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**Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
**

IDETC/CIE 2013

August 4-7, 2013, Portland, Oregon, USA

DETC2013-12115

**EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TORSIONAL-BENDING COUPLED VIBRATION OF
**

A ROTOR SYSTEM WITH A BLADED DISK

**Takeshi Kudo Koki Shiohata
**

Department Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering

Ibaraki University Ibaraki University

4-12-1, Naka-Narusawacho, Hitachi 4-12-1, Naka-Narusawacho, Hitachi

316-8511, Japan 316-8511, Japan

takeshi.kudo.fn@hitachi.com shiohata@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp

**Osami Matsushita Hiroyuki Fujiwara
**

Department Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering

National Defense Academy National Defense Academy

1-10-20, Hahirimizu, Yokosuka 1-10-20, Hahirimizu, Yokosuka

239-8686, Japan 239-8686, Japan

myrot_osami@yahoo.co.jp hiroyuki@nda.ac.jp

**Akira Okabe Shigeo Sakurai
**

Hitachi, Ltd. Infrastructure Company Hitachi Works

1-18-13, Soto-kanda, Tokyo Hitachi, Ltd. Power Systems Company

101-8608, Japan 3-1-1, Saiwaicho, Hitachi

akira.okabe.fn@hitachi.com 317-8511, Japan

shigeo.sakurai.jy@hitachi.com

**ABSTRACT motor was constructed to confirm the vibration characteristics,
**

by envisioning the bending-torsion coupled resonance as

An experimental investigation was conducted to confirm applied to actual rotor systems of turbo machinery. A radial

the bending-torsion coupled vibration of a rotor system with a active magnetic bearing (AMB) was employed to support the

bladed disk. rotor by controlling bearing stiffness and damping, and

For a rotor with relatively long blades such as in the latest applying lateral directional excitation of forward and

low-pressure steam turbines, coupled vibration with shaft backward whirl to the rotor. A servomotor was also equipped at

torsional vibration represents the bladed disk natural frequency the end of the rotor system to excite the torsional vibration.

of a nodal diameter (k) of zero (umbrella mode). Today this The resonance of a bladed disk with nodal diameter (k) of

well-known behavior is reflected in the design of steam turbine zero, which was coupled with the rotor’s torsional vibration,

rotor systems to prevent the blade vibration resonance due to was observed under the above condition (Ω = ωθ - ωb) through

torque excitation caused by the electric power grid, a standard AMB excitation of the rotor’s bending natural frequency.

for which is proposed by ISO 22266-1. Conversely, the torsional excitation caused by the servomotor

The bending-torsion coupled resonance of rotor systems was confirmed as causing the coupled resonance of rotor

occurs, however, under specific conditions due to rotor bending vibration.

unbalance. When the rotor’s rotational speed (Ω) is equal to

the sum/difference of the bending natural frequency (ωb) and

torsional natural frequency (ωθ), namely, Ω = ωθ ± ωb, there is NOMENCLATURE

coupled resonance, which was experimentally observed with a

rotor with a relatively simplified shape. Ip Polar moment of inertia

In this study, the test apparatus for a flexible rotor system kb Spring constant concerning bending vibration

equipped with a shrouded bladed disk driven by an electric kθ Spring constant concerning torsional vibration

