L2 * / 4
Fluid weight per unit length, Wf = SG * Af * n2 * dw
Insulation outside diameter, Dio = Do + 2 Ti
Insulation area cross-section, Ai = ( Dio2 - Do2 ) * / 4
Insulation weight per unit length (w/ factor 1.12 for lagging), Wi = 1.12 * Ai * n2 * Ins
Ice area cross-section, Aice = [ (Dio + ( 2 * Tice ))2 - Dio
2]* /4
Ice weight (external w/ S.G. = 0.9) per unit length, Wice = 0.9 * Aice * n2 * dw
Total weight per unit length, W = Wp + Wr + Wf + Wi + Wice (excluding Wc)

## Length of support span

Factor for modifying stress value obtained by the basic formula for S
Maximum calculated bending stress due to loads, S = fs ( 1.2 W L2 / Z ) ( 2 Wc / W L )

Factor for modifying deflection value obtained by the basic formula for y
Deflection, y = fy (17.1 ( W L4 / E * I ) )
Natural frequency estimate, fn = 3.13 / y0.5

Slope of pipe between supports for drainage, h = (12 * L)2 * y / ( 0.25 (12 * L)2 - y2 )

## Length of support span (Single Span w/ Free Ends)

Maximum Bending Stress Sw1 = ( 0.75 W * L1^2 + 1.5 Wc * L1) * Do / I
Deflection, y1 = (22.5 W * (L1)4 + 36 Wc * (L1)3 ) / ( E * I )
Natural frequency estimate, fn1 = 3.13 / ( y1)0.5
Slope between supports for drainage, h1 = (12 * L1 )2 * y1 / ( 0.25 (12 * L1 )2 - (y1)2 )

## Length of support span (Single Span w/ Free Ends)

Maximum Bending Stress Sw2 = ( 0.5 W * L2 2 + 0.75 Wc * L2) * Do / I
Deflection, y2 = ( 4.5 W * (L2)4 + 9 Wc * (L2)3 ) / ( E * I )
Natural frequency estimate, fn1 = 3.13 / ( y1)0.5
Slope between supports for drainage, h1 = (12 * L1 )2 * y1 / ( 0.25 (12 * L1 )2 - (y1)2 )
Pipe or Tube Dimensions:
Nom. Size: 8.000
Nom. Thk.: Sch 40
Actual OD: Do = 8.625 in
Nominal thickness: Tnom = 0.322 in
Thickness tolerance: Mill = 12.50% and, h = 0.000 in
Corrosion, Erosion,Mech Allowance c= 0.063 in
Liner on ID
Density Lden 0.000 lb/in^3
Thickness Tr 0.000 in
Ice Thickness Tice 0.000 in
Weight of concentrated load assumed at center of Wc 1.000 lbs
span (valves + flanges + animal, etc.): t= 0.259 in
R= 4.313 in
I= 59.527 in4
d= 7.981 in
Z= 16.809 in3
Am= 8.399 in2
dw 62.400 lb/ft3
n 0.083 ft/in
Wp 28.554 lb/ft
dL 7.981 in
Ar 0.000 in2
Wr 0.000 lb/ft
Af 50.025 in2
Wf 21.677 lb/ft
Dio 12.625 in
Ai 66.759 in2
* n2 * Ins Wi 3.635
Aice 0.000
dw Wice 0.000
c) W 53.866 lb/ft

L 32.000 ft
fs 1.250
2 Wc / W L ) S 5848.261

fy 1.316
y 0.728 in
fn 3.669 Hz

* L)2 - y2 ) h 2.911 in

L1 32.000 ft
Sw1 6001.010 psi
y1 0.7283 in
Fn1 3.668 Hz
1 )2 - (y1)2 ) h1 2.913 in

L2 45.000 ft
Sw2 7907.209 psi
y2 0.5696 in
Fn2 4.147 Hz
1 )2 - (y1)2 ) h2 2.278 in
Nominal OD (in)
1/2 0.84
3/4 1.05
1 1.315
1 1/4 1.66
1 1/2 1.9
2 2.375
3 3.5
4 4.5
6 6.625
8 8.625
10 10.75
12 12.75
14 14
16 16
18 18
20 20
24 24
26 26
28 28
30 30
32 32
36 36
42 42
48 48
Design Temperature
Specific Gravity 1
Pipe or Tubing Material: Pipe or Tube Dimensions:
CSA Z245.1 Gr.448
Hot modulus of elasticity E= 2.93E+07 psi
Hot allowable stress Sh = 20,000 psi
Design stress, Sh / FS Sa = 5,000 psi
Material density Pden = 0.2833 lb/in^3
Relative weight factor (vs. carbon steel) Mat = 1
Insulation
Density Ins 7 lb/ft^3
Density 4.06E-03 lb/in^3
Thickness Ti 2 in

