# BASICS OF SURVEYING

OVERVIEW

 What do surveyors do?
Take & analyze measurements.
 What do surveyors measure?
Distance, angles and positions.
 What distances do surveyors measure?
Horizontal distances, slope distances & vertical
distances.
 What angles do surveyors measure?
Angles in the horizontal & vertical planes.

OVERVIEW   What positions do surveyors measure?  The 2D positions of points on/near the surface of the earth referenced to a defined Cartesian grid/to a geographic grid (latitude and longitude) & elevation dimensions referenced to mean sea level (MSL)  The 3D positions of points on/near the earth’s surface referenced to a defined ellipsoidal model of the earth called the Geodetic Reference System (GRS80). .

on/near the surface of the earth. angles. and positions.  Science: Rigorous mathematical techniques are used to analyze & adjust the field survey data (which determines the accuracy & reliability of the survey) .SURVEYING DEFINED   Surveying: the art & science of measuring distances.  Art: the ability of determining the most efficient methods needed to obtain optimal results over a wide variety of surveying problems.

• Most engineering & property surveys are classed as plane surveys. • All Z dimensions (height) are referenced to the earth’s mean surface (MSL) or to the surface of the earth’s reference ellipsoid (GRS80). data gathering. • Very precise surveys of great magnitude (national boundaries & control networks). control & layout which utilize satellite positioning. • The Z dimensions (height) can be referenced to GRS80 or converted to refer to MSL. • Must be converted mathematically to local coordinate grids & to MSL elevations for levelling & other local surveying projects. . TYPES OF SURVEY Types of Surveying Plane Surveying  Explanation • The earth’s surface is considered to be a plane for all X and Y dimensions. Geodetic • The earth’s surface is considered to be an ellipsoid of Surveying revolution for X and Y dimensions.

 Vertical control is often a series of benchmarks.  Great care is also taken to ensure that the control used for a preliminary survey can be readily re-established at a later date.CLASSES OF SURVEYS   Control Surveys:  Used to reference both preliminary & layout surveys.  Horizontal control can be arbitrarily placed. permanent points whose elevations above a datum (e. roadway centrelines.  It is an acceptable practice to take more care in control surveys with respect to precision and accuracy. or coordinated control stations. but usually tied directly to property lines. .g. MSL) have been carefully determined.

and angles) to locate physical features (e. trees & roads) so that the data can be plotted to scale on a map/plan. positions.g. .CLASSES OF SURVEYS   Preliminary Surveys (Data Gathering):  Gather geospatial data (distances.  Include the determination of differences in elevation so that elevations & contours may also be plotted.

.) the features shown on a design plan. the proposed elevations will also be given. or for construction survey. referenced to MSL.  Besides marking the proposed horizontal location (X and Y coordinates) of the designed feature.CLASSES OF SURVEYS   Layout Surveys:  Marking on the ground (using nails. spikes etc.  Can be for boundary lines (land division surveying).

DEFINITIONS  Topographical Surveys Hydrographic Construction Surveys Surveys Aerial Surveys Route Surveys Surveys Property Final (“as-built”) Surveys Surveys .

SURVEYING INSTRUMENTATION   Satellite positioning receiver:  Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a term used worldwide to describe the various satellite positioning systems now in use. NAVSTAR positioning system (fully operational)  GLONASS: describes the Russian satellite positioning system (fully operational)  Galileo: describes the European Union satellite positioning system (soon to be implemented)  Beidou (or Compass): describes the Republic of China’s regional satellite system – rapidly expanded to a global positioning system.  Global Positioning System (GPS): used to describe the U. or in various stages of implementation & planning.S. .

easting. .  Some satellite positioning receivers are already programmed to capture signals from GPS. and elevation) of a survey station. SURVEYING INSTRUMENTATION   Satellite positioning receiver:  A satellite positioning receiver captures signals transmitted by four or more positioning satellites to determine position coordinates (northing. GLONASS and soon-to-be-implemented Galileo.