1 Copyright © 2013 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

even during coupled vibration of four-blade rotors where the blades are periods of critical speed at turbine startup. the blades will be the spectrum of bending vibration could be used to detect coupled with the shaft’s torsional vibration or thrust direction. and a excites the bending vibration of the blades. if the studied in actual power plants [7].org/about-asme/terms-of-use . resulting in resonance when the natural bending frequency of the shaft may be generated due to a status frequency and shaft rotation speed are in a certain relationship. In In axial flow turbines. a torsional vibration component that occurs in umbrella mode with nodal diameter k = 0. detuning from the excitation the coupled frequency in shaft torsion and blade bending. the shaft torsion of a cracked rotor and the bending vibration of Table 1 lists the coupling conditions between the nodal the shaft. However. Turbine-generator lateral modes of the shaft. particularly the low-pressure rotors particular. was issued regarding the modeling technique used to calculate In the steam turbine design. Tsuji reported coupling conditions systems receive torque excitation at double the system via the shaft revolution speed when the natural frequencies of frequency (2f = 100/120 Hz). whip and self-excited vibration due to a steam or torque whirl Santos conducted analyses and experiments on the parametric caused by changes in the turbine’s seal status. meaning the coupled frequency must be detuned from the With regard to coupled vibration in the torsional and frequencies of these excitation sources [1]. bending vibration of a shaft with nodal diameter k = 0 at the Moreover. INTRODUCTION Many reports have also been issued. in order to confirm shaft. occurring in a phenomena whereby both vibrations resonate such as major damage to the turbine shaft. Sub-synchronous resonance is another generator systems receive torsional vibration due to a variation excitation source for turbine-generator systems. turbine- a detuning indicator [6]. the resonance phenomena in 2 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. or rated Euler-Bernoulli beams with beam deformation based on a speed operation. a linear beam model with second terms. Here. introduced an equivalent reduced order that vibration (in what is called umbrella mode) is being considered coupled shaft torsional and blade tangential vibration [4]. like self- Crawley performed empirical verification of nodal diameter k = vibration due to changes in bearing support status. bending vibration of the shaft can excite coupled vibration in At the turbine design stage.asmedigitalcollection. even during prolonged operation. In contrast. the with each other. followed by verification through experiments [10]. When the bending vibration of the shaft linear model. Santos handled shaft vibration thus presumably applied to the root part of the blades in as a rigid body mode and did not base blade vibration on the particular. m Rotor mass Regarding the coupled frequency analysis of this shaft bending Ω Rotor speed vibration with bending vibration of blades having nodal ωb Natural frequency of shaft bending diameter k = 1. the bending of both rotors via a set of gears has been the subject of various vibration of the blades coupled with the torsional vibration of reports. while an ISO standard prescribes with nodal diameter k = 0). the shaft means the natural frequency of the blades deviates Yet another report was made on the interruption between from the results of vibration calculations for the blades alone. resulting in fatigue damage. coupling of the bending vibration of a bladed design stage is sufficiently detuned.asme. including initial studies conducted by Tondl [12-15].asme. the coupling of the torsional and bending vibration of steam turbines equipped with long blades. the detuning of coupled the vibration seen in shaft torsion and blade bending (for blades frequency is also considered. we built an experimental rotor consisting of a bladed Anegawa employed the mode synthesis method to analyze disk and a flexible rotor to simulate an actual steam turbine both response and stability in the bending vibration of blades blade structure that affects changes in natural frequency due to with nodal diameter k = 1 and in the bending vibration of the the centrifugal force generated by rotation. concerning the coupling of torsional and bending vibration of the shaft. however. with the shaft’s bending vibration there are no other factors that may affect the coupled frequency. diameter of vibrations in the blades and bladed disk with the This suggests that when a cracked rotor is vibrated with shaft in vibration mode. nodal diameter [9]. Several reports have thus both shaft torsion and bending have a certain relationship. cracks in the shaft [16]. and has been in torque that is double the system frequency. in order to detect cracks that may occur in rotors. As discussed above. change during prolonged steam turbine operation. However. and then confirmed the frequency in torsion and blade bending [2][3]. Conversely. a report indicated certain aspects of a modeling ωθ Natural frequency of shaft torsional method based on treating each blade as a single-mass point system [11]. when the torsional vibration of the shaft and nodal diameter (k) Okabe also proposed a technique using 3D-FEA to derive the of the blades is 0. and preparations are now underway to apply this method to actual turbine designs. shut down.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. when the blades are in torsional torque. such as oil 1 and the shaft whirl in turbo-fan engines [8]. frequency of the coupled frequency of the blade’s bending Okabe et al. Conversely. provided that empirically confirmed. the bending frequency of the shaft. when consideration is given to modal parameters of a bladed disk [1] while Al-Bedoor studied coupling of the shaft’s bending and torsional vibration. alternative stress is fully nonlinear model. indicated trouble presumably due to resonance with the coupled discussed the stability in coupling. However. it is not considered disk with nodal diameter k = 1 has also been theoretically and problematic. Another report coupled resonance due to the relatively simple rotor shape [17]. the the nonlinearity at coupling vibration [5].

