IV.

METODE PENTRU O INVATARE ACTIVA

Activizarea predarii-invatarii presupune folosirea unor metode, tehnici si procedee care
sa-l implice pe elev in procesul de invatare, urmarindu-se dezvoltarea gandirii, stimularea
creativitatii, dezvoltzarea interesului pentru invatare, in sensul formarii lui ca participant activ la
procesul de educare. Astfel elevul este ajutat sa inteleaga lumea in care traieste si sa aplice in
diferite situatii de viata ceea ce a invatat.
Metodele constituie elementul esential al strategiei didactice, ele reprezentand latura
executorie, de punere in actiune a intregului ansamblu ce caracterizeaza un curriculum dat.
In acest context, metoda poate fi considerata ca instrumentul de realizare cat mai deplina a
obiectivelor prestabilite ale activitatii instructive. De aici si o mare grija pentru adoptarea unor
metode variate, eficiente si adecvate nu numai specificului disciplinelor, profilul scolii, ci si scopului
general al invatamantului si cerintelor de educatie ale grupului cu care se lucreaza.
Din aceasta perspectiva, metodele pentru o invatare activa se pot clasifica in:
I. Metode care favorizeaza intelegerea conceptelor si ideilor, valorifica experienta proprie a elevilor,
dezvolta competentte de comunicare si realtionare, de deliberare pe plan mental si vizeza formarea
unie atitudini active: discutia, dezbaterea, joci'ul de rol etc.
II. Metode care stimuleaza gandirea si creativitatea, ii determina pe elevi sa cautesi sa dezvolte solutii
pentru diferite probleme, sa faca reflectii critice si judecati de valoare, sa compare si sa analizeze situatii
date: studiul de caz, rezolvarea de probleme, jocul didactic, exercitiul etc.
III. Metode prin xare elevii sunt invatati sa lucreze preoductiv cu altii si sa-si dezvolte abilitatile de
colaborare si ajutor reciproc: mozaicul, cafeneaua, proiectul in grupuri mici etc.
Exemple de metode cu valente activizatoare
Discutia
Discutia are semnificatia unui schimb reciproc si organizat de informatii si de idei, de impresii si
de pareri, de critici si de propuneri in jurul unei teme sau chestiuni determinate in scopul examinarii si
clarificarii in comun a unor notiuni si idei, al consolidarii si sisitematizarii atelor si conceptelro, al
explorarii unor analogii, similitudini, al solutionarii unor probleme care comporta alternative.
Utilizarea discutiei prezinta numeroase avantaje dintre care mentionam crearea unei atmosfere
de dechidere, facilitarea intercomunicarii si a acceptarii punctelor de vedere diferite, constientizarea
complexitatii situatiilor in aparenta simple, optimizarea relatiior profesor-elevi si statornicirea unui climat
democratic la nivelul clasei. Prin discutie se exesseaza abilitatile de ascultare activa si de respectare a
regulilor de dialog.
Etape ale discutiei:
1. Reamintiti elevilor regulile de discutie.
Un mod de a crea un mediu in care toti elevii sa se simta in siguranta si capabili sa participe la
discutii este se a stabili o lista scurta de reghuli pe care toti elevii sa le inteleaga si pe care sa le
respecte. Aceasta se poate realiza la inceputul anului scolar, cand se stabilesc impreuna cu elevii
anumite reguli care pot fi schimbate ori de cate ori va fi nevoie pe parsursul anului scolar. Exemple de
reguli convenite:
- Asculta persoana care vorbeste.
- Vorbeste cand iti vine randul.
- Ridica mana daca doresti sa spui ceva.
- Nu interupe pe cel care vorbeste.
- Critica ideea si nu persoana care o exprima.
- Nu rade de ce spune colegul tau.
- Incurajeaza-ti colegii sa participe la discutii.
2. Aranjati elevii in cercsau in semicerc si stati impreuna cu ei pentru a modera discutia
(optional).

