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Bangladeshi Leather Industry: An Overview of
Recent Sustainable Developments

Article in Journal- Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists · January 2013


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Hira Paul Paula Antunes
The University of Northampton The University of Northampton


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The University of Northampton


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NN2 7AL. Avenue Campus. Bangladesh's export of leather.. School of Science and Technology. P. PHILLIPS2 1 Institute for Creative Leather Technologies. Boughton Green Road. Tannery liquid and solid wastes are a potential pollutant but also have a potential value. footwear and leather goods. 2005. 2009. A proposed new leather park is expected to bring a clear transformation to the leather industry with a marked increase in production.6 25 . U. Bangladesh and plays a significant role in the national making it one of the most heavily populated countries of economy with a good reputation worldwide. 2010. M. Specific technologies to convert wastes are required. Real GDP. the entire leather sector meets only 0. Most of the tanneries do not have proper effluent plants and generate 20 000m3 tannery effluent and 232 tonnes solid waste per day.1 Leather in Bangladesh Bangladesh is a developing country with a population Leather is the basis of one of the oldest industries in of about 152. indigenous raw materials having a potential for export The overall economy of Bangladesh has registered a development and sustained growth over the coming steady improvement with more than 6% average years. This is an the world. product diversification and new product lines with increased sustainability of the sector. Currently Bangladesh produces and exports quality bovine and ovine. 2004. A. U. The sector directly employs approximately 558 000 people.K. COVINGTON1. NN2 6JD. Northampton. 2 Environmental and Materials Sciences. L. In addition there are about 30 modern shoe manufacturing plants engaged in the production of high-quality footwear. D.(July to 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 March) YEAR Year Leather Footwear Leather Products Total Figure1. caprine (buffalo and cow. smooth feel and natural texture. Volume 97 Page 25 Bangladeshi Leather Industry: An Overview of Recent Sustainable Developments H. sheep and goat) leathers that have a good international reputation for fine textured skins. 2008. with over 2500 smaller footwear manufacturers also present in the sector. These vary from crude and simple to highly sophisticated and complex. A.K. 2006. INTRODUCTION 1.6% in 2011. Northampton. 1. University of Northampton. The industrial sector world for its high qualities of fine grain. 2003. EVANS1 and P. 2002. University of Northampton.1 its share standing at 28. There are around 100 small-to-medium leather goods manufacturers. S. Abstract The Government of Bangladesh has indentified the leather sector as one with considerable growth and investment potential ranked fifth in the export earning sector. uniform fibre has been an important contributor to the country’s structure. Dhaka has been the capital city of agro-based by-product industry with locally available Bangladesh since it achieved independence in 1971.5 million in a total area of 147 570sq. Sustainable and cleaner production will be a key issue for the development without placing burdens on the environment.5% of the world’s leather trade worth US$75 billion. PAUL1. There are about 113 tanneries in Bangladesh that produce 180 million square feet of hides and skins per year. Bangladesh leather is widely known around the growth during the last five years. and a small number of niche larger manufacturers. However. 2007. School of Science and Technology. ANTUNES1. progress in terms of product development with respect 500 450 US$ US$ 400 350 in Million 300 Millions 250 Amount 200 150 100 50 0 2001.