y. including angle Ωt due to the or rotation speed (Ω). θ}. When complex displacement z = x + jy is applied for rewriting in a complex form. written by sine and cosine. and the bending frequency of the blades. ⎢⎣ ( ) m&y& + kb y = mε ⎡ Ω + θ& sin φ − θ&& cos φ ⎤ 2 ⎥⎦ (5) The angle (φ) between the x-axis of the inertial coordinate system (O-XY) with a straight line connecting the x-axis to the I pθ + kθ θ = −mε θ + mε (&x& sin φ − &y& cos φ ) && 2 && (6) SG is an entire rotation angle. vibration and in the coupled vibration of shaft torsion and shaft Therefore. when the rotor mass is m and the polar moment bending. shaft torsion. the following equations are obtained: yG G ε y S [ ] &z& + ωb2 z = ε (Ω + θ )2 − jθ&& e jφ (8) φ( t ) = Ωt + θ ( t ) + δ x xG X ( θ&& + ωθ2θ = εωb2 / r 2 Im ze − jφ ) (9) where. torsional angular vibration displacement I pθ&& + kθ θ = k b ε (− x sin φ + y cos φ ) (7) θ (t). kb denotes the spring constant concerning bending (k) vibration (translational motion) and kθ that concerning torsional k=0 (a) ”CTA ” Coupled Not coupled vibration. Substitute the circumferential vibration (rotational 3 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings.y) that indicates the rotor’s centroid position by the amount of eccentricity (ε) be G(xG. Y Here. ωb = k b / m denotes the natural vibration of bending Figure 1.asme. and unbalance phase δ. COORDINATE SYSTEM (translation). the potential k≧ 2 Not coupled Not coupled energy (V) can be expressed as follows: MOTION EQUATION FOR COUPLING OF LATERAL ( ) 2V = k b x 2 + y 2 + kθθ 2 (4) AND TORSIONAL VIBRATION Concerning the generalized coordinates {x.asmedigitalcollection. Lagrange's formula is applied to obtain the following motion For coupling the rotor shaft’s bending and torsional equations: vibration.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. ωθ = kθ / I p the natural vibration of torsion. the coupling mechanism can be yG = y + ε sin φ (2) analogized. CRITERIA FOR COUPLED VIBRATION ( ) 2T = m x&G2 + y& G2 + I pφ& 2 (3) Blade vibration Shaft vibration Nodal diameter Torsional / Axial Bending Here. Assume that torsional vibration θ occurred as shown in (a) of said figure due to some kind of disturbance or shock. and (b) rotor torsional displacement of θ can be expressed as follows: is a single directional motion. Since the reaction force of the translational spring is k=1 Not coupled (b)”CB ” Coupled proportional to the position of the centroid (S). and r the rotation radius (Ip = mr2).yG). We then This ε denotes the unbalance existing on the boss and/or confirmed the resonance phenomena in the shaft’s bending blade at the blade station. of inertia is Ip. In other words. the gravity center position G(xG.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . the motion of an unbalanced rotor in a plane as illustrated in Figure 1 is applied for consideration. kinetic energy (T) can be expressed as follows: Table 1. Equations (5) and (7) are used to proceed as indicated below. and thus studied the phenomena. Let the position of ⎢⎣ ( 2 ) m&x& + k b x = mε ⎡ Ω + θ& cos φ + θ&& sin φ ⎤ ⎥⎦ the center of gravity away from S(x. yG) displacement z=x+jy. namely the complex Defined accordingly. but with its gyro effect being ignored for simplification. xG = x + ε cos φ From Figure 2. φ (t )= Ω t + θ (t) + δ (1) Note that (a) rotor bending displacement of z is the whirling motion in X-Y directions.asme.

Ω) component will act on the torsional vibration system (rotational coordinate The natural frequency (ωr) in a rotational coordinate system). The system.asmedigitalcollection.g. coordinate system) of this natural frequency (= ±ωθ) Coordinate conversion as expressed above is conducted to component on the right side of the first equation in Equation rewrite Equation (9) as a motion equation for a rotational (8). EXPLANATORY DIAGRAM OF COUPLING VIBRATION Figure 4 shows the testing apparatus used for observing OF TORSION AND BENDING coupled vibration in the shaft-lateral and coupled modes of shaft torsion and blade bending. shaft. the vibration frequency (= – ωθ + Ω) approaches the natural frequency (ωb) on the right side. the component following: is substituted on the right side of the second equation in ωr= ± ωb – Ω，± ωθ (13) Equation (8). A complex displacement (Zr) is thus active magnetic bearing supporting the bladed disk side. when the body is rotating at a particular ( ⎢⎣ ) &z& + 2Ωz& r − Ω 2 z r + ωb2 z r = ε ⎡ Ω + θ& − jθ&&⎤ e jθ e jδ (11) 2 ⎥⎦ speed (Ω = ωb + ωθ). Note that all characteristic values when not coupled with Next. (coordinate system at rest) is vibrated at a certain frequency (= ±ωθ + Ω). with an coordinate system. the force of inertia due to movement of the center of gravity ωb A ωθ caused by bending vibration (translational motion) as shown in ωθ ωb (b) of said figure will excite torsional vibration around the shaft Ω=ωb+ωθ Ω=ωθ-ωb center (S) as torque having eccentricity ε. the the vibration frequency (=ωb – Ω) will resonate because it bending natural frequency of the rotor (ωr = ±ωb) at no rotation approaches the natural frequency on the left side (-ωθ). and we can see that the bending vibration system coordinate system. of the shaft center (S) as the force of inertia momentarily ωr ωr becomes a translational force when the center of gravity moves due to the torsional vibration in (a) of said figure. magnetic bearing can also be used to excite the shaft’s lateral direction (Figure 5). Ω=ωb-ωθ Ω Ω=ωθ+ωb Ω -ωb C -ωθ -ωθ Yr Yr B D -ωb mεθ&& m&z& G ε ε G (a) ωb>ωθ (b) ωb<ωθ Xr Xr S S Figure 3.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. will decline along with higher rotation speed (Ω). and dummy disk. Similarly. bending frequency z and torsional vibration θ will be The bending and torsion vibration will therefore be coupled together. The vibration frequency (= ±ωb . Namely. while the resulting in torsional vibration θ being excited.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . In other words. and a introduced to convert the system into rotational coordinate ball bearing supporting the dummy disk side respectively. The experimental rotor set Motion equation for a rotational coordinate system consists of a bladed disk. Therefore. at a particular rotation speed (Ω = ωb + ωθ). Only forward excitation is caused 4 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. the shaft is exited forward and backward at the same time. the torsional vibration in (a) coupled at particular rotation speeds [e.asme. Since the AMB can apply unidirectional z (t ) = zt (t )e jΩt (10) excitation for the shaft. regardless of rotation speed. torsional natural frequency (ωθ) of the rotor will be remain As shown above. Two bearings support the rotor. which are housed in a vacuum chamber to eliminate the effects of wind Equation (9) is a motion equation for an inertial loss from rotation. Conversely. NATURAL FREQUENCY OF COUPLING VIBRATION OF TORSION AND BENDING COMPOSITION OF THE TESTING APPARATUS (a) (b) Figure 2. The AMB works as a feedback bearing and harmonic exciter. C and D as illustrated in (b)]. system will change as illustrated in Figure 3. and ( θ&& + ωθ θ = εωb / r Im ze e 2 2 2 − j θ − ) jδ (12) will thus resonate and excite the bending vibration (translational motion) z. when the bending vibration (inertial coordinate an imbalance ε = 0 in a rotational coordinate system reveals the system) is excited as shown in (b) of Figure 2. at a particular rotation speed (Ω = ωb + constant. intersections A and B of Figure 2 will excite bending vibration (translational motion) as illustrated in (a) of said figure. ωθ).

