ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE (82

)
(Candidates offering Environmental Applications are not eligible to offer Environmental Science.)

The subject deals with the interdependence of living 3. To appreciate the influence of human activity on
things within their environment and provides an natural processes.
insight into the orderly interplay of factors 4. To develop an awareness of the need and
influencing environmental change. The impact of responsibility to keep the natural system in a
human demands on renewable and non-renewable condition that it sustains life.
resources and the limited availability of these
5. To develop sensitivity in personal attitudes to
resources in nature, have been linked to correlate
environmental issues.
with patterns of human behaviour necessary to
evolve a sustainable environmental paradigm. 6. To develop an understanding of how local
environments contribute to the global
Aims: environment.
7. To develop a sense of responsibility and concern
1. To acquire knowledge of the origin and
for welfare of the environment and all life forms
functioning of the natural system and its
which share this planet.
correlation with the living world.
8. To develop a keen civic sense.
2. To develop an understanding that human beings,
plants and animals are part of a natural 9. To develop a sound basis for further study,
phenomenon and are interdependent. personal development and participation in local
and global environmental concerns.
CLASS IX

There will be one paper of two hours duration To be studied with reference to the developed
carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of and developing countries.
20 marks.
(d) The root of environmental problems.
The paper will have two Sections:
Population crisis and consumption crisis
Section A (Compulsory) will contain short answer should be covered.
questions covering the entire syllabus.
(e) A sustainable world.
Section B will contain six questions. Candidates will
Concept of sustainability to be explained;
be required to answer any four questions from this
sustainable societies to be discussed.
section.
2. Living things in Ecosystems
1. Understanding our Environment
(a) What is an ecosystem?
(a) What is Environmental Science?
What do we understand by ‘Environment’? Concept of ecosystems to be explained; biotic
What does the study of Environmental Science and abiotic structures, organisms and
involve? species; populations, communities.

(b) What are our main environmental problems? (b) Habitat and ecological niche.

Environmental problems to be studied in To be discussed in terms of address and
terms of resource depletion, pollution and function.
extinction of species. (c) How species interact with each other.
(c) A global perspective of environmental Interaction of species should be covered in
problems. terms of - predation, competition, parasitism,

153

Major air pollutants . dams).lakes and ponds. Polar particulate matter (grit. (c) Freshwater ecosystems. temperate How pollutants get into oceans. dust. Tropical rainforests and threats to rainforests. deserts. ozone. lead. and understanding. (c) Ocean pollution.marshes and swamps. The 4. The rest are for knowledge Limiting Factors. who owns the oceans? (b) Grasslands. Evolution by natural selection. The study to cover . deserts and Tundra. oxides of nitrogen. An explanation of how life depends on the sun. for (b) Freshwater pollution. Taiga. (a) Forests. bottled water. respiration: burning Water resource in the form of frozen solid in the fuel. water conservation and water humans are affecting the carbon cycle) and harvesting. who eats what. pathogens. knowledge and understanding only. 6. wetlands . Energy transfer: food chains.gaseous pollutants and threatened should be discussed. co-evolution. Air Tropical savannas. broader classification . temperate grasslands: (a) What causes air pollution? prairies. groundwater (aquifers running low).secondary and primary. ecosystems. Air pollution due to . ocean pollution. 3.primary and and the threats to them must also be covered. oxides of sulphur. must be covered in terms of desalting the sea. the carbon cycle (how towing water. Tundra. thermal pollution. surface water (rivers of webs and trophic levels. (d) Adapting to the environment. environmental effects must be studied.natural disasters. How Ecosystems work 5. wastewater treatment plants. Threats to the temperate grasslands. The water cycle. steppes and pampas. manner in which water pollution affects Succession. controversy. (e) Biogeographic zones of India. mutualism and commensalism. Point pollution and non-point pollution.carbon monoxide. health effects and the highlighted. artificial eutrophication. India and predominant wildlife in these zones/ regions. food polar ice caps. Water (a) Energy flow in ecosystems. rivers. coral reefs. Not to be tested. Only threats to the specifically mentioned ecosystems will be tested for the purpose of 154 . Deserts and Tundra. (a) Our water resources. secondary pollutants. hydrocarbons. Kinds of Ecosystems special problem of groundwater pollution. preventing deciduous forests. The (c) How ecosystems change. oceans and how each is composition . The different biogeographic zones/ regions of extinction. temperate rainforests. Interdependence of natural cycles. Law of the examination. Solutions to water shortages (b) The cycling of materials. synergisms. (d) Marine ecosystems. air pollution on wheels. smoke and lead ecosystems of the Arctic and the Antarctic oxide). the nitrogen cycle. domestic combustion. Cleaning up water pollution. benzene and particulates Threats to wetlands and rivers must also be -their sources. industrial air pollution. Classification of air pollutants based on Estuaries.