ft 70 million sq.ft 30 million sq. Recent export trends indicate that the footwear sector (value added merchandise). Export performance can be anticipated to increase in the next five years with at least 12-15% growth in turnover per annum.2 Tanning in Bangladesh shows that cow hides account for 56% of the production.3 Livestock in Bangladesh following the ban on export of wet-blue hides from Bangladesh has a fairly large livestock population to Bangladesh. very large). goat and sheep. hides.ft 40 million sq. Figure 1 shows that the performance with regard to footwear is increasing substantially.5–2 26 000 (30%) 3.ft 60 million sq.5 The current output in Bangladesh is about 200 for the production of crust and finished leather. of leather annually.ft 29 45 <2 million sq.ft) 1 Cow/calf 4. No Category Annual kill in Average Total annual production Average area millions weight/piece in kg in tonnes per piece (sq.ft 21 Total: 113 230 million sq.50 20-25 11 000 (14%) 32-35 26 . at least seven large factories under construction. only 113 tanneries are in effective operation.75 3 Buffalo 0. Table II 1. size and around 48 units are considered small groups mostly to Japan.ft 100 TABLE II Livestock population for leather industry5 Sl.ft 38 million sq. Currently there are about 30 mechanized footwear companies in the country. most produce leather footwear for global export.2 support a strong and growing tanning industry. The TABLE I Structure of tanneries in Bangladesh3 Number of Typical annual production Total installed Total actual Share of actual tanneries capacity/tannery capacity/ annum for production/annum for production (%) all tanneries all tanneries 7 >5 million sq. Some ostrich leather is also imported as detailed in Table I. The Export Processing Zones (throughout Bangladesh) at present have 18 shoe and leather goods factories and there are Figure 2. accounting for 3% of country’s exports6 in 2010-11. goat skins for 30% and buffalo makes up A number of tanneries took the opportunity in 1990s the rest.4 The contribution of the leather industry to the Bangladesh economy was about US$500 million.ft 60 million sq.ft 180 million sq. Bangladesh (inset – tannery locations).4 Leather export performance hectares of land as in Figure 2. There million sq.00 12 48 000 (56%) 20-22 2 Goat/sheep 15.ft 33 48 <1 million sq. Some 5 or 6 companies produce quality leather goods which are regularly exported in appreciable volume. is growing the fastest. a good quantity of in fact. A large number of semi- mechanized and non-mechanized footwear units are also operating for the domestic market. Further progress in this regard is expected in the years to come. The new capacity [expanded and new factories] that will come on stream from late 2012 will give increased crust and finished leather commenced in the 1990s 1. where 84 per cent of the total supply of hides and skins are processed in a highly congested area of only 29 1.ft. Apart from bovine are reportedly around 220 tanneries in Bangladesh but. buffalo.3 105 of the tanneries are from Australia for production of high quality and high positioned arbitrarily in the Hazaribagh area in Dhaka priced bags and wallets for re-export to Australia.ft 17 13 2–5 million sq.ft 52 million sq.00 1. out kangaroo hides (pickled condition/wet-blue) are of these 20 units are reported to be fairly large (7 units imported from Australia and finished in Bangladesh. In the next two years the existing footwear factories are likely to export more shoes. around 45 units are considered of medium shoes are made of this kangaroo leather for export.ft 60 million sq.

i. The present a danger to human health. in those areas are far from satisfactory. Leather Goods and European Commission.9 international standards to enhance the exportability The estimated amount of tannery effluent is 20 000 of Bangladeshi leather products. The living conditions results are shown in Tables V and VI respectively. the SMEs to work economically 2. 380kg are wasted and discharged III.11 based on the low costs and capital investment. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the leather sector in Bangladesh. Improved occupational safety and health and other in various forms.8. C. main river through Dhaka which is shown in Figure 2. chemical analysis was carried out in four tanneries in A substantial quantity of the solid waste generated Dhaka (A.12 Only 255kg of finished leather (grain and embossed The objectives of Re-Tie Bangladesh are: split) is obtained for every 1000kg wet salted hides I. BFZ. A strengthened institutional structure and an generated is discharged untreated to the sewer passing outreach to SMEs for the promotion of sustainable through the area leading to the Buruganga River. just 25. m3/day in the Hazaribagh area. More efficient use of energy and implementation of process chemicals used only 72kg are retained in and measures for consumption reduction. It can also provide the opportunity to gain experience to 3. DCCI and Tanners Association (BTA) with over 150 members UNIDO for three years with total budget €2 071 000 engages in export trade. D) to measure the effluent characteristics by tanneries is dumped by the roadside in Hazaribagh.5% of the raw material becomes significantly reduce environmental pollution and finished leather. The estimated quantity of the largest in Asia.factories under construction include the Korean Annually about 85 000 tonnes of raw material are company ‘Young ones’ footwear complex which will be processed in Bangladesh. tonne of salted hides/skins according to various authors women and micro entrepreneurial start-up businesses. BANGLADESH 1. on the leather thus.9. BTA. Table IV shows the project BANGLADESH LEATHER INDUSTRY activities of Re-Tie Bangladesh. The Bangladesh SEQUA (lead partner). More efficient use of natural resources and processed. of the composite waste (raw to finish) water from so the environmental challenges are significant and tanneries with and without effluent treatment plant. The river is now on the verge of ecosystem destruction To further develop an insight into tannery pollution a and is a major health hazard. the production in Bangladeshi tannery/leather industry. and Bangladeshi leather industries is shown in Table III.1 Materials and methods destroy its ecosystem and make its water unusable. 4. B. All wastewater IV.7 Around 40m3 of water (process and waste in the Bangladeshi leather sector. tanned and untanned waste from the processing of one The leather products sub-sector is ideal for youth. This is under the SWITCH Asia Footwear Exporters Association (BFLLFEA) which programme and implemented by the project partners: operates with over 80 members.10 Composite wastewater (waste streams from different TABLE III Solid waste generated (kg) during processing of 1 tonne hides and skins9. The Institute of Leather (EU contribution 90%). Hazardous wastes pollute the surrounding environment and. CASE STUDY OF RECENT RESEARCH problems. CURRENT METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF and ecologically more sustainably using advanced SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE FROM THE technologies and practices.5 Professional Associations The reduction of environmental threats and increase of the export portential of Bangladeshi leather products There are large number of associations such as (Re-Tie Bangladesh) is a project co-funded by the Bangladesh Finished Leather.4 The sewers in the area do overflow causing health 4.e. CASE STUDY PROJECT: UNIDO – RE-TIE transfer to footwear or other creative sub sectors.2. BFLLFEA. finally reaching the river Buriganga. technical water) is required for this and out of 452kg of II. Engineering and Technology (ILET) is the only The overall objective of Re-Tie Bangladesh is the educational institution in Bangladesh covering human provision of employment and income-opportunities for resources development in the field and new technology.11 Solid waste Alexander11 Buljan9 Bangladesh Quantity generated tonnes per annum Untanned waste Raw trimmings 120 100 100 8500 Fleshings 70-230 300 250 21 250 Tanned waste Split 115 107 100 8500 Shavings 100 99 100 8500 Crust/finished cutting 32 25 30 2550 27 .

chromium (average 1012mg/l) and sodium (average H2SO4 and sodium azide – dissolved oxygen present 824mg/l). 15–18 companies. The 13 method13 (Determination of pH value and difference desired pH for this procedure is between 6. ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS). Model 370). desalting of wet salted hides and skins.HI within 48 hours of sampling. strict water management systems. DO. standard 4. conferences etc. The sample is values have been used as indicators of effluent quality. It contained a high and the excess dichromate is back titrated with ferrous concentration of solids (mainly organic matter) that ammonium sulphate. = 1. practical demonstration of OHS (Occupational Health and Safety) methods and documentation in various guides and videos G Capacity strengthening of Business Membership Organisations (BMOs) in the leather sector (organisational development) G Contributing to the design of the relevant physical infrastructure of the new industrial site for the leather industry (Savar) process steps are combined. Mn(OH)4 + 2HI = Mn(OH)2 + I2 (equal to DO) + H2O Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) was then titration determined by DIN 38409T51 (Simple Determination I2 + Na2S2O3 = Na2 S4O6 + 2NaI of BOD5) by using an Oxitop measuring system. is proportional to the deposited when the flow rate is lowered. BOD5. hair-save unhairing. TABLE IV Project activities: Re-Tie Bangladesh12 G Training of Bangladeshi experts to coach others G Implementation of cleaner production facilitated by those experts (e. It may be potassium dichromate consumed. Italy. Add this solution to the caustic solution prepared sampling and collected in sealed bottles from the earlier. The sample was incubated meter (Hanna Instruments Ltd. MnSO4. low ammonium salts deliming.5 and 7. After five days the (ORION. this is in the drain. segregation of solid waste. segregation of streams (especially chrome bearing). accumulates in the drain and the overflow runs onto Method: Alkali iodide-azide solution: Dissolve agricultural fields on the opposite side of the Dhaka 500gms of sodium hydroxide in about 800ml distilled flood protection dam. low-energy drying. with stored at approximately 4°C until analysed. total chromium. coached and employed.5 hours and heavily turbid with a bad smell. 400 SMEs (supported by campaigns. avoidance and monitoring of banned/hazardous substances. which ion coagulates with sulphide and settles as sediment liberates iodine from iodide upon acidification. all chemicals were AAnalyst 300 model. 96302. precipitated with inorganic coagulants – these are measured as oxygen equivalents.DiST®2) and the pH was determined by SLC – The pH of the sample was adjusted for analysis.84g/ml. inductive stirring system and a thermostatic incubator Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) was measured using a (temperature 20°C ± 1°C). results through those companies to approx.5 so figure of an aqueous extract) using a pH meter that bacterial growth is possible. float recycling. carried out within 24 hours to ensure that the oxygen MnSO4 + NaOH = Mn(OH)2 + Na2SO4 then add H2SO4 concentration remained constant to inhibit growth of Mn(OH)2 + O(DO) + H2O = Mn(OH)4 micro-organisms prior to analysis. solar appliances. This was constant stirring. the chromium equivalent amount of manganese(IV) hydroxide. The amount of oxidisable matter. Make up the volume to one litre. Dissolve 10gm of sodium azide in 40ml distilled selected tanneries at different sampling points and water and add it to the alkali-iodide mixture. TDS. One sector unit comprises up to 25 entrepreneurs/enterprises G Dissemination of innovation.1. sodium sulphate.) G Training of Bangladeshi experts and factory staff. full-scale chrome management. model No.2 Results and discussion potassium dichromate solution (K2Cr2O7). homogenized and treated 150gms of KI and dissolve it in about 150ml of distilled as a single sample) was collected by composite water.) using the Open Reflux Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) using Perkin Elmer Method with heating at 148 ± 3°C.14 Wastewater from different tanneries titrated using standard thiosulfate solution. Weigh separately discharge of tannery wastes into surface waters like 28 . including shop-floor level. water-based finishing and simple energy saving methods) G Institutionalisation of Outreach: Establishment of ca. refluxed with a known excess of potassium dichromate The effluent found was blackish/dark brown/dark grey in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid for 2. in the sample is quantitatively converted to an It can be seen that at an elevated pH. each lead by one facilitator who will be trained. It has been reported that water and cool to room temperature. ferroin indicator solution).g.025(N) Na2S2O3. silver COD. Table V shows a very high concentration of Iodometric method with 0. assumed that the drains become filled with such Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was estimated using the matters. of analytical grade (sulphuric acid. value was converted into the BOD5 value with the Total chromium (method EN-7 – the chromium is following equation: Value x Factor = BOD5 (mg/l) chelated and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was determined sodium (method-EN-4) were determined using Atomic by DIN 38401(Method: H 41. mercuric sulphate.