with the Bearing span 785 mm side opposite the test rotor system equipped with a servomotor Shaft Outer diameter 30 mm for torsional excitation. with no backward excitation. The lateral vibration of the rotor is measured with Figure 4. the model illustrated in Figure 7 was used to perform vibration calculations using FE analysis (FEA). while the rotation speed of the Displacement rotor is measured using a laser speed detector. and blades positioned at 0. φ250 φ780 φ786 Vacuum Chamber Figure 6. while the shaft is made of stainless steel. The dummy disk is designed to adjust the for a bladed disk with a continuous coupled blade structure frequency of the test rotor system.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING 5 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. 90. hence. EXPERIMENTAL BLADED DISK WITH CONTINUOUS COUPLED BLADES Bladed Disk Motor Servo AMB Dummy Motor Disk Semiconductor strain gages were installed on the roots of the blades to measure blade bending vibration. Moreover. Sensor (Y) Controller Displacement VIBRATION ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE TEST Sensor (X) ROTOR STSTEM Direction of Excitation To confirm the vibration mode of coupled vibration of Rotor Electro-Magnet shaft torsion and blade bending in the test rotor system. This blade root diameter of the model blade is 250 mm. and its stagger angle was thus set to facilitate the detection of modes height is 265 mm. by rotor unbalance. A strain gage is also installed in the middle of the shaft to Pulse Width Modulation Amplifier detect its torsional vibration. The model blade and when nodal diameter k is 0 or 1.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . The turbine Dummy disk outer diameter 500 mm rotor simulates the continuous coupled blade structure used in many actual steam turbine rotors. TESTING APPARATUS displacement vibration sensors installed on magnetic bearings. 135. the drive motor is double-ended. and the tips of the 32 model The turbine blades are integrated with the disk at a stagger blades are connected with formed integral rings (Figure 6).asme.asme. An electric motor rotates the test rotor system. These sensors double as part of the feedback controllers used for the magnetic bearings.asmedigitalcollection. the Table 2. Number of blades 32 while the penetration part of the vacuum chamber wall is Blade length 265 mm provided with a magnetic fluid seal to ensure a chamber Root diameter (Boss outer diameter) 250 mm vacuum. TEST ROTOR DIMENSIONS AMB was applied to observe the coupling vibration resonance phenomena. The angle of 60° relative to the direction of the shaft’s axis. dummy disks are both made of duralumin. Figure 5. and 180° were selected to determine Shaft low-degree nodal diameters by comparing each vibration phase. Shaft Inner diameter 10 mm Table 2 lists the dimensions of the test rotor.