## Minimum pipe thickness, t = Tnom - (Tnom * Mill % / 100 ) - c - h

Outside radius of pipe, R = Do / 2
Pipe moment of inertia (based on t ), I = / 64 [ Do4 - (Do - 2 t )4 ]
Pipe inside diameter, d = Do - 2 Tnom
Pipe section modulus, Z = / 32 (Do4 - d4) / Do
Metal area of pipe cross-section, Am = ( Do
2 - d2 ) * / 4
Conversion factor, water density, dw = 62.4 lb / cu ft
Conversion factor: n = 1 ft / 12 in
Pipe weight per unit length, Wp = Pden * Am / n
Pipe or liner or refractory inside diameter, dL = d - 2 Tr
Liner area cross-section, Ar = ( d2 - dL2 ) * / 4
Liner weight per unit length, Wr = Lden * Ar / n
Flow area, Af = d * L2 * / 4
Fluid weight per unit length, Wf = SG * Af * n2 * dw
Insulation outside diameter, Dio = Do + 2 Ti
Insulation area cross-section, Ai = ( Dio2 - Do2 ) * / 4
Insulation weight per unit length (w/ factor 1.12 for lagging), Wi = 1.12 * Ai * n2 * Ins
Ice area cross-section, Aice = [ (Dio + ( 2 * Tice ))2 - Dio
2]* /4
Ice weight (external w/ S.G. = 0.9) per unit length, Wice = 0.9 * Aice * n2 * dw
Total weight per unit length, W = Wp + Wr + Wf + Wi + Wice (excluding Wc)

## Length of support span

Factor for modifying stress value obtained by the basic formula for S
Maximum calculated bending stress due to loads, S = fs ( 1.2 W L2 / Z ) ( 2 Wc / W L )

Factor for modifying deflection value obtained by the basic formula for y
Deflection, y = fy (17.1 ( W L4 / E * I ) )
Natural frequency estimate, fn = 3.13 / y0.5

Slope of pipe between supports for drainage, h = (12 * L)2 * y / ( 0.25 (12 * L)2 - y2 )

## Length of support span (Single Span w/ Free Ends)

Maximum Bending Stress Sw1 = ( 0.75 W * L1^2 + 1.5 Wc * L1) * Do / I
Deflection, y1 = (22.5 W * (L1)4 + 36 Wc * (L1)3 ) / ( E * I )
Natural frequency estimate, fn1 = 3.13 / ( y1)0.5
Slope between supports for drainage, h1 = (12 * L1 )2 * y1 / ( 0.25 (12 * L1 )2 - (y1)2 )

## Length of support span (Single Span w/ Free Ends)

Maximum Bending Stress Sw2 = ( 0.5 W * L2 2 + 0.75 Wc * L2) * Do / I
Deflection, y2 = ( 4.5 W * (L2)4 + 9 Wc * (L2)3 ) / ( E * I )
Natural frequency estimate, fn1 = 3.13 / ( y1)0.5
Slope between supports for drainage, h1 = (12 * L1 )2 * y1 / ( 0.25 (12 * L1 )2 - (y1)2 )
Pipe or Tube Dimensions:
Nom. Size: 8.000
Nom. Thk.: Sch 40
Actual OD: Do = 8.625 in
Nominal thickness: Tnom = 0.322 in
Thickness tolerance: Mill = 12.50% and, h = 0.000 in
Corrosion, Erosion,Mech Allowance c= 0.000 in
Liner on ID
Density Lden 0.000 lb/in^3
Thickness Tr 0.000 in
Ice Thickness Tice 0.000 in
Weight of concentrated load assumed at center of Wc 1.000 lbs
span (valves + flanges + animal, etc.): t= 0.322 in
R= 4.313 in
I= 72.409 in4
d= 7.981 in
Z= 16.809 in3
Am= 8.399 in2
dw 62.400 lb/ft3
n 0.083 ft/in
Wp 28.554 lb/ft
dL 7.981 in
Ar 0.000 in2
Wr 0.000 lb/ft
Af 50.025 in2
Wf 21.677 lb/ft
Dio 12.625 in
Ai 66.759 in2
* n2 * Ins Wi 3.635
Aice 0.000
dw Wice 0.000
c) W 53.866 lb/ft

L 32.000 ft
fs 1.250
2 Wc / W L ) S 5848.261

fy 1.316
y 0.598 in
fn 4.047 Hz

* L)2 - y2 ) h 2.393 in

L1 32.000 ft
Sw1 4933.416 psi
y1 0.5988 in
Fn1 4.045 Hz
1 )2 - (y1)2 ) h1 2.395 in

L2 39.000 ft
Sw2 4883.060 psi
y2 0.2642 in
Fn2 6.089 Hz
1 )2 - (y1)2 ) h2 1.057 in