3).12 9. These The target of biological treatment is to convert soluble values indicate depletion of oxygen from the receiving organic matter and non-soluble colloidal solids into inert water. Figure 3 shows the structure of one factory area and in the rainy season. secondary clarifier. chromium and other pollutants. 3) is transferred to the and other aquatic life. CASE STUDY: IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY from wastewater by the bar screen. The overflow of the clariflocculator is values show the presence of a very high concentration transferred to the aeration tank for biological treatment. However Table VI sludge thickener. The only 186 ETPs are in operation. COD The settled solids are then transferred to the sludge (average 3407mg/l) and BOD5 (average 1388mg/l) thickener.5 million residents of the Bangladesh capital. nutrients. After biological treatment the overflow dissolved solids (average 7100mg/l) are injurious to fish from the aeration tank (Fig. DO results (nil) indicate the precipitated here (Fig.15 raw effluents emanating from the process section (wet- blue-finish) pass through the screen chamber to the equalization tank. The treated water is pumped through a PLANT (ETP) pressure sand filter to remove any fine solids that may have been carried over with the water. The high oxygen demand of tannery wastes is solids and other simple end products. 3). The biological mass is then chemical and biological characteristics and can make separated and settled in the lower part of the clarifier. The effluent from the flash mixer then transfers to the It has been suggested that waste streams are clariflocculator (primary clarifier) for settling of the segregated according to their characteristics to avoid solids. fatty matter. tannins and inorganic as urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) are added pollutants present in significant quantities. individual companies in Bangladesh and in about 709 The purpose is to reduce or remove organic matter. Pre. If the bio mass is above 25% it will be transferred to the industrial and agricultural purposes. The equalization OF POLLUTION tank is equipped with three ejectors to homogenize the About 0. the detrimental effect. The water from The Effluent Treatment Plant changes pollutants into the sand filter is collected in sump-II (Fig.5-8mg/l BOD5 1250mg/l 1435mg/l 1478mg/l 50mg/l COD 3010mg/l 3460mg/l 3750mg/l 200mg/l TDS 6850mg/l 6920mg/l 7530mg/l 2100mg/l TSS 1910mg/l 1720mg/l 1850mg/l 150mg/l Na 800mg/l 770mg/l 901mg/l 60mg/l Cr (total) 1210mg/l 1150mg/l 675mg/l 2mg/l Effluent Flow >40m3 / >40m3 / >40m3 / 30m3 /1000kg hides/skins (H/S) 1000kg H/S 1000kg H/S 1000kg H/S 29 .3 6-9 Colour Blackish/dark grey Dark brown Dark grey Absent Odour Pungent Foul Pungent Absent DO Nil Nil Nil 4. CASE STUDY: EFFLUENT TREATMENT thickener. the receiving water less acceptable for drinking. The effluent from Dhaka are at risk of serious health issues due to TABLE V Tannery without an effluent treatment plant (raw to finishing. to support the micro-organisms. There are about 1095 process to purify wastewater before it is discharged. Lightly something which is environmentally more acceptable coloured water passes through the activated carbon and is designed to meet a specific need because of filter and is then discharged into inland water. very high fixed aerator. waste and to prevent settling of solids.70 8. Lime. a centrifuge is ETP plant in Bangladesh which has a multi-stage used to form the sludge cake.channels and tanks has increased their salinity. of dissolved organic matter in the wastewater. Oxygen is added by a excessive alkalinity (average 824mg/l). composite effluent) Parameter Tannery A Tannery B Tannery C DOE standard for Bangladesh (Discharge to inland surface water) pH 8. alum and polymer are added according to sulphide oxidation are recommended in order to avoid the proper requirements for sedimentation of sludge. Inorganic substances (chromium) are possible safety risks. Their presence will affect physical. High pH. stabilization action (degradation of organic matter). Nutrients such due to proteins. the equalization tank is transferred into the flash mixer treatment techniques such as chrome recovery and tank. The overflow from the tube settler is collected in sump-I and sludge is transferred to the sludge 5. solids. of them ETP is required for pollution containment but. The overflow from the secondary shows that the values for the treated effluent (except clarifier is then transferred into a tube settler through a Cr/Na) are within the limits as set by the Department of baffled channel. The suspended solids are separated 6. Environment15 standards of Bangladesh. Sludge variation of effluent from tannery to tannery and from from the sludge drying beds goes to landfill within the process to process.