At resonance points around 58 and 89 Hz. shaft -blade coupled vibrations are recognized as shown by “CB” in Figure 8. In low rotor speed regions.02 bladed disk in isolation. The output of the bearing’s displacement vibration sensor shows its resonance point at 16 to 18 Hz.0 0. As the rotor speed Lateral Excitation Frequency (Hz) increases. CAMPBELL DIAGRAM OBTAINED BY FEA and the other being opposite phase. Flexible Coupling Shaft 100 Dummy Disk 90 ωθ3 Torsional Mode 80 Nodes: 457. indicating that the bladed disk generated hardly any out-of-plane vibration.0 0. the motor shaft’s torsional mode appears in positions with even higher frequencies.asme.05 Shaft Bending Mode Blade Vibration 0. Figure 10 Shaft Boss shows a vibration response curve generated with the rotor idle. the phases of the time waveform of strain gage output at the symmetric blade positions (0 and DEFOERMED DEFOERMEDSHAPE SHAPE DEFOERMED SHAPE 180°) are inverted. Let these be ωθ1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 with lower and high vibration respectively. Moreover. ωθ2. (a) and (b) show the coupled vibration modes 30 Coupled ωθ1 of shaft torsional and blade bending. Note that (a) and (b) apply 20 to cases where value k of the bladed disk is 0. low on the sides of decreasing and increasing frequency respectively. indicating bending vibration of the shaft ORIGINAL SHAPE ORIGINAL SHAPE accompanied by out-of-plane vibration of the bladed disk with (a) ωθ1 (b) ωθ2 nodal diameter k = 1 as shown in Figure 11. FEA MODEL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ROTOR Only 40 In Figure 8. Accordingly.asme. Figure 9. the natural frequency of the bladed disk increases and the change in frequency due to the split tend to be high and Figure 10.2 Hz/s. the response of blade bending vibration is very low.04 Amplitude (V) Shaft Vibration Amplitude (V) Given the varied rotor speed.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . Servomotor The degrees of coupling at these rotor speeds are Main Motor represented at the magnitude of response in experiments conducted on an experimental rotor set (as discussed later).427 Bladed Disc Elements: 390. in order of natural frequency.01 split with a coupled bladed disk is low and high on the sides 0.03 (Shaft Bending Mode) calculation results together with the natural frequency of a Shaft Lateral 0. along with increased vibration frequency.4 0. and ωθ3 in ascending order TEST RESULTS of frequency. Multiple coupled 10 vibration modes are generated by the difference in vibration 0 phase of the circumferential direction of the blade tip and shaft. two modes are Rotor Speed Ω (rps) presented: one being the same phase of the blade tip and disk.asmedigitalcollection. The change rate of vibration frequency was 0.6 Blade Bending (k=1) 0. TORSIONAL AND BLADE BENDING (k=0) 1. along with the coupled vibration of Vibration (X) Blade Vibration shaft torsion and blade bending. 0 15 30 45 60 Therefore.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. the 0.528 70 Coupled ωθ2 Frequency (Hz) 60 50 Bladed Disk Figure 7. Measurement of the shaft’s lateral natural frequency circumferential direction Relative displacement of circumferential direction Relative displacement of Blade Tip The lateral natural frequency of the experimental rotor Boss Blade Tip Shaft set was measured based on sweep vibration from the AMB.2 (Y) 0. At that time. Figure 9 shows the vibration 0. COUPLED VIBRATION MODES OF SHAFT Table 1. RESPONSE CURVE OBTAINED BY AMB LATERAL EXCITATION 6 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings.8 0.

