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IN AEDIBVS ALDI .

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Lee Library Brigham Young University Provo. IN The Legacy of AEDIBVS Aldus Manutius ALDI a nd His Press Paul Angcrhofer J. Utah 1995 . Maxwell with binding descriptions by Pamela Barrios Friends of the Harold B. Mary Ann Addy Maxwell Robert L.

Maxwell. Robert L. It accompanies an exhibition held at the Harold B. Pamela.ip . Elizabeth Watkins. Includes bibliographical references and index. 50-1515— Exhibitions. cm. 3. 1995. IV Barrios. they thank the staff of the Harold B. Exhibit catalogs emanating from the Harold B. 1957. 5. Tliey are also very grateful for the helpful cooperation oj Scott Duvall and Chad Flake. and Anne Hope. Lee Library graphics department for the cover design and the design of other parts of the exhibit. In addition. Lee Library. Robert L. 5'( (945'3 1 07479224-dc20 95. III". 2. I. The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance ofjour readers. curators of the Aldine collec- tion. Z232. 4. Greek imprints— Exhibitions. Angerhofer. V. Maxwell. Lee Library profes- sional development funds and the Friends of the blarold B. the)' wish to thank Chad Flake and A. I960.. Fred Schreiber. Paul J. Copyright © 1995 by the Friends of the Harold B. 6.. 1449 or 1. 1960- II. p. paper) Manuzio family— Exhibitions. Bibliography— Italy— Venice— Early printed books— Exhibitions. ISBN 0-8425-2329-4 (pbk. Angerhofer. Lee Library All rights reserved Printed in the United States ofAmerica ISBN 0-8425-2329-4 oo Printed on alkaline paper. Harold B. Lee Library were formerly published in a series called Fru. .M37II37 1995 070. Maxwell : with binding descriptions by Pamela Barrios. Title. Mary Ann Addv. Dean Larsen for the work they have done over many years in building up what has become one of the foremost Aldine collections in North America. who gave them extremely useful advice in the final stages of the revision of this book. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Harold B. Cover design includes an initial and a dolphin and anchor motiffrom the 1499 Hypncrotomachia Poliphili. Lee Library— Exhibitions. Mary Ann Addy Maxwell. Manuzio. and the staff of the Harold B. Aldo.sds of the Brigham Young Univershy Library Newsletter. Lee Library conservation department for setting up the exhibit. Lee Librar}' Special Collections Department March 1-fuly 15. They also appreciate Brenda fanson's help in overseeing the exhibit.1 23 1 c. Brenda Janson. Printing— Italy— Venice— History- -Exhibitions. 2 The publication of this book was made possible by the generous support of Harold B. . : alk. Lee Library In aedibus Aldi : the legacy of Aldus Manutius and his press/ Paul J. Finally. This series has been discon- tinued.

Erotemata 5 3. Phaenomena Proclus. Thucydides. Works 11 6. Defabula Table of Contents v . De numeris 2. Works 21 GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS 25 Greek Classics 35 12. Horae Beatissimae Virginis (Book of Hours) 35 13. Constantine Lascaris. Catherine of Siena. Hieroglyphica Aphthonius. Theodoras Gazes. De constructione Aelius Herodianus. Virgil. De mensibus 4 Apollonius Dyscolus. Poetae Christiani veteres 15 9. Hypnerototnachia Poliphili 6 4. Allegoriae Homericae Horapollo. De incredibilibus Heraclides. Fragmentum Phaenomenon. Astrononicorum libri quinque Aratus Solensis. Gratnmatikes. Epistole devotissime de Sancta Catharina da Siena 9 5. Sphaera 1 1 Aristotle. Elegies Pythagoras. Defabula Philostratus. Works 36 14. Works 39 16. Aesop's Fables 41 Babrius. Works 8. Historiae 40 17. Mathesis Marcus Manilius. Aristophanes. Defabula Hermogenes. Vita. Francesco Colonna. . De natura deorum Palaephatus. Scriptores astronomici veteres 18 Julius Firmicus Maternus. De vita Apollonii 37 15. Sophocles. Philostratus. Idylls 14 Theognis. Thesaurus cornucopiae 12 7. CONTENTS PREFACE ix INTRODUCTION 1 1. Fabulae Aesopeae Lucius Annaeus Cornutus. Carmina 17 10. Carmen aureum Oracula Sibyllina Hesiod. Gregory of Nazianzus. Theocritus.

