PROMOTION OF ON-TASK BEHAVIOR USING INCENTIVE-BASED INTERVENTION

Helena E. Jankowski

INTRODUCTION RESULTS MATERIALS
Background Information • During the baseline phase, the student spent between 35-55% of the Language • Chart (Car Shape)
• Participant Mark is 9 years old. Arts period displaying on-task behavior. • Marker or Pencil
• Mark attends 3rd grade at an urban elementary school, where he spends 100% of • During the intervention phase, the student spent between 80-100% of the • Small prizes (candy, stickers, sports pencils)
instructional time in a mainstream classroom. Language Arts period displaying on-task behavior.
• Student has no medications currently prescribed to him. • Student was absent during the first four days of the intervention.

Data Collection Methods
• Interviews with classroom teacher and Mark Table 1. Summary of Antecedents and Consequences of the TBD.
• Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Observation (ABC)
• Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST)
ANTECEDENTS CONSEQUENCES
TARGET BEHAVIOR • Students were told by teacher to work • Student got out of seat and started
independently on a reading task. sharpening pencils.
• “Mark will remain in his seat for the duration of the entire 60-minute language arts • Students were instructed by teacher • Student leaned over desk to talk to
period, actively working on the assigned task, and will only speak when invited to to read silently. student sitting across from him.
by the teacher.” • Teacher was standing at the front of • Student went to grab tissue and
• Mark often wandered the classroom and spoke to peers throughout the entire the room teaching writing lesson. played with tissue box for 3 minutes.
period of language arts instruction and work time. • Students were instructed to complete • Student participated in initial Figure 2. Sample of Chart Used in Intervention
a group reading task discussion but left table after several
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT minutes to touch iPads in the corner.
MAINTENANCE & GENERALIZATION
• Substitute teacher reprimands student • Student aggressively shoves book off
• Teacher interview indicated that the student was frequently off-task during for being out of seat. desk and sits in another student’s • In my absence, this process was monitored and maintained by the classroom
language arts time. This behavior was less common in other subject areas. seat. teacher during Language Arts time.
• Student interview described Language Arts as a “boring” subject. • Classroom teacher redirects student • Student complies and works on task • The teacher will continue to use this intervention with the student during the
• FAST Questionnaire (filled out with teacher) scores suggested that the student to sit down and work on assigned with partner. Language Arts period in the future.
performed behavior to escape undesirable task (Language Arts) as well as receive task, with a partner. • Off-task behavior is not prominent in other subject areas, but if it were to arise this
social reinforcement in the form of peer attention. • Student is given the option to • Student eagerly completes the intervention could easily be applied to other subjects in school, including
• ABC Observations showed antecedent of being asked to complete Language Arts complete reading task on iPad. reading task on the iPad extracurricular subjects like art or gym, as long as “on-task behavior” is clearly
tasks and a pattern of consequences that lead to lessened work-time and peer defined for the student.
and teacher attention.
• When the student was told to work alone at their assigned seat quietly during
Language Arts, the student got out of his seat to avoid working, and to a lesser
Baseline Intervention LIMITATIONS
100%
degree, spoke to peers to gain peer and teacher attention. • Implementation of Intervention was delayed by student absence due to
90% suspension (sessions 12 & 13), Spring Break, and the death of the student’s
Percent of Interval Spent On-Task

BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN 80% Grandmother (sessions 14 &15).
• Classroom teacher did not implement the intervention on the days I was not
• Chart Moves paired with positive reinforcement was implemented. 70% present, which made it harder for the student to adjust to following the
• “On-Task Behavior” was defined as sitting in seat, working quietly on assignment, expectations required.
60%
and not speaking unless invited to by the teacher.
• This intervention was chosen with the main goal of giving student time away from
the task through extra free time as a reinforcement to meet the student’s desire to
50%
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
40%
escape the task. Smaller positive reinforcements such as candy & praise were • Overall the intervention was performed as planned.
given between the main reinforcements to meet the student’s desire for attention. 30% • The intervention has proven successful.
• The mastery criteria of this intervention is the student working quietly in his seat • The 4 sessions during the intervention phase show an increase in time spent
for the duration of Language Arts. 20%
performing on-task behavior when compared to the baseline phase.
10% • The student spending more time on task allows the student and his peers to be
Implementation: more focused on learning, and for the teacher to better perform her duties.
0% • The classroom teacher should continue this intervention and collect additional
1. Student was given Chart (car shape, see Fig. 2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
intervention data to monitor the intervention’s effectiveness.
2. If student exhibited “on-task” behavior for a complete 10-minute interval, the • Over time, the number of dots between the small positive reinforcements can be
Session Number
student was able to connect 2 dots on the chart. increased, as can the number of dots overall on the chart (see Fig. 2)
3. When the student reached a yellow dot (every 6 dots) the student got a small Figure 1. Baseline and Intervention Data for Percent of Time Spent On-Task during • Add this chart to monitor on-task behavior in other subjects, if necessary. Always
positive reinforcement (candy) paired with praise. a 60-minute Language Arts Period. make student aware of what is considered “on-task behavior” for that subject.
4. When the student connected all 30 dots, he got his choice of extra free time
(recess, iPad time, etc).