Balance between photosynthesis and 9. increasing demand for timber to meet the needs of the developed world. land (continental. stratosphere. oceanic and anthropogenic). Air pollution episode . development indicators such as per-capita atmospheric circulation patterns. ocean incomes. (a) Causes of urbanisation. People respiration. bad farming (c) Impact of air pollution. exploited for cash and food crops.the Bhopal gas grazing and its link with desertification. Not to (a) World poverty and gap between developed be tested. pesticides. competition for land. overculture.removal of vegetation. nutrition. Effects of deforestation on climate. (global warming). population their effect on our lives. (a) Deforestation. 8. seasonal changes in climate). economic and environmental Causes and consequences of rapid and problems. Impact of air pollution should be covered in (c) Land pollution. slowing the Self-explanatory. Causes and consequences of land pollution - salinization. tragedy. ozone in the The push-pull factors to be discussed. toxic 7. housing. Growth of slums. effect on weather. growing sense of despair. (b) Thermal inversions. fertilizers. alternatives to CFCs. levels of disease and circulation patterns. ground water contamination. local geography. The Greenhouse Effect. Aerosols (smog). (a) The atmosphere. terms of economic losses. causes and consequences of (b) Manifestations of urbanisation. Rural poverty and urban poverty. drought. detection of the damage to the ozone layer. precipitation affects ecosystems. (b) Poverty in developed countries. lowered agricultural productivity and health problems. developing countries. (b) Soil erosion and desertification. Soil and Land pressure on civic amenities.how acid desertification . 10. Urbanisation (d) The Ozone layer. sources – natural world . clearance of slopes. degradation of human resources. overgrazing. Photochemical Smog (Mexico City) and Acid Causes and consequences of soil erosion and Precipitation (Mumbai) . ozone thinning. practices. temperature change. domestic wastes. agriculture and sea-levels. Ozone in the troposphere. Not to be tested. growth of informal sector. GHGs and the earth’s temperature environment in developing countries. only. (c) Social. poverty in for knowledge and understanding only. rising carbon dioxide (c) The implications of poverty trap for the levels. pressures. Dimensions of world poverty and gap between (b) Climate. progressive deforestation in the developing 155 . Thermal inversions (Los Angeles). acid precipitation. developed and developing countries using What determines climate (latitude. (c) Greenhouse earth. for knowledge and understanding and developing countries. nuclear wastes. layers of the atmosphere. Atmosphere and Climate wastes. heavy rainfall. photochemical smog and atmosphere and soil process.fuel crisis.

Discussion on whether Green Revolution is a loss of agricultural land and provision of success or a failure. 2. (The report of the study is to form a part of the Project Work. apparatus/equipment. problems environment with suggestions as to how the of irrigation – surface and ground water. industrialised agriculture. congestion. Make a functional model of an apparatus/equipment that could be used to Self-explanatory. make a (c) Food mountains in developed countries. Problems of housing. 156 . Agriculture Any one project/assignment from the prescribed (a) Unsustainable patterns of modern syllabus. impact of the threat could be gradually reduced. Make a survey of any one threat to the local pesticides and inorganic fertilizers. (b) Environmental damage due to large farm units. Monocultures.) (d) The Green Revolution. services to be covered. alleviate the impact of any pollutant and. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT 11. disappearance of traditional Suggested Assignments crop varieties. pollution risk due to use of 1. survey to study the effectiveness of this Surplus and waste. pollution.