Angclo Poliziano. Guillaumc Btide. Rerum rusticarum libri tres Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. Works 53 27. Musaeus. Delia vera tranquillitd dell'animo 78 43. Judah Abrabanel (Leone Hcbreo). Libri de re rustica (1533) 59 Marcus Porcius Cato. // libro del cortegiauo 76 42. Dialoghi d'amore 73 40. De agri cultura Marcus Terentius Varro. . De re rustica 31. Bessarion. Works 43 Callimachus. In calumniatorem Platonis libri quatuor 65 34. trans. Omnia opera 67 35. Hecuba & Iphigcnia in Aulis Euripidis tragoediae in Latinam tralatae 79 44. Moralia 42 19. Epistolaefamiliares 55 28. Works 47 Latin Classics 48 22. Propcrtius 50 24. Jacopo Sannazaro. Jacopo Sannazaro. Catullus. Rerum rusticarum libri tres Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. GUAsolani 75 41 Baldassare Castiglione. Pindar. Giovanni Gioviano Pontano. De rerum natura 60 32. De re rustica 30. Works 48 23. Pictro Bcmbo. Hymns Dionysius Periegctes. Selections 61 Tertullian. De Herotw et Leandro 45 21 Aeschylus. Works 50 De viris illustrious Suetonius. Lucretius. Opera 69 36. Deasse 81 n In Acdihus Aldi . Tibullus. De re rustica Rutillius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius. Works 52 26. Lactantius. Apologeticum HUMANIST TEXTS 65 33.. Rhetorical Works 56 29. Prodigiorum liber 25. Giovanni Gioviano Pontano. Ovid. De claris grammaticis et rhetoribus Julius Obsequens. Libri de re rustica (1514) 57 Marcus Porcius Cato. Julius Caesar. Desiderius Erasmus. Opera omnia soluta oratione composita 70 37. Horace. Marcus Tullius Cicero. Orbis terrae descriptio Lycophron. Pliny the Younger. De agri cultura Marcus Terentius Varro. Arcadia 71 38. Marcus Tullius Cicero. Opera omnia latine scripta 72 39. 18. Alexandra 20. Plutarch. Isabella Sforza. De re rustica Rutillius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius.

Isolario 119 66. Cyprian. Annex Senecae naturalium quaestionnm libri VII 85 47. Orthographiae ratio 107 60. L'anthropologia 118 65. Council of Trent. Paulus Manutius. Reginald Pole. 45. Paulus Manutius. L. Benedetto Bordone. Christophe de Longueil. Pietro Bembo. Opera 94 53. Works 114 62. Historiae 116 63. Reginald Pole. Aldus Manutius the Younger. Degli element! 122 NOTES 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 CHECKLIST OF ALDINE EDITIONS IN THE HAROLD B. Herodotus. Vulgate Bible 96 THE MANUTII AS AUTHORS 99 54. Canones et decreta 92 51. Historiae Venetae libri XII 121 67. Aldus Manutius the Younger. LEE LIBRARY 137 INDEX 167 Table of Contents vii . Aldus Manutius the Younger. Delia origine et successi degli Slavi 86 WORKS FOR AND AT ROME 89 48. Liber de legibus 105 58. Tullii Ciceronis orationes Paulli Manutii commentarius 102 56. Perduellionis rei defensiones duae 83 46. Vita di Cosimo de' Medici 108 NEW WORLD BOOKS 113 61. Eleganze della lingua toscana e latina 106 59. Aldus Manutius. Paulus Manutius. Matthaeus Fortunatus. Orbis terrae descriptio 117 64. De concilio 90 49. Paulus Manutius. Reformatio Angliae 91 50. Institutiones grammaticae 100 55. Plato. In M. Vinko Pribojevic. ed. Epistolae 104 57. Galeazzo Flavio Capella. Index librorum prohibitorum (Tridentine Index) 93 52. Dionysius Periegetes.

