This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal.

Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 1

Efficient Single Phase Transformerless Inverter for
Grid-Tied PVG System With Reactive Power Control
Monirul Islam, Nadia Afrin, and Saad Mekhilef, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—There has been an increasing interest in transformer- at the end of 2012 and increased to 140GW at the end of 2013,
less inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system due to low cost, and the majority were grid connected as shown in Fig. 1 [3].
high efficiency, light weight, etc. Therefore, many transformer- Therefore, a prediction has been made in [4] that the future grid-
less topologies have been proposed and verified with real power
injection only. Recently, almost every international regulation has tied PV system will play an important role in the regulation of
imposed that a definite amount of reactive power should be han- the conventional power system.
dled by the grid-tied PV inverter. According to the standard VDE- In general, PV power generation system includes solar arrays
AR-N 4105, grid-tied PV inverter of power rating below 3.68KVA, and power conversion unit [5], [6]. In most countries and areas,
should attain power factor (PF) from 0.95 leading to 0.95 lag- a line-frequency transformer or a high-frequency transformer
ging. In this paper, a new high efficiency transformerless topology
is proposed for grid-tied PV system with reactive power control. has been utilized in the grid-tied PV system to create a galvanic
The new topology structure and detail operation principle with isolation between the PV module and the grid. However, the
reactive power flow is described. The high frequency common- use of line-frequency or high-frequency transformer makes the
mode (CM) model and the control of the proposed topology are entire system bulky, costly, and less efficient. In contrast, trans-
analyzed. The inherent circuit structure of the proposed topology formerless PV inverter system has been drawing more attention
does not lead itself to the reverse recovery issues even when inject
reactive power which allow utilizing MOSFET switches to boost for its low cost, high efficiency, small size and light weight
the overall efficiency. The CM voltage is kept constant at mid- [7]–[9]. The exclusion of transformer, and hence its isolation
point of dc input voltage, results low leakage current. Finally, to capability, has to be considered carefully due to the issues raised
validate the proposed topology, a 1 kW laboratory prototype is from no galvanic isolation between the PV module and the grid.
built and tested. The experimental results show that the proposed In this case, because of the parasitic capacitance between the
topology can inject reactive power into the utility grid without any
additional current distortion and leakage current. The maximum PV module and the ground, the fluctuating CM voltage that
efficiency and European efficiency of the proposed topology are depends on the topology structure and switching scheme can
measured and found to be 98.54% and 98.29%, respectively. cause of a capacitive leakage current [10]. The existence of
Index Terms—Common mode, converter, high efficiency, leak- leakage current increases grid current harmonics and system
age current, reactive power, transformerless. losses, deteriorates the electromagnetic compatibility and, more
significantly, lead to a safety threat [6], [11].
I. I NTRODUCTION Another important issue of grid-tied transformerless PV
inverter is the ability of injecting reactive power into the util-
R ECENTLY, the photovoltaic power generation system
has been focused as one of the most significant energy
sources due to the rising concern about global warming, and
ity grid. Recently almost every international regulation has
imposed that a definite amount of reactive power should be han-
dled by the grid-tied PV inverter. This is due to the problems of
the increase of electrical power consumption [1], [2]. In addi-
grid voltage instability. According to the standard VDE-AR-
tion, the PV module has no moving parts, which have made it
N 4105, grid-tied PV inverter of power rating below 3.68kVA,
very robust, long lifetime and low maintenance device. Though
should attain PF from 0.95 leading to 0.95 lagging [12].
the PV module is still expensive, but due to the large-scale
In order to solve the problem of leakage current, many
manufacturing it has become increasingly cheaper in the last
dc-ac transformerless topologies have been proposed based
few years. It has been reported in [3] that the milestone of
on the full-bridge (FB) inverter [7], [8], [11], [13]–[15] and
100GW installed PV power all over the world was achieved
verified with real power injection only. Most of the inverter
Manuscript received October 19, 2015; revised January 15, 2016; accepted topologies described in literature and commercially available
February 21, 2016. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Higher show the European efficiency in the range of 96%–98% [16].