tema/problema pe care jocul cu rol trebuie sa le ilustreze si personajele de interpretat . actiuni. · Accentuati in mod pozitiv partea de raspuns care este corecta. Stabiliti obiectivele pe care le urmariti. Sugestii: · Puneti intrebari la care pot fi date mai multe raspunsuri. jucand rolul victimei. preocupari si motivatii diferite. dat prinn scenariu . etc. fapte. · Nu permiteti monopolizarrea discutiei de catre anumiti elevi si incurajati pe elevii timizi sa participe la discutii. Prezentati subiectul discutiei cu claritate si intr-un mod care sa incurajeze exprimarea ideilor. de multe ori "incremenirea in propriul proiect" ne impiedica sa vedem posibile variante si alternative ale propriilor "roluri". Scopul este de a-i pune pe participanti in ipostaze care nu le sunt familiare tocmai pentru a-i ajuta sa inteleaga situatiile respective si pe alte persoane care au puncte de vedere. · Acordati elevilor suficient timp de reflectie pentru a-si organiza raspunsurile. § Ce ai fi facut tu intr-o astfel de situatie? Ce crezi ca a simtit persoana respectiva? Ce ai fi simtit tu intr-o astfdel de situatie? (Elevii sunt invatati sa devina capabili sa dezvolte empatie). se deplaseaza accentul spre cautarea motivelor). a reproduce in mod fictiv situatii. cum ar fi: § Ce s-a intamplat? (o astfel de intrebare ii ajuta pe elevi sa-si clarifice perspectiva asupra cazului). Este stiut faptul ca de cele mai multe ori avem tendinta de a subaprecia. De asemenea. sinteza si evaluarea elementelor situatiei. De exemplu. dezvoltand in acelasi timp gandirea critica. in cadrul unui joc de rol despre un furt. A simula este ceva similar cu a mima. 3. elevul poate intelege ce simte o persoana atunci cand este victima unui delict. Jocul de rol Metoda jocului de rol se bazeata pe ideea ca se poate invata nu numai din experienta directa ci si din cea simulata. evitand intrebarile cu raspunsuri "da" sau "nu". § Se putea intampla si altfel? Cum? (se subliniaza ideea ca actiunile sunt de fapt rezultatul unei alegeri sau sunt influentate dea faptul ca nu s-a ales cea mai buna alternativa). a te preface. creat de cel c are le interpreteaza . a imita. a situatiei analizate utilizand o gama variata de intrebari. · Formulati intrebari care presupun analiza. moderati discutia. § De ce s-a intamplat aceasta? (se incurajeaza intelegerea cauzelor si a efectelor. despre personajele si lumea din jur intr-o maniera placuta si atragatoare. blama sau dimnpotriva.participantii primesc cazul si descrierea rolurilor si le interpreteaza ca atare. Simularea prin jocul de rol duce la cresterea gradului de adaptabilitate si la ameliorarea relatiilor dintre persoane. dintre care mentionam: · Jocul cu rol prescris. · Jocul cu rol improvizat. interese. 4.se porneste de la o situatie data si fiecare participant trebuie sa-si dezvolte rolul. § A fost corect? De ce ? (sunt intrebari esentiale care trebuie puse pentrru a stimula dezvoltarea morala a elevilor). facilitand exprimarea pounctelor de vedere difrite si lansand intrebari care sa provoace continuarea dicutiei. capacitatea de exprimare si pe cea empatica. avand grija sa orientati cu subtilitate raspunsurile elevilor. · Duceti discutia in directia care sa permita o explorare eficienta a problematicii abordate. prin jocul de rol elevii pot invata despre ei insisi. responsabilitati. Etapele metodei: 1. adresati o intrebare de genul "de ce credeti asta? De ce credeti ca?". Din acaasta perspectiva. · Pentru a aprofunda problema pusa in discutie. de a supraaprecia "rolurile" pe care diferite persoane cu care intram in contact se intampla sa le indeplineasca. Exista mai multe variante.