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These are transcribed Paris. 500 incunabula and sixteenth-century books was Each article contains a reproduction of the printed acquired in 1966 to support the strong interest of the portion of the title page of the book discussed. and 12 are has collected books published by the press's agents in missing from the BYU copy. then books out- ment the exhibit. became synonymous with elegance and This represents one of the finest collections of Aldine quality in sixteenth-century book production. and in modified form in those of his as a fair number of other sixteenth-century imitations. Lee Library under Paulus as official printer to the Roman Catholic began earnestly collecting books produced by the Church. references are keyed to the bibliography found before rently holds nearly eighty — more than half the the checklist at the end of the catalog. the writings of the three Manutii as published Aldine Press with the acquisition of the Marco by their own press. This collection of approximately nected by Aldine interest in New World exploration. 32. a tran- university and that of its sponsoring institution. 1 In addition. 5. to be produced over the next several years. tailpieces are from the 1592 Vulgate and 1597 listed by Renouard. PREFACE In aedibus Aldi —Aldus & Co. son Paulus. Title pages of nos. and related books in North America. and finally his grandson and namesake Initials and decorative material on the cover and Aldus the Younger). In cele. briefly described. 3). 27. 10. this catalog and the exhibit are arranged B. successors. and a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. the work of the press Brigham Young University's Harold B. used in reproductions of Aldine publications produced in Lyon. the library Bible (no. collation statements. later his translations are by the authors unless otherwise noted. and 801. Citations and [1977]. promote Greek and Latin classics. Intended to comple. The library also owns 423 titles produced which the work may be found and to other discussions under the supervision of Aldus's successors (first his of the work not already cited in the article itself. in the description of the binding. Each article is total — including sixteen incunabula (books published concluded by a list of references to bibliographies in before 1501). 53). as well Aldus Manutius. Table of Contents ix . First a few of the more noteworthy books between March and July of 1995. this catalog will also serve as a lining the development of Aldus the Elder's program to precursor to a comprehensive catalog of the entire col. Articles are headed by a shortened. and became the foundation of the these are clearly visible. a selection of the "Lyon forgeries" (unauthorized from UCLA. This formula. the death of its founder in 1515 (Rostenberg and Stern which is also used throughout the catalog. whenever Renaissance. 2 bration of the first publication of the Aldine Press Rather than follow the usual chronological arrange- exactly five hundred years ago a selection of the Harold ment. the press's publication lection. Of the 142 books issued by the Aldine Press before uniform version of the title of the work discussed. during the lifetime of Aldus the Elder). This gives a total ofjust over 500 of throughout the text are from the 1499 Hypnerotomachia the 1120 separate Aldine editions printed between 1495 Poliphili (NO. The binding descriptions period of the Protestant Reformation and the include the basic elements of each binding. 4). produced by the press are highlighted. Decorative tooling is only library's fine collection of early printed books. so many of the books printed by the Venetian printer France. of contemporary humanist authors. Lee Library's Aldine holdings is being displayed thematically. All partner and father-in-law Andrea Torresani. the Brigham Young University Library cur. The scription of its colophon. and finally a selection of books con- Heidner collection.

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and primary texts There was no intrinsic connection between the new craft for students. By and large. originators of that change. fiercely competitive craftsmen (Grendler [1984]. as its and literature. 61). available to the masses. for printing was no career history. compare with savoring the wisdom of Plato or the whose press made the past serve the present and enrich beauty of Homer's poetry in the original language. covered with the development of printing amounted to a dust of centuries. especially for students of Greek language and humanism per se. but instruc. medicine. thus. teaching aids. and affordable high-quality the Elder to typography and the design of books went textbooks. What humanism did create. was a high demand for certain kinds of started. In a very real sense. and scholars alike. determined what Aldus's dream was to flood the earth with classical the intellectuals of their time would read. miracu- vast change in western European thought lously preserved. and literature through a humanist sieve. Suddenly maintained at a high level long before Aldus Manutius it became possible to transmit ideas quickly. 