Education (MoHE), Malaysia under Grant UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/24 and
in part by the University of Malaya under Grant RP015D-13AET. Paper no.
Therefore, to boost the efficiency, some of the transformer-
TSTE-00861-2015. less topologies have been implemented with MOSFET switches
M. Islam and S. Mekhilef are with Power Electronics and Renewable because of its low switching and conduction losses [7], [13],
Energy Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Electrical [17]–[20]. However, due to the low reverse recovery issues of
Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia (e-mail:
monir04eee@yahoo.com; saad@um.edu.my).
MOSFET’s anti-parallel diode, the risk of device failure exist
N. Afrin is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, in the MOSFET based phase-leg.
Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna 6600, Bangladesh (e-mail: The most attractive transformerless topology is the Highly
nadia.afrin89@gmail.com). Efficient and Reliable Inverter Concept (HERIC) topology
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. which is shown in Fig. 2(a). Two switches and two diodes are
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSTE.2016.2537365 added in the ac side of FB topology to decouple the PV module
1949-3029 © 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

proposed H6-type topology in [13]. L1B . The indicated Due to the symmetry of the operation of the positive and neg- peak efficiency and European efficiency of dual-parallel-buck ative half cycle of grid current. During the period within this region. G3. the circuit diagram for negative and 16 kHz operating frequency were 99% and 98. And the topologies presented in Fig.5 kW prototype circuit with 345V input voltage explanation is given. the proposed topology is validated with a laboratory Fig. After that. In section II. L1A . Fig. with the exception of pagination. consisting of four a grid period is divided into four regions as shown in Fig. ability and efficiency (HRE) [16]. and S6. The main advantage of these two topologies is that when a phase difference will be occurred between the output voltage and current. both the grid current and voltage are be short circuit if no dead time is present between the switches positive. the pro- body-diodes of the MOSFET switches of all the topologies pre. S2. However. S3. 3 have not been verified yet with reactive power injection. All of the switches of these three topologies can be prototype of rated 1 kW/ 50 Hz for active and reactive power implemented using MOSFET switches when inject real power. G2. According to the above discussion. L2g and Co make up the LCL of two diodes and a capacitor divider as shown in Fig. half cycle operation is depicted in Fig. 5. and G6 represent the gate type circuit with 20 kHz switching frequency were 99. 3(a). P ROPOSED T OPOLOGY AND O PERATING P RINCIPLE added a clamping branch consisting of a switch and a capacitor A. Share of grid-connected and standalone PV installation [3]. respec- 99%. An optimized H5 (oH5) topology has been presented in [14]. . 2(b). The reported maximum and California energy commission The switching pattern of the proposed topology is shown in (CEC) efficiencies of the HRE inverter on a 5 kW proto.8%. the the- leakage current. G4. L1g .3% and drive signals of the switches S1. 2 will be activated. 4 shows the proposed transformerless inverter topolo- with dc bypass (FB-DCBP) topology. through which the grid is directly connected. posed topology can be implemented with MOSFET switches sented in Fig. where G1. injects reactive power into the utility grid. injection and the experimental results is shown in section VI. the topology which has been proposed in [7] replaces when inject reactive power. 2(e). This topology splits the ac sides into two independent parts in the positive and negative B. proposed another H6 topology in [15] called full-bridge Fig. S4 & S5) input dc voltage and dc link capacitor. Also another diode (D5) is added to clamp the CM presented in section III. the circuit structure the two switches freewheeling branch with one bi-directional and the operating principle of the proposed topology is pre- switch and four diodes called H-bridge zero voltage rectifier sented. Bin et al. S4. tively. 2(d) shows another explicit transformerless topology At last. ogy can also employ unipolar-SPWM with three-level output In Fig. Next the CM characteristic of the proposed topology is (HB-ZVR). The main drawback of this topology is that the grid will Region I: In this region. voltage. Another high efficiency inverter called dual. However. 