the project envisages provided with health and safety equipment. improved. dermatological and other diseases that could be related According to the present plan. TABLE VI have very little knowledge about their short. 144 acres (72%) of the to pollution and that 90% of them die before the age of land are to be developed as industrial plots.5-8mg/l TANNERY ECONOMIC ZONE BOD5 370mg/l 44mg/l 50mg/l COD 935mg/l 115mg/l 200mg/l The unplanned tanneries at Hazaribagh in Dhaka do TDS 3870mg/l 140mg/l 2100mg/l not have supporting infrastructure facilities. Major relocation of tannery units from other parts of the country. The Government of Bangladesh has report says large numbers of the 8 000-12 000 workers decided to move the whole tannery operation to a new at the tanneries suffer from gastrointestinal. will be utilized for infrastructure for the It is imperative that the non-sustainable techniques estate that includes a Central Effluent Treatment Plant for tannery solid waste disposal in Bangladesh must be (CETP).90 7. The balance. Legislation must also be developed to Parameter Raw Treated DOE standard take account of the combined effects of chemical effluent effluent for Bangladesh substances. location of 200 acres at 20km from Dhaka city. A total of 195 developed industrial plots in 4 The development of sustainable leather technologies categories will be created from the 200 acres of the is rapid and areas of use are increasing. Plant (CETP) has thus become a prerequisite for the according to a report released by the Bangladesh survival and growth of this vital export-oriented sector Society for Environment and Human Development. The of the country. The ‘open’ disposal of solid tannery waste electricity sub-station and others.17 30 .Figure 3. POSSIBLE TANNERY RELOCATIONS: DO Nil 4. however we estate as in Table VII. efforts need to be made both to reduce direct exposure and also hopes to attract fresh investment from within and the spread of substances hazardous to health from and outside the country for establishment of new tannery the leather industry. administrative building. To set up a Central Effluent Treatment chemical pollution from tanneries near their homes. medium Tannery D with effluent treatment plant and long term impact on humankind and the (wet-blue-finishing.16 56 acres (28%).30 6-9 Colour Blackish Absent Absent of surrounding areas. Hazaribagh TSS 1800mg/l 30mg/l 150mg/l itself is surrounded by thickly populated localities of the Na 560mg/l 90mg/l 60mg/l city. Relocation of the tanneries to a more spacious Cr(total) 150mg/l 3mg/l 2mg/l location with appropriate infrastructure for efficient and Effluent flow =<30m3/1000kg H/S 30m3/1000kg H/S cost effective treatment of solid and liquid wastes is an obvious need. /dark grey Odour Pungent Not present Absent 7. composite effluent) environment. 50 as compared 60% for the country as a whole. After the relocation of must be terminated and the workers should be tanneries from Hazaribagh. disposal yard.6mg/l 4. Simplified flow diagram for an effluent treatment plant in Bangladesh. units. drainage. Tannery effluent in Bangladesh has (Discharge to inland surface water) reached such an alarming level that it poses a significant threat to public health and economic growth pH 8.