1 0 0.7 Hz (b) 56.03 -0.05 0.05 -0. The x-axis in Figure 12 represents the torsional 50 excitation frequency.05 -0.015 -0.015 0.7 Hz and 56.03 -0.04 Amplitude (V) with bending vibration of the blades is described here.1 0 0.05 -0.9 Hz Figure 11.2 Time (s) Time (s) Time (s) Time (s) 0. The rotor speed (Ω) at that time is 5 rps (300 rpm).1 0.9 Hz. (a) and (b) compare the response of vibration 0.03 0.2 0 0.05 0. It was 20 confirmed that the strain gage outputs at 0 and 180° are in phase with each other.1 -0. thereby generating resonance of vibration at 30 Ω+ωb Ω(1N) 37.1 0.1 0 0.05 Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) 0 0 0 0 -0. In Vibration 0. Note that (a) and 0 (b) indicate the responses at resonance points ωθ1 and ωθ2.03 Blade (180 deg) 0. Based on these responses.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . RESPONSE CURVE OBTAINED BY TORSIONAL EXCITATION 7 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings.015 0.03 -0.1 0 0.asmedigitalcollection.1 0 0. BLADE VIBRATION RESPONSE OF k=1 Figure 13. order to inspect the natural frequency of the coupled vibration meaning resonance is expected to occur at rotor speed (Ω) near of shaft torsion and blade bending (ωθ) in the test rotor system. COUPLED VIBRATION FREQUENCY 0.1 Blade (0 deg) Blade (0 deg) Blade ( 0 deg) Blade ( 0 deg) 0.015 -0. then the in-phase could be effectively Rotor Speed Ω (rps) assessed.015 0.03 Blade (180 deg) 0.1 -0.05 Rotor Speed Ω：5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 respectively. 30 rps.03 Blade Bending Figure 15.1 0 0. the ratio of the shaft’s Torsional Excitation Frequency (Hz) torsional vibration to its bending vibration can be derived as Figure 12.05 0. BLADE VIBRATION RESPONSE OF k=0 BY LATERAL EXCITATION BY TORSIONAL EXCITATION Measurement of the coupled natural frequencies of Figure 14 plots the results of torsional vibration performed shaft torsion and blade bending by varying rotor speed (Ω) in a Campbell diagram.1 0. the torsional vibration frequency with the servomotor was varied to detect the 70 resonance points. shaft-blade coupled vibrations Ω-ωb are recognized as shown by “CTA” in Table 1. and in umbrella mode where the nodal 10 diameter is k = 0.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.015 -0.2 0 0.05 Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) 0 0 0 0 -0. The change rate of torsional vibration ωθ2 frequency was 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0. If the signals 0 were passed through a high-pass filter to remove the 5Hz of the 0 10 20 30 40 rotational speed.05 -0. Figure 13 also shows the time waveform of output from the strain gage installed on the blade.03 0. The shaft’s bending and torsional vibration are coupled under the Sweep excitation was performed with a servomotor in conditions of ωθ = ωb + Ω and ωθ = ωb – Ω as discussed before.015 -0.01 Shaft Torsional vibration of the blades at torsional excitation.015 0.1 Blade ( 180 deg) Blade ( 180 deg) 0.1 0.03 -0.0rps The intensity of coupling the shaft’s torsional vibration 0.02 resonance in the shaft’s torsional vibration with that in bending 0. Accordingly. Figure 12 shows a typical vibration response curve. At a certain rotor speed (Ω).asme. the y-axis represents the blade vibration ωθ1 Frequency (Hz) 40 amplitude from the strain gage.asme.2 Time (s) Time (s) Time (s) Time (s) (a) 58 Hz (b) 89 Hz (a) 37. Figure 14. while the vibration torque was set to a 60 certain value. 0.2 Hz/s.

resonance was observed at ωθ1 - 0. That is. Figure 18 also reveals a more detailed view of the 0. Here.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme. In other words. Namely. Here. bending frequency 0.asme.00 ωb of the shaft responded synchronously with the rise in 0 10 20 30 response ωθ1. which is 29. the degree of proximity for the natural frequency of coupled vibration of shaft torsion-blade bending Figure 17 shows a waterfall diagram indicating the results and that of the isolated bladed disk depend on rotor speed Ω as of torsional sweep excitation at the rotor speed a condition for indicated in the Campbell diagram in Figure 9. The difference in intensity of coupled Excitation of the shaft’s bending vibration due to vibration response of the blade by torsional excitation was torsional vibration observed. shown in Figure 16.10 0.9rps) Rotor speed x 2 6 Increase in Torsional 4 Excitation ωb Frequency 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 Frequency (Hz) 0 10 20 30 (b) Shaft vibration measured by displacement sensor Rotor Speed Ω (rps) Figure 16.20 Shaft Torsion Vibration Amplitude (V) Blade bending Rotor speed (29.10 Ω = ωb.05 region of vibration resonance. WATERFALL DIAGRAM DURING TORSIONAL EXCITATION 8 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings.00 Excitation 0 10 20 30 Excitation Frequency Frequency ωθ 1 Rotor Speed Ω (rps) (b) at ωθ2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Figure 15.9 rps as shown in Figure 14. it is clear that with the changes in torsional excitation frequency.05 Increase in ωθ 2 Torsional Torsional 0. VIBRATION RESPONSE VARIATION BY ROTOR SPEED Frequency (Hz) 10 (a) Blade vibration measured by strain gage Resonance ratio (Blade bending/Shaft Torsion) : ωθ 1 : ωθ 2 8 Rotor speed (29.9rps) 0.20 increase in torsional vibration frequency.asmedigitalcollection. 0. 0.15 Rotor speed x 2 0. resonance for the shaft’s bending vibration and its torsional vibration. With the 0.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . a response occurred in shaft vibration at a frequency of 16 Hz. entering a torsional vibration Rotor Speed Ω (rps) enabled us to clearly observe a phenomenon whereby the (a) at ωθ1 bending vibration of the shaft was excited. coupled vibrations Shaft Torsion Vibration Amplitude (V) ωθ1 and ωθ2 occurred at shaft torsion and blade bending. RESPONSE RATIO VARIATION BY ROTOR SPEED Figure 17.15 Blade bending when ωθ1 is excited.