5. Therefore. these topologies may be implemented with MOSFET switches even when inject reactive power. CoolMOS switches and four SiC diodes [17]. It employs two switches gies consisting of six MOSFET switches (S1-S6) and six diodes in the dc side and a bi-directional clamping branch consisting (D1-D6). Operating Principle of the Proposed Topology half cycle of the grid current if compared with HERIC topol- ogy. decouple the PV module from the grid which is presented in Finally. S5. As seen in with high reliability. Fig. Content is final as presented. The operation principle of the proposed topology within parallel-buck converter is shown in Fig. S2 is always on. tively. 3(b). Yu et al. respectively. As results. As a result. the conclusion of this study is drawn in section VII. the diodes D1 & D2 or D3 & D4 will be activated depending on the positive or negative half cycle. respec. proposed a topology with high reli. Therefore. 2(d) & (e) and two switches (S5 & S6) of Fig. 1. VPV and Cdc represent the the case of real power injection. However. The proposed topol- system will be reduced. Gonzalez et al. L2A . G5. Fig. the main focus of this paper is to propose a new topology that can be implemented using MOSFET switches from the grid during the freewheeling period [18]. 2(f) can is derived from the topology presented in Fig. if a phase the low reverse-recovery issues of MOSFETs body-diode when difference is occurred between the output voltage and current. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Later the control strategy with reactive voltage at the half of dc input voltage for better eliminating the power control is investigated in section IV. and low leakage current even Fig. 2(c). efficiency. oretical analysis is initially verified in the MATLAB/Simulink where two switches and two diodes are added in the dc side to software environment and the results are given in section V. reliability of the without reliability and efficiency penalty. 2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY S3 and S4. 2(f). 6. L2B . which II. The proposed topology of Fig. it can be seen that most of the topologies cannot be implemented using MOSFET switches when inject reactive power. In type filter connected to the grid. here only positive half cycle converter on a 4. three switches (S2. both of these topolo- gies have not been yet verified from the view of reactive power control capability. proposed in [21] called H5 topology which is made up by adding an extra switch in the dc side of the FB inverter. Structure of the Proposed Topology divider with the H5 topology as depicted in Fig. 2(c) to overcome be implemented using MOSFET switches.

the inverter output voltage is nega. Switching pattern of the proposed topology with reactive power flow. Some existing transformerless topologies for grid-tied PV system using MOSFETs as main power switches: (a) HERIC topology proposed in [18]. Region II: In this region. the switches S1 & S3 are turned- on and the inductor current increases through grid as shown in Fig. but the current remains positive. the voltages V1N and V2N becomes: V1N = VP V /2 and V2N = complementary commutate with switching frequency.: EFFICIENT SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTER FOR GRID-TIED PVG SYSTEM 3 Fig. the voltages V1N and V2N can be defined as: V1N = +VP V and V2N = 0. Therefore. the switches S4 and S6 are tive. S5 is always on. State 1(t0:t1): At t = t0. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. while S1 & S3 synchronously and S5 complementary commu- tate with switching frequency. There are VP V /2 and the inverter output voltage V12 = 0. the inductor current freewheels through S2 and D5. In this state. In this state. 2. V1N falls and V2N rises until their values are equal. (b) topology proposed in [7] (c) topology proposed in [13] (d) H5 topology proposed in [21] (e) topology proposed in [14] (f) topology proposed in [15]. Fig. 4. (a) Circuit structure of the proposed transformerless topology for grid- tied PV system (b) circuit structure with coupled inductor. State 3(t3:t4): In this state. State 2(t1:t2): When the switches S1 and S3 are turned-off. with the exception of pagination. High efficiency transformerless topology: (a) topology proposed in [16] (b) topology proposed in [17]. thus the inverter output voltage V12 = (V1N − V2N ) = +VP V . There are always two states that generate the output voltage of +VPV and 0. 6(a). while S4 & S6 synchronously and S2 inverter output voltage is negative and the current remains . 5. 3. Fig. Content is final as presented. Fig. Since the region. also two states that generate the output voltage of −VPV and 0. ISLAM et al. During the period of this turned-on and the filter inductors are demagnetized.