discutati cu elevii in ce mod poate fi imbunatatit. Studiul de caz Este o metoda care se bazeaza pe cercetare si stimuleaza gandirea critica prin analiza. Alegerea cazului se fade in functie de anumite criterii . . De retinut: · Deoarece jocul de rol simuleaza situatii reale. Daca ete nevoie. se pot ivi intebari care nu au un raspuns simplu. 8. Evaluati activitatea impreuna cu "actorii" si "spectatorii". Sa presupuna o inteventie urgenta. Este foarte important ca elevii sa accepte puncte de vedere diferite ca pe ceva natural si normal. este important ca elevii sa reflecteze la acticitatea defasurata ca la o experienta de invatare. Sa fie autentica . diagnosticarea si rezolvarea unui caz. In final. daca se interpreteaza simultan. Pentru ca o situatie sa devina un caz. Pregatiti fisele cu descrierile de rol 3. Intrebatii-i: · Ce sentimente aveti in legatura cu rolurile/situatiile interpretate? · A fost interpretarea conforma cu realitatea? · A fost rezolvata problma continuta de situatie? Daca da. De exemplu. acordati elevilor cateva minute pentru a naliza situatia si pentru a-si pregati rolurile/reprezentatia. stabiliti modul in care se va desfasura jocul de rol: · ca o povestire in care un narator povesteste desfasurarea actiunii si diferite personaje o interpreteaza. Pentru a intari ideea de participare activa si efectiva la solutionarea unei probleme. Etapele unui studiu de caz: 1. . Sa fie legata de preocuparile grupului. aranjati mobilierul pentru a avea suficient spatiu. sa fie o situatie problema care suscita interesul. · ca o sceneta in care personajele interactioneaza. In cazul unui grup cu care se foloseste metoda pentru prima data.cum reactioneaza?) 6. cum? Daca nu. intelegerea. "incalziti" grupul in vedrea acceptarii jocul de rol. Sa fie complet prezentata .pentru ca participantii la rezolvarea cazului sa detina informatiile necesare sa sa dezvolte solutii de rezolvare. se recomanda ca situatiile folosit sa fie unele reale. 9. de exemplu. un joc de rol despre minoritati etnice organizat intr-o clasa cu elevi apartinand respectivei minorutati trebuie desfasurat in asa fel incat elevii sa nu se simta vizati sau marginalizati. sugerati o situatie usoara pentru a se obisnui (Ei afla. uneori este util sa intrerupeti interpretarea intr-un anumit punct pentru a le cere elevilor sa reflecteze la cea ce se intampla (daca se ajunge la un moment exploziv in interpretarea unui conflict este chiar necesar sa le cereti sa-l rezolve intr-un mod nonviolent). ingrupuri mici sau cu toata clasa 4. Alegerea cazului 2.2. 5.sa contina toate datele necesare pentru a fi solutionata. In aceste situzatii. Elevii interpreteaza jocul de rol. este indicat sa sugerati ca nu exista un singur raspuns si nu trebuie sa va impuneti propriul punct de vedere asupra unor probleme controversate. Cercetarea materialului de catre elevi. decideti impreuna cu elevii cati dintre ei vor juca roluri. · Jocurile de rol trebuie folosite acordand atentie componentei etnice si sociale a clasei si sentimentelor individuale. de ce ? · Ce ar fi putut fi diferit in interpretare?ce alt final ar fi fost posibil? · Ce ati invatat din aceasta experianta? In catul in care jocul de rol nu este reutit . . 7. ca au castigat o suma mare de bani .nu orice situatie este un caz. inventand dialogul odata cu derularea actiunii · ca un proces care respecta in mare masura procedura oficiala. Se pot insa rezuma punctele in care se pare ca s-a ajuns la o intelegere si se pot lasa dechiseanumite aspecte care sunt discutabile. de exemplu despre comportamentul corect sau incorect al unuii personaj. trebuie sa intruneasca urmatoarele caracteristici: . cati vpr fi observatori. In timpul reprezentarii.

*invatarea aplicata (elevul devine capabil sa aplice o strategie de invatare intr-o anumita instanta de invatare). formulati intrebari de genul: ce s-a intamplat in situatia cercetata. ce elemente sunt importante.caracterului ludic si oferind alternative de invatare cu "priza" la copii. lipseste ceva semnificativ din prezentarea faptelor.In cadrul invatarii active.elevul indeplineste sarcini care il vor conduce la intelegere).procesul de invatare calibrat pe interesele /nivelul de intelegere /nivelul de dezvoltare al participantilor la proces. *gandirea creativa(elevul are propriile sale sugestii .ia parte la activitati). se revine la caz. 3. Printre metodele care activizeaza predarea-invatarea sunt si cele prin care elevii lucreaza productiv unii cu altii . · Pentru a-i ajuta.dupa functia principala didactica in : a)Metode de predare -invatare interactiva in grup : #metoda predarii / invatarii reciproce(Reciprocal teaching -Palinscar) #metoda "mozaicului"( Jigsaw) #metoda "Cascadei"(Cascade) #metoda invatarii pe grupe mici("STAD-Student Teams Achievement Division") #metoda "turnirului intre echipe"("TGT-Teams/Games/Tournaments") #metoda schimbarii perechii("Share-Pair Circles") b)Metode de fixare si sistematizare a cunostintelor si de verificare . care sunt partile implicate.de altfel observabile: *comportamente ce denota participarea (elevul e activ.htm Invatarea activa inseamna.propune noi interpretari).org/tools/tools_ideation.raspunde la intrebari. *construirea cunostintelor (in loc sa fie pasiv.Ele pot avea un impact extraordinar asupra elevilor datorita denumirilor foarte usor de retinut. fara a se lua in considerare toat elementele cazului si din acest motiv parerile vor fi diferite si controversate.isi dezvolta abilitati de colaborare si ajutor reciproc.este faza in care se emit solutii bazate pe perceptia personala. de ce au actionat cei implicati in acel mod? · Solicitati elevilor impresii la prima vedere asupra cazului .conform dictionarului. se stabilesc din nou http://creatingminds.se pun bazele unor comportamente. Metodele si tehnicile interactive de grup se clasifica.

