: 3153008811



This assessment measures the student's ability for the following outcomes:


CLO 3 (P2) CLO 4 Work effectively as part of a team /3 TOTAL / 36 CONFIDENTIAL . assessment of margins of error & have confident /9 in observations and conclusions. COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME(CLO) MARKS Apply the concept of hydraulics. (C4) Interpret results. environmental engineering and CLO 1 civil engineering materials (C4) /21 Demonstrate the principle of hydraulics. environmental engineering CLO 2 and civil engineering materials and to develop a proficiency in the /3 use of laboratory equipments. and develop report writing skills.

Density . oil. fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics.OBJECTIVES 1. Water. Mass density ρ . specific weight or specific volume. it is subjected to different forces and different climatic conditions and it behaves in these conditions as per its physical properties. All liquid and gaseous substances are considered to be fluids. Fluid Mechanics is the branch of science that studies the behavior of fluids when they are in state of motion or rest. The study of moving fluid without considering the effect of external pressures is called as fluid kinematics. and others are very important in our day-to-day life as they are used for various applications. and dynamics aspects: 1) Fluid statics: The fluid which is in state of rest is called as static fluid and its study is called as fluid statics. To measure the capillarity elevation produced by various sizes of capillary tubes SUMMARY OF THEORY Fluid mechanics.It can be expressed as mass density . To determine the viscosity of various liquid at atmosphere pressure and temperature 2.ρ = Mass (m) = kg Volume (v) m3 CONFIDENTIAL . For instance water is used for generation of electricity in hydroelectric power plants and thermal power plants. DENSITY Density is derived as amount of mass of substance contained per unit volume. is defined as the mass of a substance per unit volume. Units in the SI are kg/m3. A susbstance that flows is called as fluid. Its various branches are fluid statics. Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. the branch of science that deals with the study of fluids (liquids and gases) in a state of rest or motion is an important subject of Civil. relative density . Fluid mechanics deals with three aspects of the fluid: static. kinematics. water is also used as the coolant in nuclear power plants. 2) Fluid kinematics: The fluid which is in state of motion is called as moving fluid. Whether the fluid is at rest or motion. oil is used for the lubrication of automobiles etc. 3) Fluid dynamics: The branch of science which studies the effect of all pressures including the external pressures on the moving fluid is called as fluid dynamics.

the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls. honey has a much higher viscosity than water. For liquids. Dynamic or (absolute) viscosity of a fluid is a measure of the resistance to flow of a fluid under an applied force when maintaining a unit distance apart in the fluid. Viscosity is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid in a fluid that are moving at different velocities. for example. For a given velocity pattern. ν= µ -(2) ρ Where : ν = kinematic viscosity (m2/s) µ=dynamic viscosity (N s/m2) ρ =density (kg/m3) CONFIDENTIAL . When the fluid is forced through a tube. It is usually denoted by the Greek letter nu (ν). therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving.VISCOSITY The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness". the stress required is proportional to the fluid's viscosity. dynamic or (absolute) viscosity and kinematic viscosity. There are 2 related measures of fluid viscosity . Isaac Newton expressed the viscous forces by the differential equation: τ =µ du -(1) dy Where τ=shearing stress (N/m2) µ=dynamic viscosity (N s/m2) du=unit velocity (m/s) dy=unit distance between layers(m) Kinematic viscosity (also called "momentum diffusivity") is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity μ to the density of the fluid ρ.

or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of. It occurs because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces. in porous materials such as paper and plaster. in some non-porous materials such as sand and liquefied carbon fiber. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small. capillary motion.CAPILLARITY Capillary action (sometimes capillarity. or even in opposition to. then the combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and adhesive forces between the liquid and container wall act to propel the liquid. The effect can be seen in the drawing up of liquids between the hairs of a paint-brush. external forces like gravity. or in a cell. in a thin tube. CONFIDENTIAL .

Figure 1 From Figure 1. vertical equilibrium can be expressed as follows: σ cos θ πd=ρg (π/4) d2 H H=4σ cos θ/ (ρgd) CONFIDENTIAL .

APPARATUS/EXPERIMENT SET UP Experiment 2(a):Viscosity 1) The Falling Sphere Ball Viscometer 2) Stopwatch 3) Hydrometer CONFIDENTIAL .

Figure 1 : Falling Sphere Viscometer CONFIDENTIAL .

2) Specific gravity for each liquid is obtained by using the hydrometer. The algebraic expression is rearranged to solve the viscosity . glycerol. The velocity is used to determine the drag force. 3. repeat this step 3 time to get the average time . castor oil) is filled in the 3 tubes until level just below the top of the tube.59mm. which is the respective densities of the fluid and sphere. radius of the sphere and gravitational acceleration in Equation 2. 5) The time is recorded between starting line and ending line .175mm) was used for each liquid 4) The starting line and ending line were already assigned on the cylinder before the experiment started. 2.38mm. A set of different diameter of ID tubes CONFIDENTIAL .PROCEDURE 1) Different types of liquid (engine oil-Castrol XXL. µ. 3) 3 stainless steel ball with different diametes (5. 6) The calculated terminal velocity is used. Capillary Tube apparatus 2. Experiment 2(b): Capillarity 1.1 stainless steel ball was dropped into the liquid and the time was measured from the starting line until the ending line using the stopwatch. The time is used to determine the terminal velocity of the falling sphere by the assigned distance by the average time.

074 N/m 6) The rise is calculated. 4) The capillary rise ‘h’ is measured for each tube 5) Water tension is given . CONFIDENTIAL . and the capillary tubes is inserted.PROCEDURE 1) The capillary tubes are cleaned thoroughly . σ=0. 2) Water is filled into the bottom of support plate until level. 3) The height of the capillary elevation in each tubes is mark on the white paper behind the tubes.