5000 39 39 2. with Bangladesh. 7. Leather with an estimated demand for 30 million pairs per year. However. If operations are conducted according to unique opportunity to adopt sustainable practice in a international standards and if appropriate mitigation suitable environment. 9. This is complemented with the existence of organizations and institutional arrangements like the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) etc. CETP and other industrial installations in the proposed recycling and re-use of leather and leather products. Ludvik.000 4 ‘S’ type 0..000 26 26 2.000 2 ‘B’ type 0.epb. leather sector as secure for investment.php (around 15 million) is estimated to have an income level 5. United Nations Industrial Bangladesh has only a 1% share of the world footwear Development Organization (UNIDO). 2010. Dhaka.36 51. 253. Gutterres.dhakacity..000 3 ‘C’ type 0. There are about 49 300 tonnes of solid waste generated every year from tanneries in Bangladesh. J. Buljan. Bangladesh. Bangladesh Tanners Association (BTA). TF/BGD/05/001.. 2005. Regional Programme for market. the proposed project is likely to cause a minimal impact and will comply with (Received September 2012) Bangladesh national standards and other environmental requirements. Homepage of Global Finance. P. Pollution Control in the Tanning Industry in South-East Asia. 2011. proceedings of the XXV IULTC European Union (EU) is the biggest destination for Congress. A. The government should try to facilitate growth in industries which can use these wastes to make other value added products. (2005).. footwear exports with a 60% share. Map. CONCLUSIONS Dhaka. (Bangladesh) 2012. including those of European Union if the government fails to set up the CETP by June 2014. Nevertheless. (BETS)18 tanneries from Hazaribagh to Savar. The footwear sub-sector of Bangladesh earned 8. for footwear and other leather products for Bangladesh (http://www. Bangladesh Country growth in the domestic market in consideration of the fact bangladesh-regions. Technical Report.931.611. the 3.18 25. J. The leather into next and duty free access to major international markets. tannery estate was completed by Bangladesh To make progress. Survey Report. J. Buljan.. TABLE VII Categories of newly developed industrial plots17 SI No Category of Size of Approx indicative Number of Number of Total plots plot (Ha) cost per plot US$ plots units to be set up revenue US$ 1 ‘A’ type 0.750 114 114 2. 94. A. Bangladesh. and comparable to that of the developed countries. J. 8.htm and that approximately 10% of Bangladesh’s total population http://www. Dhaka. 2. Reich. and the rest of the world accounting for 10%. the Government is keen to relocate Engineering and Technological Services Ltd. J. Science and Technology for revenues in excess of US$250 million in 2010-2011. D. domestic market due the limited national purchasing 4. Sahasranaman. 31 . Hence.674.. power. References 1. An Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) for the faces considerable concerns with regard to end-of-life. developed countries.27 – 16 16 – Total 195 195 7. Bangladesh Export Promotion Bureau (EPB). The site for the Savar leather park.006.. M. industry insiders are expecting a http://www. A by-product manufacturing unit (chrome and protein recovery) and energy generation could be useful options. UNIDO Expert Team. Hide and Skin Merchants Association (HSMA). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. this gives the in 2005. Technol.000 Bangladesh’s leather sector is deemed competitive because of its low labour cost differentiation. sector has a rather constrained demand structure in the Dhaka. measures are put in place. followed by Japan New Delhi. Soc.72 103. there appears to be a large unexplored domestic market 6. United Nations Industrial Developed countries are treating Bangladesh’s Development Organization (UNIDO). India.. G. The industry in Bangladesh as a whole. Aquim. local availability of hides and a favourable business Bangladesh. Chem. 2000. Bangladeshi leather products will have no access to Figure 4. It is a clear move towards Industrial Ecology (IE). 2010.1999. Survey report.

W. Dhaka. Gain. 2005. Training Institute for Chemical Industries (TICI). J. 12.. Dhaka. Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment. et al. G. 2000.. et al. R. Bangladesh. T. Moral. 2011.. P. 1992. 234.. J. 1999. Dhaka. Bangladesh Engineering and Technological Services Ltd. European Union (EU).. (BETS). Report on 14. SEHD. 32 View publication stats . Switchasia Project. Bangladeshi leather products. Environment Impact assessment (EIA) for the Central 13. N... Balc´azar. Avila-P´erez. Dhaka. Leather Industry: Environmental Pollution and Leather Technol. Chem. Bangladesh. 15. 185. Official Effluent Plant (CETP) and other industrial installations in the Methods of Analysis. D. 2005. Corning. Bangladesh. Mitigation measures. Alexander. M.. 2010. Soc.. Cory. Bangladesh. 2005. Re-Tie Bangladesh: Reduction of 17. Ministry of Industries (MOI). P. 16. Department of Environment (DOE). 76. S. The Existing Environmental Status of Hazaribagh. Dhaka. Dhaka. Zaraz´ua-Ortega. Masterplan for relocation of environmental threats and increase of exportability of tanneries from Hazaribagh to Savar. K. 1998. 11.10. 18. proposed tannery estate. Bangladesh. Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists (SLC). 17.