Teachers model. and . question generating. clarifying. #harta cognitiva / conceptuala #matricile #"Lanturile cognitive" #"Scheletul de peste" #diagrama cauzelor si a efectului #"Panza de paianjen" #"Tehnica florii de nufar" #"Cartonase luminoase" c)Metode de rezolvare de probleme prin stimularea creativitatii : #"Brainstorming" #"Explozia stelara" #"Metoda palariilor ganditoare" #"Caruselul" #"Multi-voting" #"Masa rotunda" #interviul de grup #studiul de caz #"Incidentul critic" #"Phillips 6/6" #"Tehnica 6/3/5" #"Controversa creativa" #"Tehnica acvariului" #"Tehnica focus-grup" #"Patru colturi" #"Metoda Frisco" #"Buzz-groups" Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity in which students become the teacher in small group reading sessions. then help students learn to guide group discussions using four strategies: summarizing.

The Clarifier will address confusing parts and attempt to answer the questions that were just posed. Once students have learned the strategies.  It helps students learn to be actively involved and monitor their comprehension as they read. the Summarizer will highlight the key ideas up to this point in the reading. 4. (Source: ReadingQuest) . At the given stopping point. How to use reciprocal teaching Before Reciprocal Teaching can be used successfully by your students. Have students read a few paragraphs of the assigned text selection. clarifying). the predictor might suggest what the next events in the story will be. Encourage them to use note-taking strategies such as selective underlining or sticky-notes to help them better prepare for their role in the discussion. This continues until the entire selection is read. The Questioner will then pose questions about the selection: o Unclear parts o Puzzling information o Connections to other concepts already learned 6. The Predictor can offer predictions about what the author will tell the group next or.  It teaches students to ask questions during reading and helps make the text more comprehensible. 2. 7. Distribute one note card to each member of the group identifying each person's unique role: o Summarizer o Questioner o Clarifier o Predictor 3. questioning. they need to have been taught and had time to practice the four strategies that are used in reciprocal teaching (summarizing. 5. if it's a literary selection. predicting. Put students in groups of four. One way to get students prepared to use reciprocal teaching: (from Donna Dyer of the North West Regional Education Service Agency in North Carolina) 1. predicting. they take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading a dialogue about what has been read. Students repeat the process using their new roles. 8. The roles in the group then switch one person to the right. Why use reciprocal teaching?  It encourages students to think about their own thought process during reading. and the next selection is read.

[1][2][3] The technique splits classes into mixed groups to work on small problems that the group collates into a final outcome. race. each student learns about his or her topic and presents it to their group. Throughout the process. Initially. the teacher's role is to guide and nurture the students' ability to use the four strategies successfully within the small group. students reconcile points of view and synthesize information. It was designed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson to help weaken racial cliques in forcibly integrated schools. and (5) Her life and work after Franklin's death. if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt. Finally.[1] For example. (3) Her life after Franklin contracted polio. For example. Students are then split into groups with one member assigned to each topic. In same-topic groups. and ability. The jigsaw technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. Each member presents again to the topic group. this person should be the most mature student in the group. STEP THREE Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 segments. (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady. ethnicity. you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on: (1) Her childhood. STEP ONE Divide students into 5.9. students gather into groups divided by topic. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the (jigsaw) puzzle. They create a final report. an in-class assignment is divided into topics. The final presentations provide all group members with an understanding of their own material. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender. Working individually. . STEP TWO Appoint one student from each group as the leader. as well as the findings that have emerged from topic-specific group discussion.or 6-person jigsaw groups. (2) Her family life with Franklin and their children. Next. The teacher's role is lessened as students develop skill. the original groups reconvene and listen to presentations from each member.