13). but until and decisively influenced not only the subsequent middle age had supported himself as a private teacher course of printing itself. an agenda private tutor. What followed in the early years of the press was a came to maturity without the aid of printing presses. as well as books by contem. to assist in reading them. diplomacy. and in mass form to a widespread position to appreciate the ever-increasing need for texts of audience. was born and texts. he recognized the critical need for good gram- more certain. buttressed for a man of culture. Aldus and his successors. along with a few other select printers. tional books that would help the student learn Greek or Some have called Aldus Manutius the Henry Ford Latin as the ancients wrote it. 6). popular. reliably. 11) solicited unanticipated complaints: it was too Introduction . dictionaries. To his scholarly and learned friends this must filtered philosophy. "Monasteries up and down the His masterpiece production of the works of Aristotle land were ransacked and many precious manuscripts (NO. This demand had been created and by the information revolution of our own day. and a central part of that vision was impact on Renaissance thought was extraordinary. Every discovery of a new work. to provide students with the necessary tools to read those Humanism. Indeed. art. INTRODUCTION he invention of movable type in the mid. For in their time. Aldus Manutius and his heirs. Few things could family as the greatest publishing dynasty of all times. the highest achievement in learning was ancient "bear witness to the unrivaled position of the Aldine Greek language and literature. perhaps. it must be remembered. 1 and 2). Before Aldus. of Renaissance scholarship. tutoring students in the humanities. Aldus was in the ideal cheaply. this had been a disor- and guaranteed by commercial successes and scholarly derly blue-collar trade of tight-fisted. or polemical. although not humanist teachers. As a the future" (Rostenberg and Stern [1977a]. rode the crest of the wave Aldus was not only trained as a humanist. Gazes and Constantine Lascaris (NOS. The agency of the Manutii printer. have come as a great shock. relatively chose to become a printer. What is teacher. Somewhere in his struggles and travels as a hand in hand with his humanist agenda. money-scrimping. the majority of of new manuscripts and the production of commentaries books were quite large and correspondingly expensive. pupils. was hailed with enthusiasm" and habits comparable to that wrought (Robertson. he struck upon the idea of becoming a passed on to his heirs. reputations. It has been said that their publications Aldus. their Greek and Latin texts. with the early Greek grammars of Theodoros texts — not only those by ancient authors. is that the contributions of Aldus mars. but the general course of ideas for the wealthy. whether scholarly. science. because he made books porary authors. were recovered from holes and dark corners where they fifteenth century and the subsequent had lain. worm-eaten and neglected. series of grammar books. and even through The thirst for classical texts had generated the hot pursuit the early years at the Aldine Press. This catalog begins where Aldus himself influence spread.

and therefore of the Church.II.dHrds<i. and elsewhere (ct. and doctors who had passed through university courses of the litterae humaniores. format has never declined. original fonts. Aldus later wrote: may have been an mutation of the handwriting of "These fraudulent volumes. such renowned typographers as Simon de Colines and Aldus quickly moved to secure what are the first Robert Estienne in the sixteenth century. This new type was specifically designed to be discredit.puluis<[> mouendtts. printed and sold under my Petrarch. especially in other parts of Italy and at Lyon. see also NO. dtcp vmpendere curdmi imented earlier with different roman typefaces. Caslon in the eighteenth protections were of little use.rdfiros###BOT_TEXT###gt; tendcts. Lemke. types. the schoolmasters.1501 Virgil. world: italic type and the octavo format. for unautho- and Stanley Morison in the twentieth century all cut rized reprints of his editions were quickly pirated by typefaces modeled on the early roman fonts of Aldus unprincipled rivals. Italic type was smaller.dUtpdjbribusuinbrdm Bologna. Grandjon and known copyright protections in history. In this one work Aldus come to feel at home with the smooth and gliding introduced two revolutionary inventions to the printing humanistic hand (Fletcher. "wanted books that they could carry about on their walks I dmumft&uittsjcntifklczmdrhujhYefonunt' and travels and read at leisure in front of their fireplaces" I dm ctnit extremes effvetusuinitvrdntes. which was noted tor being thin. Steinberg. and simpler than the gothic. . 1501 Virgil is the advent of italic type. and name prejudice friends ot letters to my sorrow and inclined). telltts octavo books. taken anywhere and read at leisure. In 1501 he changed all of that with the publi. The popularity of this small book S dnguincistyincHlta rubent duiarid bdccii . LIB. These early types have served as models for centuries. . 3).) Griffo also Almost immediately after its introduction. and low cost. 6 and 7 for a comparison of the early Aldus Manutius. 