The DM capacitor Co can also be removed since it has in Fig. The operating principle of the proposed topology: (a) state 1 (b) state 2 (c) state 3 (d) state 4 (e) state 5 (f) state 6. 9. a CM 2 resonant circuit can be created. Finally. thus the impact of grid on the leakage current can be neglected istics. the simplified controlled voltage source connected to the negative terminal N. 6(b) can be referred as equivalent circuit). [22]. In order to analyze the CM character. where V1N . The grid is a low frequency (50–60 Hz) voltage source. and thus the inverter output voltage. III. V12 = 0. single loop CM model of the proposed topology for positive During the positive half-cycle. 7. Since this capacitance occurs as an undesirable side 2 effect. always off. State 4(t4:t5): At t = t4. and L1 = L1A + L1g and L2 = L1B + L2g . Fig. high frequency CM model of the proposed topology for posi- LCM and CCM are the CM inductor and capacitor. a capacitance is formed between the PV module and the 1 V1N = VCM + VDM (3) ground. 9. therefore. current [6]. depends on the topology structure and control scheme. 6(c). According to the definition can easily be derived as: of common-mode and differential-mode voltage: VDM L2 − L1 1 VtCM = VCM + (5) VCM = (V1N + V2N ) (1) 2 L2 + L1 2 VDM = V1N − V2N (2) where VtCM represent total CM voltage. Therefore. The voltages V1N and V2N can be defined as: V1N = 0 and V2N = +VP V . V1N and V2N can be expressed as and L1g = L2g for a well-designed circuit with symmetrically follows: structured magnetics [16]. 9. the inductor current is forced to freewheel through the diode D1 and D2. 7 can be drawn. it is referred as parasitic capacitance. equation (5) can be rewritten as . the inductor current flows through S2 and D5 like as state 2 (Fig. the simplified parasitic capacitance. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. In the proposed inverter if L1A = L1B Solving (1) and (2). with the exception of pagination. the controlled voltage sources V3N and From Fig. Equivalent CM model of the proposed topology. [16]. As a result. 4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Fig. Content is final as presented. V2N . An alternating CM voltage that In order to illustrate the CM model at switching frequency. Simplified single loop CM model. thus the inverter output voltage V12 = (V1N − V2N ) = −VP V . 6. This state is called as energy storage mode. the switches S4 and S6 are turned- off and S2 is turned-on. The voltages V1N and V2N could be: V1N = VP V /2 and V2N = VP V /2. 8. Due to the loss of 1 V2N = VCM − VDM (4) galvanic separation between the PV module and the grid. Consequently. the switches S4 and S6 are half cycle is derived in Fig. Fig. The PV module generates an electrically chargeable surface area which faces a grounded frame. In case of such configura- tion. V3N and V4N are the no effect on the leakage current. H IGH F REQUENCY CM M ODEL OF THE P ROPOSED T OPOLOGY FOR L EAKAGE C URRENT A NALYSIS Fig. an equivalent circuit of the proposed topology as shown [23]. and decreases rapidly for endur- ing the reverse voltage as shown in Fig. equation (3) and (4) could be replaced for the bridge-leg in trify the resonant circuit and may lead to higher ground leakage Fig. 7. the following equation of the total CM voltage V4N are zero and can be removed. positive. CPVg is the tive half-cycle could be drawn as Fig. Simplified CM model at switching frequency for positive half cycle. can elec. and Zg is the grid impedance. 8.