Case Study: the Taj construction activities. women-centered Section A (Compulsory) will contain short answer human development. 20 marks. Korea. (b) From industries. Erosion control techniques . education. Social mobilisation.kerosene as a desirable (a) Urbanisation . 3. economic policy Self-explanatory. Not to be tested. measures to UN’s population projections for 2050. for knowledge Soil conservation techniques . economic development. traffic management. management. Malaysia). and transport. public transport options. Self-explanatory. measures. planning energy. climate link. health care.modify engine (d) Development of secondary cities to counter design (catalytic converters.land-use and understanding only. (b) Planning environmental improvement. human development. wastewater and sanitary waste management. (b) The demographic transition. tree planting.technological measures (energy Efficient land use. 2. vegetative and mechanical 157 . certain developed nations and developing bunds. Candidates will alleviation. clean technologies). Sustainable cities: the need of the hour. Managing the Urban environment clean cooking . (c) Rural development to counter migration. understanding only. Trapezium. participation of private enterprises in city improvement. (d) Development framework for poverty Section B will contain six questions. zoning strategy. Reducing pollution from domestic cooking. (c) From vehicles. penalties and subsidies. questions covering the entire syllabus. CLASS X There will be one paper of two hours duration (c) Strategies for controlling growth of carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of population. (a) Conserving soil. Vehicle emission control . dry farming. use of organic nations (such as India. meteorological controls. fertilizers. Addressing Population (a) The link between growing population and Community participation in keeping environmental degradation. Stages of transition. small-scale industries. Controlling Air Pollution Not to be tested. the increase private enterprise participation. gullies.terracing. Measures for controlling industrial air pollution . for knowledge and (a) From domestic combustion. Managing Soil and Land countries and rising consumption in the developed countries. shelter efficient devices. China. Growing population in the developing 4. (e) Community participation and contribution of private enterprises. wind-breaks. clean fuels. the choice of alternative futures. surroundings clean. cooking fuel in rural areas. agricultural development.a challenge to the future. 1. engines). four stroke migration. be required to answer any four questions from this section. transition stages of contour ploughing. water supply management. Strategies to include family planning and The paper will have two Sections: birth control.

techniques . forest (a) Biodiversity at risk due to human actions. conserving soil and water together. Electricity: energy on demand. and sewage sludge. bio-fertilizers. Forest Policy. land to the landless. food aid. 1971.intercropping. CITES. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. gene banks in agricultural research centres 5. ecological and aesthetic. Food and forestry institutions. Genetically modified organisms. advantages and crops. renewable and non- polyculture. national parks (g) Alternatives to timber. and biosphere reserves. advantages and disadvantages. Energy disadvantages. exploring alternative sources of livelihood. energy plantations. Causes and consequences of overgrazing. Ex-situ – zoological parks. super consumer: impact of his actions on the earth’s resources. operation of a drip patterns (strip cropping). disadvantages. Trickle drip irrigation – need for a trickle appropriate cropping systems – cropping drip irrigation system. 1973. 1988. regenerative farming (a) Fossil fuels used to produce electricity. (b) Conserving our genetic resource: in-situ and controlled forest grazing as in National ex-situ. botanical gardens. practices. (c) Integrated rural development. role of food aid in achieving Self-explanatory. global food security. green manures. disadvantages. dwindling agro forestry.the change in consumption patterns. (b) Land reforms.meaning of for knowledge and understanding only. In-situ . tree crops. (b) Problem of global food security. Not to be tested. application in plants and animals and environmental Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. community forestry. Mixed cropping – advantages and 7. 6. inequality. crop rotation. The Convention on New crop strains – high yielding varieties and Biological Diversity. (e) Combating deforestation. advantages. Harvesting wildlife to meet commercial needs. Gene banks – what are gene banks.wildlife sanctuaries. Biodiversity Reforestation. self-help schemes like social and of maintaining gene banks. economic. renewable energy resources. Reasons for loss of biodiversity. their viability. harvesting wildlife. distributional conservation. Man . polyvarietal cultivation and supplies of fossil fuels. (d) Role of women and community in Global food imbalance. objectives Objectives. hybrid varieties. harvesting of non-timber forest products. reasons for concern: (f) Managing forest grazing. organic fertilizers . New organic fertilizers – integrated nutrient supply programme. Conservation tillage farming . Recycling of timber and paper.bulky Meaning. Integrated pest management – understanding the term. (c) Conservation strategies at national and international levels. 158 . aims. conservation tillage. IUCN. (a) Sustainable agriculture. Project Tiger risks. foliage irrigation system. measures enforced in India to give organic manures.