74 ff. lawyers. type was copied and counterfeited throughout Europe. cleaner. Leafclr. comfortable and aesthetically pleasing to those who had cation of Virgil (NO. it was a imbibed a little of the scholarship of the humanists. expensive. The "octavo" (the name derives from the fact that the E turn matuns metuendnsluppiter mis- C ontrd. T ondentur cythiftfeddsfylud dlta miniflrdt^ The second of the innovations associated with the P dfointurcfc igncs noftumiftltimindfundunt. Because this books or collected editions of ancient writers and fathers new type was narrow and condensed. The type in the Thesaurus is the same as that used m the 1495 De Aetna. ture was not just for scholars and academicians P oma quofrutprimum trtmcosjenferejidlente*.et pldatam pdcinutritoroliuam. Even students could afford to buy Aldus's I pftfatis cum denterecluditur wruv. ri or pvngtem.tuleriint. published no fewer than fifty-nine "Aldines" between Italic type imitated the humanistic cursive hand (it 1501 and 1526 (Steinberg. These legal Van Dyck in the seventeenth." 1 italic slanted slightly to the right and conse- who had little taste for the "stately tomes of liturgical quently allowed more compact printing. Also called A new generation of book reader had come into being "cursive.nonulUeft olds cHlturdjieqilla printed sheet is folded in such a way as to produce eight P 'rocHrndm expethtnt fitlccm. The paper is inferior. 36-37). leaves in a gathering) was a book of relatively small size C wmfemel h<ejeruntdruis. and even has a foul /// AedibusAldi . 76). 27). Portable books were as much an innovation E tuireshabuerefudsddfyderdrdpnm Viproyrid nituntur. first appeared in Pietro Bembo's De Aetna (1495). 6. E t dubitant homines ferere. italic designed the font for the Hypnerotomachia (no. S ollicitandd tamen tellus. designed and cut by Francesco Griffo of A ut illai pecvrifrondem. anymore. 5). Aldus had exper. Reading great litera. and natural choice for printing small editions of the classics. sharp. These QjiidmaiordJe<]n4r?faUas humilesc^ <gmftx." The gentlemen of leisure who had made more economic use of the type area. (See NOS. 5). France. The printers at Lyon alone (Steinberg. Cf. however. and these smaller-sized volumes could be s ufiicithumcrem} etgrdiiidds cum uomcre fugs.opis'q> hdud indigt nofir£ for the early sixteenth century as the laptop computer is i N ec minus mttredfcetu nanus omnegrduefcit for the twentieth.

them birth. and the neglect of time. 65). its sun has set" (Rostenberg and Stern [1977]. new cultures. clean lines. 24). enthusiasm. the hazards of travel. both intellec- Orcutt. . a fruitful combination which estab- nomic! veteres (no. tirelessly at the press and left to the world a rich legacy Nowhere were his printing innovations more apparent of beautiful books and scholarly texts. Colonna's famous Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (NO. the indifference of owners. As Madeleine The use of such a symbol as a printer's device was Stern pointed out years ago. and good design" as well as their scholarly contribu- Some consider this work to be the most influential book tions. profitably. aesthetically pleasing and typographically lands. This was the age of discovery. geography. the symbol of the anchor and dolphin. They still reflect directly the happenings Aldus also published other important religious texts. 31. popular nants do not align with the vowels. Following him. Western Europe was Genuine Aldines. 8). the problems and preoccupations. the Carmina of St. . . Another (Grendler [1984]. Aldus labored graphic innovations than his scholarly contributions. and scholarship" book to be read. Their influence has phrase festina lente ("make haste slowly") — in other been timeless. Lee learn Greek. Aldine Press during the early years. publications that bear the mark device: the dolphin symbolized speed and the anchor of the Aldine Press typify the highest typographic steadiness. and concerns. In fact. . the task Introduction . use their own symbolic printing devices. recapturing the past and recording his influence in early sixteenth-century intellectual the present. and new ideas. history. texts of great importance in antiq. 4) present some of the hopes and despairs of their times. cation to carry the Aldine device was the 1502 Poetae come alive again in our day. From his press cance and the diversity of the contributions of the came Greek and Latin classical texts. Aldus's printer's From his day to ours. tually and geographically. and perhaps never so much as now. 3). the Aldine publications. circles. is richly illustrated that scholarly books could be produced finely as well as with woodcuts and signs of the zodiac. despite Aldus's ability as a scholar and stood at the center. In every age they have been highly sought words. The Aldine Press distinct. grammars.). Before he died. new edited. This device was often associated with the quality and scholarly excellence. Gregory of Nazianzus (NO. . the type characters are defective. another first for Aldus among printers. In Aldus was an alliance of of Aldus's illustrated gems is the 1499 Scriptores astro. 