Therefore. The grid refer- ference is the activation of different power devices. 10. Gp (s) and Gq (s) Fig. it is  2 2  igβ = 2 (Pcal ∗ vgβ + Qcal ∗ vgα ) / vgα + vgβ (14) selected to control the output current of the proposed topol- ogy. two proportional defined as follows: integral (PI) controllers. Since the active and reactive troller. with the exception of pagination. i∗g = [(Pref −Pcal ) ∗ Gp (s) ∗ vgα + (Qref −Qcal ) ∗ Gq (s) ∗ vgβ ]/  2  IV. 10. 11 Gq (s) = Kqp + Kqi ∗ /s (17) [4]. and igβ represents the α and β components (RC). several existing control methods such as conventional PI controller. controllers has been used as shown in Fig. [28]. 1 1 = (1/2VP V + 1/2VP V ) = VP V (8) 2 2 1 1 1 State 3 : VtCM = (V1N + V2N ) = (0 + VP V ) = VP V 2 2 2 (9) 1 1 State 4 : VtCM = (V1N + V2N ) = (1/2VP V + 1/2VP V ) 2 2 1 = VP V (10) 2 It is clear from equations (7)-(10) that the total CM voltage for the proposed topology during positive half cycle operation is kept constant at VP V /2. which contains an orthogonal signal generator (OSG) are the transfer function of PI based controller that can be unit to calculate active and reactive power. and deadbeat (DB) of grid voltage and current. Content is final as presented. Likewise. harmonic compensator. OSG based power calculation.: EFFICIENT SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTER FOR GRID-TIED PVG SYSTEM 5 follows: 1 VtCM = VCM = (V1N + V2N ) (6) 2 According to the operation principle of the proposed topol- ogy presented in section II (B). the total CM voltage for Fig. vgβ . reference can be generated by regulating the averaged active and Gd (s) are the transfer function of fundamental current con- and reactive power [25]. ence current can be derived with the help of OSG system in the it can be concluded that the total CM voltage during the whole following equation [25]. the grid-in current current compensator is shown in Fig. The block diagram of the PR controller with harmonic According to the single phase P-Q theory. and Kqi are the proportional and integral Pcal = 1/2 [vgα igα + vgβ igβ ] (11) gain for the active and reactive power. Qcal = 1/2 [vgβ igα − vgα igβ ] (12) In order to control the grid current. [26]. repetitive controller where vgα . Control diagram of the proposed topology. a grid current controller and a SPWM generation block. The only dif. [24]: where Kpp . the total CM voltages can be calculated for each state of positive half cycle operation as follows: 1 1 1 State 1 : VtCM = (V1N + V2N ) = (VP V + 0) = VP V 2 2 2 (7) 1 State 2 : VtCM = (V1N + V2N ) 2 Fig. 12. ISLAM et al. the active power Gp (s) = Kpp + Kpi ∗ 1 /s (16) P and reactive power Q for the proposed topology can be calcu. [29]: . C ONTROL OF THE P ROPOSED T OPOLOGY vα + vβ2 (15) The control system for the proposed topology is illustrated in where Pref and Qref are the power references. proportional resonant (PR) controller. 10. [26]: grid cycle is kept constant. 11. Based on equation (11) and (12). Gh (s). Kpi . Kqp . 1 lated by using the following equation which is shown in Fig. where Gc (s). so to control them two PI transfer functions are given below [27]. Based on the OSG system. reducing ground leakage current. Since the  2 2  PR controller has better performance of tracking the reference igα = 2 (Pcal ∗ vgα + Qcal ∗ vgβ ) / vgα + vgβ (13) signal if compared to the normal PI and RC controller. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. the negative half cycle operation can be calculated and found to be constant at VP V /2 due to the symmetry of operation for the positive and negative half cycle of grid current. and inverter respectively. igα . The power are constant in steady state. the controller can be adopted due to the capability of tracking ref- current in αβ-reference frame can be derived as follows: erence signal without steady state error [27].