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 Evolved from an open-faced. vernier-equipped → optical → electronic theodolites. .  Theodolite (transits):  Are instruments designed for use in measuring horizontal a& vertical angles and for establishing linear and curved alignments in the field. as well as horizontal and vertical distances. SURVEYING INSTRUMENTATION   Total Station:  Measure horizontal and vertical angles.  All data can be captured into attached (cable/wireless) electronic field book or into onboard storage as the data are received.

 Steel Tapes:  Are relatively precise measuring instruments. mapping. and engineering applications.  Other Instruments:  Remote-sensing techniques. panchromatic. . multispectral scanning. SURVEYING INSTRUMENTATION   Level & Rod:  Used to determine elevations in a wide variety of surveying. radar and LiDAR imaging based on both airborne and satellite platforms. and are used mostly for short measurements in both preliminary and layout surveys.

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 Latitude:  Lines run east/west & are parallel to the equator.SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE   The earth’s reference system is composed of the surface divisions denoted by geographic lines of latitude and longitude. . formed by projecting the latitude angle out from the centre of the earth to its surface. north or south from the equatorial plane.  Angle is measured (90ͦ maximum) at the earth’s centre.

 This system of geographic coordinates is used in navigation and geodesy.  Angle is measured (180ͦ maximum) at the earth’s centre. but in plane surveying. east or west from the plane of 0ͦ longitude (arbitrarily placed through Greenwich. . coordinate grid systems/original township fabric is used for referencing. England).SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE   Longitude:  Lines (meridians) run north/south & converging at the poles. formed by projecting the longitude angle out to the earth’s surface.

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 Horizontal & slope distances can be measured with a fibreglass /steel tape /with an electronic distance measuring device.  Vertical distances can be measured with a tape. . as in construction work. with a surveyor’s level and levelling rod/total stations. slope or vertical.  Recorded in feet (foot units) or meters (SI units). DISTANCE MEASUREMENT   Distance between two points can be horizontal.

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 Among common location techniques are:  Right-angle offset tie (Rectangular tie)  Angle-distance tie (Polar tie)  Intersection tie .LOCATION METHODS effort is spent in  A great deal of surveying measuring points of interest relative to some reference line so that these points may be shown later in a scaled plan.

 Precision: the refinement of the measuring process & the ability to repeat the same measurement with consistently small variations in measurements. . ACCURACY AND PRECISION   Accuracy: the relationship between the value of a measurement and the “true” value of the dimension being measured.

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56 m. ACCURACY RATIO   Accuracy Ratio: the ratio of error of closure to the distance measured.  To illustrate. The error is 0.50 = 1/4. a distance was measured and found to be 250.175 ≈ 1/4.06 m in a distance of 250.  The error of closure: the difference between the measured location and the theoretically correct location. Accuracy ratio = 0. The distance was previously known to be 250.06/250.200. .50 m.50 m.

preferably by the people who make them. ERRORS & MISTAKES   For the purpose of calculating errors.  Random errors: are associated with the skills and vigilance of the surveyor.  Systematic errors: those errors whose magnitude and algebraic sign can be determined. . the true value for a distance is taken as the mean value for a series of repeated measurements.  Mistakes must be discovered and eliminated.  Mistakes: blunders made by survey personnel.  All survey measurements are suspect until they have been verified.

20-m intervals are often used as partial stations. highway agencies the 1.98. STATIONING   Stations (or chainages) are dimensions measured along a baseline  The beginning point is described as 0+00.98 m from the beginning is 5+65. etc.  In metric system.000-unit station.000m) .  Points measured before the beginning stations are 0- 50. (1+000 = 1.  A point 565. -1+00.  A point 100 m from the beginning is 1+00.  Most municipalities have the 100-unit station (1+00=100m).

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while bound books are used to advantage on large projects. one of the most important aspects of surveying is the taking of neat. legible. and complete hand-written field notes. .  Loose-leaf bites are preferred for small projects.  Hand-written field notes can be placed in bound field books or in loose-leaf binders. FIELD NOTES   When surveys are performed not using electronic data transfer.