STEP NINE Float from group to group. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group. There is no need for them to memorize it. STEP SIX Form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment. STEP EIGHT Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification. observing the process. . STEP FIVE Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. Make sure students have direct access only to their own segment. STEP SEVEN Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups. STEP FOUR Assign each student to learn one segment.

Not only is learning improved. . The jigsaw method gives students a sense of ownership and belonging – feelings hard to experience when working alone. Students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count. a member is dominating or disruptive). and assign one student in each group to be responsible for a different segment.. Jigsawing requires students to listen and learn. Step 2: Divide the day’s reading or lesson into 4-6 parts. STEP TEN At the end of the session. give a quiz on the material. it's best for the group leader to handle this task. Eventually. Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene. students gain the benefit of learning from those different from themselves. but tolerance and understanding is as well. make an appropriate intervention. until the leader gets the hang of it. Step 4: Put students who completed the same segment together into an “Expert group” to talk about and process the details of their segment.g. Step 3: Give students time to learn and process their assigned segment independently. and the group is rewarded when each individual contributes their skills and knowledge to the whole.If any group is having trouble (e. the fact that they have the opportunity to listen to the perspectives of others enhances the quality of their education. A Simple 6-Step Process If you’re interested in running a jigsaw activity in your classroom. While individual students could be required to do the entirety of a project on their own. follow this simple six-step guide (or check out a similar 10-step guide by the Jigsaw Classroom): Step 1: Organize students into a group of 4-6 people. n addition to having shared responsibility to the group setting.

is the reason why think-pair-share is so effective! In a think-pair-share. where both the student and teacher are hesitating to increase interaction. so that they have more time to process the question. In the example given above. Give students some time to think about the question on their own. where’s the teacher? At first. It also helps each student article the importance points of their segment better when reporting to their jigsaw group. this gives the students the opportunity to 'check out' their answer with another student or hear another possible answer." Everyone take a moment and think about the question. Think-Pair-Share Steps of a Think-Pair-Share This kind of situation. Step 4 – the putting students into temporary expert groups – is often skipped in the jigsaw process. explaining of roles. students are given think time to reflect on a question silently. When the students are in groups for steps 4 and 5. Step 5: Have students return to their original “Jigsaw” groups and take turns sharing the segments they’ve become experts on. ask students to share thoughts with the whole group. During this whole process. but it is an essential step. the teacher gets feedback on what the students do or don't know though informal assessment. 3. the language. which serves as a form of accountability for the students. Notice that the teacher doesn’t have to lecture or be the focal point of attention. When students encounter information on their own. In this discussion/explanation. 2. "Why did the ancient Egyptians create pyramids? Let's do a "think-pair-share. the teacher asks the class." The room is silent for a minute while everyone reflects. 4. they gain a limited perspective on it or may feel confused. By then discussing their answer with a partner and the class. and timing for each portion. Ask a thought-provoking question of your class. Step 6: Have students complete a task or a quiz that’s reliant on them having understood the material from the contributions of all their group members. and teachers can monitor comprehension. If confused. The expert group is an opportunity for students to share their ideas so they each reach a greater understanding of their same segment. or think of the language needed to convey the answer. Have students share their thoughts with a partner. . the teacher should walk amongst the groups and lend support or explanation where necessary. the students can ask their peers for help. follow these steps: 1. Finally. At this time the ELL students may be putting together language and content concepts. the teacher facilitates the arranging of groups. Next the teacher instructs the students. In order to use this activity. students have the opportunity for increased interaction. as well as the language they will need to respond. This helps confused students clarify their understanding and lean on more able peers.