. Kih is the resonant gain at the nth- order harmonic.5Ts s where Kpi and Kii are the proportional and resonant gain. 13 and 14. and proposed topology. CM characteristics of the proposed topology with pure real power flow. The PV module is replaced with a 400V dc voltage source and the parasitic capacitance between the PV module and the ground is emulated using a thin film capacitor of 75nF. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS Figs. the ground leakage cur. with pure real power and both real and reactive power flow con- ditions are shown Figs. TABLE I S PECIFICATION OF THE P ROTOTYPE Fig. As seen. with the exception of pagination. a 1 kW prototype is built and tested. The parameters are used in simulation are given in Table I. V. Block diagram of PR controller with harmonic compensator. It is clear that the grid In order to experimentally verify the performance of the current is changed according to the step load changes. are achieved which validate the robustness of the proposed rent is very small and its RMS value is only 10 mA which is far topology with the presented control scheme. s2 + (hωf ) 1 Gd (s) = (20) 1 + 1. ωf is the fundamental frequency. The . and both Pref and Qref .. 14. 13. 15 and 16 show the dynamic results under the changes of only Pref . Content is final as presented. it can be con- the half of dc input voltage excluding a small fluctuation during cluded that the fast and effective response of the load changes the grid zero crossing instant. and Ts is the sampling period..5. respectively. It can be seen the active and reactive power controller track the reference that the CM voltage ((V1N + V2N )/2 for positive half cycle and power within four cycle of operation. h is the harmonic order. Fig. S IMULATION R ESULTS The simulations are carried out using MTALAB/Simulink software to analyze and initially verify the theoretical analysis. Therefore. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. 12. VI. However. s Gc (s) = Kpi + Kii ∗ (18) s2 + ωf2  Kih s Gh (s) = 2 (19) h=3. lower than the limitation requirement of the German standard [30]. CM characteristics of the proposed topology with real and reactive The simulated CM characteristics of the proposed topology power flow. the grid cur- (V3N + V4N )/2) for negative half cycle) for both unity power rent and voltage has very low distortion and the leakage flows factor and other than unity power operation is kept constant at through the whole system is very less. 6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Fig.

shown in Fig. and V4N are clamped at 200V during the freewheeling period of positive and negative half cycle. the PV module is replaced with a 400V dc voltage German standard [30]. In Fig. However. It is clear that L1A conduct for only positive half cycle and L2B conduct only for negative half cycle. Consequently. the current platform.: EFFICIENT SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTER FOR GRID-TIED PVG SYSTEM 7 Fig. Performance of the proposed topology under the changes of Pref and leakage current flows through the system are well reduced as Qref : grid voltage vg (V). 19 due to the fluctuation of CM volt- power Pref (W) and reactive power Qref (VAR). with the exception of pagination. grid current ig (50 × A). flows through the inductor L1A . In this section. 21 shows the dynamic response of the system when it is power injection. CM characteristics of the proposed topology. It can be seen that vg and ig are pure sinu- The proposed system is implemented in the dSPACE 1104 soidal and achieved unity power factor. respec- specifications of the prototype are listed in Table I. Gate drive signals. and L2B is also shown. 17. Fig. Fig. Fig. 17 shows the experimental gate drive sig. 20. subject to 750W load to 1000W load step change. 15. Performance of the proposed topology under the changes of Pref : grid voltage vg (V). 18. leakage current ileakage (A). Verification With Real Power Injection have been occurred. shown in Fig. signals are fully matched with the proposed PWM scheme. 16. the Fig. and the gate drive voltages are kept constant at the desired level. the proposed topology is verified with 1 kW Fig. 18. It can also be seen that no overlaps A. reference active power Pref (W) and reactive power Qref (VAR). V3N . Like as tively which is lower than the limitation requirement of the simulation. The waveforms of CM characteristics are shown in Fig. It can clearly nals for the proposed topology. As a result. age. the peak and RMS value of leakage current flows through this topology are measured 24 mA and 13 mA. grid current ig (50 × A). This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. leakage current ileakage (A). source and the parasitic capacitance between the PV module The waveforms of the grid voltage vg and grid current ig are and the ground is emulated using a thin film capacitor of 75nF. ISLAM et al. 19. V2N . During zero crossing instant. It is clear that the voltages V1N . the CM voltage is kept constant at 200V for the whole grid cycle except a small fluctuation during grid zero crossing instant as witnessed in Fig. measured active power Pm (W) and reactive power Qm (VAR). reference active can be observed in Fig. 18. 20. a small spike measured active power Pm (W) and reactive power Qm (VAR). Content is final as presented. It can be seen that the switching be seen that fast and effective response under the changes of .