45). Of course. It is by their works. wars and pillage. . They summon up renowned visions and revelations of one the great spiri. printer and scholar. were very well exploding with the knowledge of new peoples.odor. "they reanimate for us the century that gave literary writings. after. The first publi. He demonstrated to the printing world uity as well as the early Renaissance. Now. In his nearly twenty years as a printer. the Catherine of Siena's letters (no. but as a book to be appreciated for its of the Italian Renaissance across the rest of Europe layout and illustrative designs and ornaments. on the other hand. Francesco still admired for their "attractive typography. of typography. reli. political and scientific writings. and he convinced the scholarly world of the After 1502 the publications of the Aldine Press bore value of printing (ibid. Through his publications. Similarly. having survived most of the printers of the sixteenth century began to fire and floods. work at a good pace without sacrificing quality. Aldus published works in Library which capture in some degree both the signifi- areas as diverse as the interests of his day. and the conso. nearly five hundred Christiani veteres (NO. This collection of ancient lished a magnificent and triumphant legacy in the annals astrological treatises. and imperfections that you may distinguish them" (trans. a collection of early Christian years later. 9) allow for theological This introductory section of the catalog features a reflection while concurrently serving as a primer to few gems from the rich collections of the Harold B. 10). Few books from the the survival of many ancient texts and "greatly facilitated Renaissance were to be so influential — not so much as a the diffusion of the values. in material form a world that still casts its shadow after tual leaders of her time. Aldus contributed to in the history of printing. contemporary secular writings. gious writings. 2 These books are than in his typographic masterpiece. after having weathered the long years. his lasting fame is more a product of his typo.

32 cm. board edges. Theodoros Gazes (1400-ca. and breadth of the enterprises of the Aldine Press. after early studies in Constantinople. as students would no longer find it necessary to Dc mensibus come to Italy to learn Greek" (ibid. Bonamico. notably Gazes (ibid. tism. De constructione Central to the success Aldus enjoyed in spreading the Aclius Herodianus. Aleandro) reveals repeated In hoc uoluminc luce infunt. Title gold. 1496) reprints) and Crastoni's Lexicon (BYU has both the 1497 original and the 1524 reprint). As Aldus outlined in the translations from Greek into Latin and composed a famous preface to his 1503 edition of Euripides. He during the early sixteenth century was the printed book. Greek learning aids with a grammar of his own. His correspondence with the great scholars of his age (Erasmus. Interestingly enough. providing Greek texts his own endeavors at teaching Greek in Germany would have been fruitless. He made important nakoplos [ 1962].. in 1495 Aldus Apolionii gramaticide conftrucrione libri quatuor produced the Grammatikes of Theodoros Gazes and the Herodianus de numeris. which.Venetian of a lack of patrio- t Theodoros Gazes. Aldus contributed to the publication of Signatures: a" bjS-k* 8 1A 8 2 a 8 b 10 2A-H0 8 2I-2L 8 2M 4 . Celtis. though it was not published until after his death in 1515 (see Binding description: Brown sheepskin. ." Beams * # * Rhenanus. had been the first Greco-Latin dictionary printed in the West. most and back covers. Latimer. Reuchlin. 297-98). and turn-ins. enjoying great demand throughout Europe. The German humanist Johannes will in some degree reflect the contributions. Blind-tooled with ornaments front instead those of the Byzantine emigre-scholars. orations.i new edition of one thousand copies each Erasmus considered Gazes's grammar to be superior to In Aedibus Aldi . Green silk page marker. this revealed by the orders which he received from nearly section together with the other sections in the catalog every western country. 286). Nevertheless. signifi. sewn on double BYU copy). lexica and style Eiufdem dc Menfibus opufculum fancquapalchtu* manuals (ibid. Reuchlin wrote that "without the work of Aldus in cance. Aldus's Greek books were acclaimed far and fame is a difficult one that undoubtedly reflects some. followed by Thesaurus cornucopiae et horti Adonidis in 1496. Vertessy. earlier. a collection of Greek and Byzantine grammatical treatises (NO. as is what subjective and arbitrary criteria. came to Italy and there became an The "chief vehicle for the transmission of Greek" instrumental leader in the revival of learning in Italy. wide. the most popular raised cords.is to issue . his goal number of philosophical works. He continued COLOPHON: Imprcssum Vcnctiis in acdibus Aldi Romani in 1497 with Urbano Bolzanio's lnstitutiones Graecae OCtauo Calcndas Ianuarias M. 297). noted that Aldus was so effective in "spreading abroad a knowledge of Greek that he was accused by a fellow. Erotemata of Constantine Lascaris (see BYU 1512 and 1557 Aldine reprints). grammatices (BYU has the 1557 and 1560 Aldine i. of selecting works representative of the press's glory and month. and letters. Gilt edges.. Theodori Introductiuxgramatices libriqaatuor. 6). but pastcdowns.. tooled onto spine.e. with double front-beaded red/white/green printed grammars during the first half of the sixteenth endbands. 33). Plain endpapers and century were not those by the ancient grammarians. when published PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: (198] leaves. Consequently. was among the inner circle of humanists surrounding especially those printed by Aldus Manutius Cardinal Bessarion (sec NO.CCCCLXXXXV. requests for these Greek grammars. [1495. Apollonius Dyscolus.. <a. 297). Dc numeris knowledge of Greek was his printing of Greek gram- mars and style books. (fol). a pupil of Erasmus. Grammatikes. 1475).