Who would like to share what you talked about?" At this point. which may not seem so intimidating. Benefits A benefit of the think-pair-share is that the teacher has an opportunity to hear from many students — including the "quiet" ones. each pair then finds another pair to share answers with. This can reinforce the student's confidence in his/her thinking and provide modeling for how to say the idea correctly in English. As first team reads their answers aloud. I have seen some of my shyest students offer wonderful answers after they had an opportunity to do a think-pair- share.  Students mix around the room silently as music plays in the background. Second team then shares answers that were missing from first team’s list. Share: A great activity to get kids up and moving and encourage them to interact with all of their classmates . "Okay. I heard lots of good ideas.  Arrange students into pairs (teacher or student choice)."Now turn to the person next to you and tell them what you are thinking. the second team adds new ideas to their list or puts a check mark next to items they also thought of. what are some ways our school can become more “green”?  Pause for “think time.  Pose a question that has many possible answers. Double Think-Pair-Share: This technique is great for collaborating and generating many ideas on a topic. It also gives the teacher the opportunity to observe all the students as they interact in pairs and get an idea of whether all students understand the content or if there are areas that need to be reviewed. Note: Make sure students have paper and pencil handy. . The teacher lets students share for a couple of minutes and then brings their attention back. 1. Mingle. 2.  After allotted time. brainstorming as many ideas as they can in a set amount of time and writing their answers down on a piece of paper." The ELL student has an opportunity to offer his/her idea in a relatively comfortable setting — perhaps with grammatical errors — or to get more information from his/her partner.”  Partners do traditional think-pair-share. For example. they have had some time to work with the concepts and also may feel that they are not offering the idea "on their own" but as part of a pair. when students offer an answer. Pair.

1. Students then express possible answers. each student finds a partner closest to them (no running across the room to find your best friend!) and puts their hand together with their partner’s in a high five. accommodate new information and increase their levels of awareness. The teacher may begin a brainstorming session by posing a question or a problem. music starts again. Contributions are accepted without criticism or judgement and usually summarised on a whiteboard by the teacher or a scribe as the ideas are called out. students adjust their previous knowledge or understanding.”  One teacher’s go. relevant words and ideas. teacher poses a question and allows for “think time” For example “Give three examples of an insect” or “Name five prime numbers. Brainstorming's main purposes are to:  focus students' attention on a particular topic  generate a quantity of ideas  teach acceptance and respect for individual differences  encourage learners to take risks in sharing their ideas and opinions  demonstrate to students that their knowledge and their language abilities are valued and accepted . Brainstorming What is brainstorming? Brainstorming is a large or small group activity that encourages students to focus on a topic and contribute to the free flow of ideas.  Repeat for each question. 3.  When all students have found a partner. Why use brainstorming? By expressing ideas and listening to what others say. teacher poses new question.  Partners switch roles. one partner shares and the other listens.  When the music stops. etc. 4. or by introducing a topic. based on the depth of the question).  After both partners have had a chance to speak (teacher will have to monitor this. 2. These ideas are then examined. students mingle. when music stops they find a new partner. usually in a open class Discussion format.

Make sure everyone is clear on the topic being explored. go through the results and begin evaluating the responses. 6) Some initial qualities to look for when examining the responses include:  looking for any answers that are repeated or similar  grouping similar concepts together  eliminating responses that definitely do not fit 7) Now that you have narrowed your list down somewhat. unless it is a repeat  setting a time limit and stopping when that time is up. some students may be reluctant to speak out in a group setting. Teachers should emphasise active listening during these sessions. introduce the practice of idea collection prior to beginning tasks such as writing or solving problems  provide an opportunity for students to share ideas and expand their existing knowledge by building on each other's contributions. This can be done quickly by a show of hands to rank the ideas. but brainstorming is an open sharing activity which encourages all students to participate. Effective brainstorming: how do I achieve it? 1) In a small or large group select a leader and a scribe (or this may be the teacher). 5) Once you have finished brainstorming. Students should be encouraged to:  listen carefully and politely to what their classmates contribute  tell the speakers or the teacher when they cannot hear others clearly and  think of different suggestions or responses to share. Have the leader select members of the group to share their answers. The scribe should write down all responses. discuss the remaining responses as a group. 2) Define the problem or idea to be brainstormed. supportive environment  emphasise that a quantity rather than the quality of ideas is the goal. Make sure not to evaluate or criticise any answers until the brainstorming is complete. It is important for the teacher to:  establish a warm. 4) Start the brainstorming. and that it's okay for students to think outside the box  discourage evaluative or critical comments from peers during the ideas-gathering phase . 3) Set up the rules for the session. if possible so that everyone can see them. Common issues using brainstorming Initially. They should include:  letting the leader have control  allowing everyone to contribute  suspending evaluation of ideas until all ideas are gathered  the validity of all contributions  recording each answer.

and model printing and recording of the ideas. . encourage and provide opportunity for all students to participate  initially emphasise the importance of listening to expressed ideas. then read each contribution to the group.