8 0 10 20 30 40 50 Frequency (Hz) 0.9rps) Figure 21 also shows that the amplitude of ωθ1 was low when detuned from resonance. FREQUENCY SPECTRA OF SHAFT LATERAL (UPPER) responses appear depending on rotor speed frequency and ωθ1 AND BLADE BENDING (LOWER) VIBRATION UNDER (nodal diameter k = 0). Figure 21 shows the results 0.org/about-asme/terms-of-use .0 Frequency (Hz) Amplitude (V) 0. the bottom diagram shows that blade Figure 21.0 In Figure 20. Rotor speed (29. 19 9 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. Torsional 1.4 Rotor Speed (Ω) 0. FREQUENCY SPECTRA OF SHAFT LATERAL (UPPER) resonance occurs when the sum of the shaft’s bending vibration AND BLADE BENDING (LOWER) VIBRATION UNDER frequency plus or minus the primary excitation line (Ω ± ωb) RESONANCE.0 45.2 excitation of the coupled vibration of shaft torsion and blade 0. RESPONSE CURVE OF BLADE VIBRATION (k = 0) DUE TO LATERAL EXCITATION 0 10 20 30 40 50 1. 0 10 20 30 40 50 when vibration is performed at the shaft’s natural bending Frequency (Hz) frequency.0 Amplitude (V) rotor system in torsional sweep vibration.2 when rotor speed is detuned from resonance. the top diagram shows that shaft responses 0 10 20 30 40 50 appear depending on the lateral excitation frequency (16 Hz) Frequency (Hz) and rotor speed (Ω). AT (A) IN FIG. as indicated in Figure 14 (Campbell diagram).6 Figure 18.9 rps 0. Thus.0 Frequency ωb Rotor speed (Ω)+ Excitation frequency (ν) (Hz) Figure 19.8 Excitation (ν) 0. with 0.0 Excitation Lateral Excitation AMB EXCITED Frequency NON EXCITED Amplitude of blade vibration (V) Frequency:16Hz 0. Figure 20.4 Rotor Speed (Ω) vibration response was measured by varying rotor speed (Ω).9rps) 0.0 47.2 0.asmedigitalcollection. lateral excitation. the behavior of blade bending 0. 0. the shaft 0.0 Excitation 43.0 44.0 48.8 was vibrated using the magnetic bearings supporting the rotor 0.2 (B) Increase in Torsional 0.asme.0 46.4 0.0 Amplitude (V) vibration frequency spectra of both the blade and shaft. WATERFALL DIAGRAM DURING TORSIONAL EXCITATION 0. 0.4 shaft to inspect the status of blade vibration response.9 rps.0 Excitation of the coupled vibration of shaft torsion 0 10 20 30 40 50 and blade bending by bending vibration of the shaft Frequency (Hz) 1. For the bending natural frequency of the test 1. Figure 0. 19 corresponds to ωθ. given that ωb = 16 Hz 0.asme. which is evident by blade Increase in Torsional ωθ 1 resonance in bending mode being caused by lateral shaft Excitation Frequency vibration in natural frequency.0 Figure 19 shows the blade vibration response dependent 0 10 20 30 40 50 on rotor speed (Ω) under constant lateral excitation at a Frequency (Hz) frequency of ν = 16 Hz while Figures 20 and 21 show the 1.6 Rotor Speed (Ω) ω θ1 0.8 Rotor Speed (Ω) ωθ1 20 shows the results obtained at a rotor speed of 29. it was confirmed that the resonance of blade vibration resonance occurs under the condition of Ω +ωb = ωθ1.6 (A) (a) Blade vibration measured by strain gage Rotor speed (29.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.0 Amplitude (V) In contrast to the abovementioned phenomena. 0.4 0. Here.6 (where blade vibration peaked). when subjecting the shaft to DETUNED FROM EXCITATION AT (B) IN FIG.6 at rotor speed Ω = 29.2 while maintaining lateral excitation of the shaft at ν = 16 Hz.8 Excitation (ν) (b) Shaft vibration measured by displacement sensor 0.0 bending being based on bending vibration of the shaft.