with caption: (Hammond and Scullard 507). Brunet. . * * * Constantine Lascaris. In the preface. 3:38. 173-98. no.O HAEG HABENTVR. The grammarian Priscian paid tribute to Remnants of leather straps on back foredge. poc. 180. on front cover showing Christ rising from the tomb. Froben. bux. in the printshop. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. BM STC Italian. Included with the Grammatikes is De mensibus. 22 cm.XII. Greek word has been printed in a non-Aldine font. Binding description: Undyed pigskin over wooden boards.. Eiufdem deConfrruftione Liber Secundum. De Idiomatib.I. G-110.. 4. 203. some of this Greek has Cebetis tabula &graca & larina . Panel greatest. Panzer. Two lines of Greek in Aldus's first font bum fere propter rudiufcuIos. Carmina Aurea Pythagora. and the treatises De constmctione and De sewn on alternating single and double raised cords. however. in me non m. sprinkled edges. GW. [1512] Introduction 5 . 285-287. another has been inserted by hand in a blank spot left by H aecomnia habenteregione Jatinam interpretationem ad uei the compositor. Symbolum Apoftolorum. Goff. et la premiere de ces divers ouvrages"). Si utile omnf. lated the first two books of the Grammatikes into Latin (see BYU copies: Basel: J.* v 4 £-tt h p 4 and a-f^/1() g 10 h-l 8/1. Euangelium diui Toannis Euangeliftx. (Panel maticae" ("the foremost author of the grammatical art").itaumcnut&amoueri. 1963. IN HOC UBR.&prxcipue adulefcentibus • been corrected by the same hand as the manuscript Greek De litem gratis ac diphthongis 8i queadmodu ad nos uenlat. and Louvain: Signatures: a-p.m. Cloth numeris by the two ancient grammarians — and father red/white endbands. Blind panel Apollonius by calling him "maximus auctor artis gram. one Eiufdem de nomine & uetbo Liber Tcrriuy. and Eiufdem depronomine in omni Idiormtc loqucndi. et vita. "Herodian ranks with his father as one of the caption: Ego sum res. Phocylidis Poema ad bene. 3:377. made & Oratio Dominica duplex falutatio ad Beatiss . M. word in the main text. respec. 2 ("grammaire tres estimee des Grecs. Metal catchplates on front foredge.Iinguarum tres traclatus Joannis grammaticf EuitathiiConnthi cum interpretarione larina. also by Gazes. These changes were probably Abbreuian'ones. with ornaments stamped onto front and back cover. 1516.) m8 n6 D. onto spine. conftantJniLafcanjBpzantinidcoaopartibus oronis Lib. 293. Geanakoplos [1976]. Martens.D. one lines per page and woodcut capitals and headpieces. Physical description: [294] leaves. 7500.. no. as he is the last. Labowsky. Several of the headpieces and initials are of arabesque design. . Gazes's Greek grammar was accepted 2a-2b 8 chi 4 . Paper label on spine. tively. The text is printed primarily in Aldus's first greek font. 5548.quibus frequentiflime graed munrur. Virgihcm. 1518) and used it for his teaching at x l() y8 z 10 &-4 (Greek and Latin signatures interleaved) Cambridge. 10562.) Title calligraphed This item is printed in a single column with thirty. m tx uiuuturopufculum. 2:1512.beatcqj uiuendum. Red and son —Apollonius Dyscolus and Herodianus. with Similarly. Ecce Agnus Dei qui tolit pecata mundi. lnttoduaiopeibxeuisadhebxaicamlin^uiuu. 5. (4to). BM. opus morale.&ad- di pofli t pro cuiusqj arbirrio appear at the bottom of the page. References: Bateman. Grasse. Proctor. Rcnouard. UCLA. of original Greek grammarians" on back cover showing Christ on the cross. possibly by Aldus himself. Eisenstein. 239. Hain. Erotemata 2 Colophon: [leaf p2\: Vcnetiis apud Aldum mense octobri. those of the other Greek grammarians and had trans. Cette edition est fort rare. widely and long used as a standard textbook for learning Greek. 5:553. Qui ere. itself printed in roman.