6 mA and 26 mA respectively which are below the requirement of the German standard VDE0126-1-1. the CM voltage is kept constant at 200V for the whole grid cycle except a small fluctuation during grid zero crossing instant similar to unity power factor operation. is given. the THD of grid current is measured active power reference are achieved with the proposed topol. 1547. 23. It is very clear that voltage stress of the switches S1 and S2 are 400V while S3 ensure 200V and also no spike is noticeable. 22. Fig. 25. 20. The waveform of grid current ig and grid voltage vg for inductive power generation is shown in Fig. it is clear that L1A . 19. In Fig. 25. Waveform of grid voltage vg .1TM -2005 [31]. The peak and RMS values of leakage current flows through the system are measured 13. Fig. CM characteristics of the proposed topology.89% for inductive power generation as shown in Fig. 22. and V4N are clamped at 200V dur- ing the freewheeling period of positive and negative half cycle. S2. Voltage stress of the switches S1. 8 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Fig. the CM characteristics are shown. 1. It can be seen that the voltages V1N . it can be concluded that the proposed topology can meet the requirement of IEEE Std. the current flowing through the inductor L1A and L2B and low THD at output. 21. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Experimental result of the system dynamic response. 26 that ogy. Fig. V3N . The waveform of leakage current is shown in Fig. Therefore. and S3. B. and leakage current iLeakage . Current flows through inductor L1A and L2B . Verification With Real and Reactive Power Injection In this section. It is noticeable that no extra distortion is occurred in grid current when inject reactive power. The voltage stress across the switches is presented in Fig. Fig. As a result. grid current ig . However. Content is final as presented. V2N . 24. Like as verification with real power. the proposed topology is verified with real power (1000W) and reactive power (500VAR) injection. 23. In can inject real power into utility grid with low leakage current Fig. with the exception of pagination.

60%.2η100% (21) . ciency with the proposed topology is 98. It may be noted that the Fig.54%. Therefore. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. 27 shows the dynamic response of the system when it topology obtain maximum efficiency of 98.10η30% power are achieved with the proposed topology. 29 presents the efficiency comparison between the pro- posed and H6-type topologies. In contrast.13η20% + 0. presented efficiency diagram covers the total devices losses and the filter inductor losses but it does not contain the losses conduct only for positive half cycle and L2B conduct only for for the control circuit. while H6-type Fig. with the exception of pagination. Total harmonic distortion of output voltage and current. it can be concluded that the proposed topology can inject reactive + 0. at various output power. Fig. Fig.: EFFICIENT SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTER FOR GRID-TIED PVG SYSTEM 9 Fig. ISLAM et al. Current flows through inductor L1A and L2B . It can clearly be seen that fast and effec. 24. C. Fig. Leakage current flows through the proposed topology. The RMS value of leakage current flows through this topology is measured 24 mA. It can be seen that the maximum effi- negative half cycle.03η5% + 0. as expressed in equation (21) [15]: tive response under the changes of active and reactive reference ηEU = 0. Leakage Current and Efficiency Comparison Under Unity Power Factor Operation The waveform of leakage current for the H6-type topology proposed in [13] with unity power factor is shown in Fig. 28.06η10% + 0. power into utility grid with low leakage current and low THD at output. 25. The European is subject to 750W and 250VAR load to 1000W and 500VAR efficiency is calculated by combining several weighted factors load step change. CM voltage and leakage current of H6-type topology. 19. Content is final as presented. 27.48η50% + 0. 28. 26. The YOKOGAWA WT1800 precision power analyzer has been used to measure the effi- ciency at different output power. 13 mA leakage current flows through the proposed topology which is given in Fig. Experimental result of the system dynamic response. Fig.