Satellite imagery as a means of monitoring finding alternatives to materials we use.developed or developing mining. Environment and Development environmental data. Kyoto Treaty. indicative of his/her appreciation/concern for 159 . (d) Role of non-governmental organisations. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT Its link to environmental deterioration – unfair trade practices. advantages and health – the shared responsibility of nations. wastelands. (c) International trade. the liquid fuels from biomass. Who is responsible . their contribution to Suggested Assignments development and debatable contribution to 1. advantages in collecting 9. (c) A sustainable energy future. inequalities. Prepare an original study/essay (2000 words) on (a) Global interdependence – economic and an area of the prescribed curriculum that is environmental. debt trap. of the interaction on the global environment. Waste The concept of sustainable development. Towards a Sustainable Future 2. sustainable development and Solid waste. biotechnology. the sources . (b) Nuclear energy. where does the trash go . adopting degradation. contrasting views of developed and developing countries. Make a field study of the effect of human environment. wind energy. biomass. Self-explanatory. sustainable development and developed countries. droughts and floods. (e) Technology that sustains. the global environment: satellite remote sensing. A minimum of three assignments as prescribed by the (d) Role of multinational corporations. UN’s International Conference hydroelectricity. (b) International cooperation.Bhopal gas interaction on the natural environment and write a tragedy. disadvantages of nuclear energy. geothermal energy. vermiculture. (b) Economic development and environmental The concept of alternate technology. hydrogen. desertification. land degradation. recycling. alternate technology to create self-sustaining societies in the developed and developing Role of developed and developing countries. biodegradable and developing countries. (a) Global environmental pollution. (b) Solid waste: options for the future. composting. nuclear fusion. measures to regulate activities of project report (1500 words) on the likely impact MNCs in developing countries. non-biodegradable materials. (c) Sustainable development. 8. reusing.solar energy. 10. (a) Solid waste: the throwaway society. global environmental Nuclear fission. Concept of economic and environmental global interdependence. applying data in areas of environmental damage as deforestation. on Population and Development (Cairo). case study . The Montreal Protocol. Definition of MNCs. Role of biotechnology in achieving global food security. need to be completed. safety trade and aid as ways of reducing world concerns (the Chernobyl disaster). Producing less waste. world. ozone layer depletion and predicting countries? Need for mutual cooperation. the Global Energy conservation. Earth Summit. alternative energy Environmental Facility (GEF) support.landfills and incinerators.methanol. gasohol. ethanol. CNG. teacher.

who could be from the Council. environmental issues and make a functional model Award of marks (20 Marks) to support the above. Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks External Examiner 10 marks EVALUATION The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the The assignments/project work are to be evaluated by Council by the Head of the school. a teacher of EVS of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X.) The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently. Environmental Science projects. the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. but not teaching the subject in the section/class. For example. 160 . faculty. The Head of the school will be responsible for the (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the by the Head of the school.

Charts under missing. index or references sequence. Neat. Takes teacher’s word accurate. Has needed. Background to ask. decide. Grade III Follows simple instructions Needs help with the Observation . only. Awareness basic. 161 . given. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE . modifies if questions. 1 mark but confused. references missing. Can ideas neat. of awareness high. handle two variables not practical. missing. Background whom to ask or where to inferences. Can fair. have to be made. diagrams. Analysis presented.GUIDELINES FOR MARKING WITH GRADES Criteria Preparation Investigation/ Analysis/Inference Solutions Presentation Marks Gathering Data Alternatives/ Innovations Grade I Follows instructions with Is able to ask right Analyses Innovative Accurate. segregate fact from suggested. opinion. Not very made aware. Needs solutions but neat and Background information suggestions but cannot guidance to see presented. Index and information correct. Innovative but index and references information correct. Grade V Confused about Gets stuck at every step. 4 marks understanding. places. Needs help formulated. investigations. forthcoming. Awareness is and identify whom to ask correctly. Is able to ask questions Makes observations Alternatives Accurate. very poor. Knows whom systematically. well 3 marks by-step. information. see sequences or presented. Solutions not Overall impression 0 mark instructions. Feasible. with background for it. correlations or innovative. Grade II Follows instructions step. Grade IV Follows some instructions Needs to be told what Detailed instructions Thinks of Poorly organised. Not accurate. Level Can deal with more than correlation. Has to be questions to be asked. one variable. Can Alternatives references given. Either sketchy. good. labelled diagrams. Index and information incorrect in gather the data from. required to draw solutions Some things made aware. Even with help. 2 marks only. Background when and how. when and how. guidance. well labelled needed.help Obvious A bit disorganised. Has to be Questionnaire has to be analysis is not clear.