. and the blade bending vibration of rotary machinery. Mech. Otawara. H.. 436 (In Japanese) . A. 22266 – 1:2009(E) vibration. [1] Okabe. we made the following observations on torsional effects on a steam turbine generator in transmission shaft torsional -blade bending coupled vibration. words. Vol. S.. and Matsushita. A. at a certain rotor speed. ensuring shaft stability at rated speed. REFERENCES [16] Sawicki.022501-1-8 blade bending caused by shaft lateral vibration excitation was [11] Okabe. Publishing speed from rated speed.. Proc. Vol. J.. Fujiwara.org/ on 02/01/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. [3] Reid. for Gas Turbine and Power. B. shaft bending vibration and rotation speed. natural frequency. 1980. pp.R.. 133.. Inst.asme. particularly in cases of increased blade length and decreased pp. Ducharme. No.80-88. the resonance of “Contribution to Experimental Validation of Linear and Non- shaft bending vibration was confirmed. pp. shaft torsional . and Matsushita. rotation speed. [7] Mutama. and Mokadam.F.. 1991. the design conditions for shaft vibration at the Eng. Vol.. T. of the ASME.. of At present. 2004. the vibration resonance [10] Anegawa. Baaklini. S. B.org/about-asme/terms-of-use .M. D. j. Eng. Bulliten of JSME. Kaneko. N. and Namura.asme. 2004. pp. H. of Eng. H. A test rotor set consisting of a bladed disk with a Trans. S. and Proc.123.. NASA Conference Publication. H. the [14] Wachel. coupled effect of Lateral and Torsional Modes and Improper Bearing Design”. J...C.al.883-904.. J. ASME J. [4] Okabe. Kung. 10 Copyright © 2013 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. 1980. D. of Sound and Vibration.R.. 37037. and Nyqvist. E.. “Mechanical Vibration-Torsional Vibration of Rotating Machinery. J.. pp. depending on the coupled vibration mode of with the ASME power conference/ICONE20-POWER2012-55029. O. 2010.27. 2011. Resonance in the coupled vibration of shaft torsion and pp. K. “Analysis of Turbine Blade Vibrations Induced by Electrical-Mechanical Interactions”.. O. 2010. O. 2001 “Reduced-order nonlinear dynamic model of coupled shaft-torsional and blade-bending vibrations in rotors”. ASME DETC97/VIB-4031. “Coupled Lateral-torsional Vibration of Rotor frequency from double the rated speed. C.224. 1965.. Fujiwara.. Proc.. and Eiland. Proc. K.. of Eng. continuous coupled structure of blades and a flexible rotor was [6] ISO. Rotor-Blade Coupled Bending Vibration Analysis”. T. “Rotor-Blade Coupled Torsional Vibration [17] Tsuji..blade bending and that of shaft lateral vibration must [15] Zhang. “Subsynchronous resonance and Consequently. A. “Some Problems of Rotor Dynamics”. for Gas Turbine and Power.2133. “A Resurgence of Torsional Vibration Concerns for Nuclear and Fossil Steam Turbine Generator Retrofits”. as predicted by a Linear models for Representing Rotor-blade parametric coupled motion equation that applied Lagrange’s formula.. and Lewis.” Reduced Modeling for Turbine also clearly observed.. Y. Sakurai. R. ASME J. 205. D. In the future.. No. 2012. of the ASME IMECE2010/ IMECE 2010. I. Prague. Yoda. as well as the above considerations.271-277. natural frequency from rated speed and rotor-blade coupled [13] Iwatsubo. et. In other vibrations”. Kudo. G.A. T. and Sakurai. G. Y. for Gas Turbine and Power.022502-1-8 design stage of rotary machinery involve avoiding critical [12] Tondl. D. Shiohata. Models”..Y... 1984. T. Smith. 134. JSME Dynamics Experience”. House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science.. “An Equivalent Reduced Modeling Method and Its Application to Shaft-Blade Coupled Torsional Vibration Analysis of a Turbine-Generator Set”.T..173-181. Kudo.H. pp. 2012. H. [2] La Rosa. and Rosard. of the 2012 20th international conference on nuclear engineering colocated with the ASME power conference/ICONE20-POWER2012-55139. J. Joint Power Generation Conference.. systems with series capacitor compensation”.. 1997. O.242- response magnification at critical speed and avoiding shaft 260.. Matsushita. of the 2012 A difference in vibration response of the shaft and blade 20th international conference on nuclear engineering collocated was observed. and Design Conference '10 (JSME No. K. Nakajima.. Tanaka. torsion and blade bending was the sum of the frequency of [9] Santos.. J. of ASME Turbo Expo 2004/GT2004-54095. Shiohata. Yoda. 271. 86-GT-98. Saracho. K.O. “Vibration phenomena in shaft bending vibration caused by shaft torsional Diagnosis Featuring Blade-Shaft Coupling Effect of Turbine Rotor vibration excitation could be clearly observed. R.asmedigitalcollection. K. E.T. torsional . System Trained by Gears”. Proc.F.. “Analytical and Experimental Investigation of the Coupled Bladed When the frequency of the coupled vibration of shaft Disk/Shaft Whirl of a Cantilevered Turbofan”.10-8). and Gyekenyesi. ASME J. “Field Verification of Lateral-Torsional Coupling Effects on Rotor Instabilities in Centrifugal relation between the coupled vibration frequency of shaft Compressor”.. 2009.blade bending of nodal diameter k=0 and shaft [8] Crawley. D. Matsushita. Fujiwara. A. C. E. CONCLUSION [5] Al-Bedoor. “Rotor Instability due to also be considered... “1986. 2012. Part I: Land-Based Steam and Gas Turbine Sets in used to conduct experiments on shaft torsional and lateral Excess of 50MW”.15-34. pp. Analysis Using Modal Parameters Based on FEM Analysis and “Bending-torsion coupled resonance in a rotor”. J. Vol. “Coupled lateral and torsional vibrations of a cracked rotor”.L.

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