” Energy Convers. Ind. 4. Schmidt.” IEEE Trans. 2. 57. Mekhilef.S. Power Electron.” Renew. Compat. Baifeng. and L. of injecting reactive power into utility grid. K.” IEEE Trans. same. vol. Photoenergy. “Leakage current analytical model and TABLE II application in single-phase transformerless photovoltaic grid-connected P ERFORMANCE C OMPARISON inverter. 2014. [12] T. Rodriguez. Patrao. Shaojun. pp. Mar. “Transformerless topologies for grid-connected single-phase photo- voltaic inverters. S. G. “A new high-efficiency single-phase transformerless PV inverter topol- ogy. F. “An optimized transformerless photovoltaic grid-connected inverter. Jianfeng. vol. same efficiency. 2014. 69–86. ogy is lower than the H6-type topology. 2015. 1) The inherent circuit configuration of the proposed topol. grid-tied PV system. 3423–3431. 29th Annu. 5. “Trends in photovoltaic applications. 985. Apr. 1. Patents 7 411 802 B2. pp. St. 29. no. vol. Hsieh. 3356–3361. Measured efficiency comparison. Nov. 5. 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no. no. Huai. Dasgupta. degrees from the University of Malaya. Yong and L. Marroyo. Power Science and Technology. Pabna. vol. and L.Sci.. [24] S. Mar. vol.Eng. “Overview He is currently a Professor with the Department of of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation sys. Malaysia. [27] M. Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical part I: Parallel-connected inverter topology with active and reactive and Electronic Engineering.. S. López.. May/Jun. in electrical and electronic engineering from Rajshahi Photovoltaics Res. research interests include renewable energy and wire- [25] Y. D. Sanchis. Rui. pp. pp.Sc. vol. vol. Sahoo. [26] R. integration of small-scale renewable energy sources: A review. 3766–3774. R. Tenconi. He is [29] W. Kuala Lumpur. in 1995. 717–731. respec- Sustain.Sc.. vol. 15. Currently. Liserre. K.. 2007. Ind. [30] Automatic Disconnection Device Between a Generator and the Public and energy efficiency. Electron. 53. His research interests include power con- verter topologies and control for grid-tied photo- voltaic application. This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. 3.Sc. Bojoi. 60. 16. pp. F. 3.” Renew.Eng.Eng. 9. corporations in the power electronics projects.D. and A. Gubía. 2013. His research interests include no. no. Appl. 50. 3. and the M. University of Engineering and Technology. Yongheng. 26. Electron. degree in engineering currents in single-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. P. Ind.” IEEE Trans. 0_1-54. systems. pp.” Progr. vol. in 1998 and 2003. “Control strategies for single-phase grid and Ph.” IEEE Trans. ISLAM et al. He is tems. University of Malaya. Electrical Engineering. [31] IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems. pp. Germany Standard DIN VDE 0126. 1942–1952. Appl. in 2009. R. and W. 4982–4993. tively. Rajshahi.” IEEE Trans. Sep. degree in electrical engineering from the University 2011. Malaysia.: EFFICIENT SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTER FOR GRID-TIED PVG SYSTEM 11 [23] E. Algeria. control of power converters. the author and coauthor of more than 200 publica- 2006. Timbus. and A.” IEEE Trans. Panda. Oct. 1398–1409. 5. and S. [28] F. 2005. M. “Enhanced power quality control strategy for single-phase inverters in distributed generation Saad Mekhilef (M’01–SM’12) received the B. she is working as an techniques for interfacing renewable energy sources with microgrid. Blaabjerg. Mar. single-phase transformerless photovoltaic inverters. Bangladesh. Roiu. Her Electron.” IEEE Trans. Kuala Lumpur. Monfared and S. pp. Monirul Islam received the B. tions in international journals and proceedings. Energy Rev. Low-Voltage Grid. Bangladesh. renewable energy. “Low-voltage ride-through of less communication. A. L. IEEE Std 1547. Ursúa. actively involved in industrial consultancy for major point-clamped grid-tied inverter. power conversion techniques. Limongi. 2014. Power Electron. 26. no. 2011. 2012. “Novel high-efficiency three-level stacked-neutral. in 2012. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET). J. 798–806. He is currently working as a full-time Research Assistant with Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (PEARL). 2010.1-2005. Golestan. “Ground Nadia Afrin received the B. Setif. 629–650. pp. and the M. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Malaya. of Setif.. Rajshahi. K. University of Malaya. with the exception of pagination. Blaabjerg. V. Teodorescu. vol. . Pabna University of power flow control along with grid current shaping. 2015. pp. Content is final as presented. Ind. “Single-phase inverter control Bangladesh..