It should come as no surprise that the first fully Greek printed book to appear in the West was a References: Adams. The need for Latin translations quickly became <?£ -ff "fr apparent. Because of its popularity.V. this 1495. Demetrius Damilas. BYU also has the Latin (Geanakoplos ( 1962]. updated. 58.IMPVNEHVNCLI versions of a work in order that they might look to the BRVMQVEAT Latin tor the unfamiliar Greek words. Umberto Bolzano. For a time he even BYU copy. The Constantinople and later tied from the Tnrks to Italy. He is Aldus explains in the preface how these interleaved texts noted for teaching Greek to such scholars as Pietro can work for the student in the self-instruction of Greek. UCLA. I 14991 In iedibus . in aedibus Nazianzus. 1. as demand rose for Greek writ. . 20.-^ Adams dates the second. Rcnouard places it after 1507. 286F. QVAM DlGNA COM MEMORAT. Italian 370. 17). or as with the in Messina writing and teaching. L-228. it originally appeared in printed entirely in Greek. To assist in this IMPPRIME Kfc. 224). with Bietenholz. 90.ATQVE OBITER Popular as these early editions were. Brunet. grammar was reprinted frequently and translated into 1502.kus and Philostratus. the poems of Gregory of Colophon: Venetiis Mense decembri. 8. scholars thirsting for the new knowledge made available Geanakoplos [1962]. Aldus also published the texts <>t Mus. 224. The two series of Greek and daughter of Francesco Sforza. each in the original Aldi M.\ldi . This was the first dated book to be Aldus's first printed book. Angelo Gabnelli.mil Aesop's Fables. widely Utilized method of pedagogy. and was so famous that Aldus would speak of it as the divinum opus. The Renaissance was in full bloom. 4:112 ("cette with the rediscovery of the Greek classics. Erotemata. Constantine Lascaris a new stage began in the resurrec. edition ca. Bernardo Greek and Hebrew alphabets follow at the end of the Ricco and Matteo Caldo. Geanakoplos points out that the most widely accepted method of teaching Greek in the period was * th. since they were PLVRIMASCITVSANE printed entirely m Greek their usefulness was limited. no. Furthermore. 14. spending the last thirty-five years of his life could be bound following each other.it of providing students with both Latin and Greek CAVTVMEST. 3:857. M. accuratissimc. Hypnerotomachia already been published (in 1476) and reprinted (in Pol ipi Hii 1480). Aldus complains about the known for his popular Greek grammar.mutii. MANA OMNIA NON NISISOMNIVM tbbtDOCET . In Erotemata has two signature counts. 1557 reprint. excessive fatigue caused by the printing of this work. Constantine Lascaris (1434-1501) was born in Greek with a Latin translation (nos. with the Greek and Latin on opposite pages. 2:226. Robertson. one in greek type Milan he taught Greek and tutored Ippolita. Aldus took great (. He was variously parallel Latin translations were printed so that they employed. By then the Erotemata had 2 Francesco Colonna. which was first published at Milan in 1476 by The 1512 Erotemata is the third Aldine edition. grammar. Erasmus concluded that among the Greek grammars that of Theodoras Gazes was the best. Thus.NE QVISINDOMINIO ILLS. Lascaris. Rcnouard.II). 2:292-94. Grassc. * * * ings it was suddenly seen that profits could be made. HYPNEROTOMACHIA POLIPHILLVBI Hv while that of Constantine Lascaris ranked next. Aldus inaugurated his printing enterprises witli I iscaris's Erotemata in 1495. tion ot I Iellenic antiquity and in the study of the Greek language. Lascaris is probably best work. 59. Bembo. BM STC. In addition to the Erotemata.ire to provide Greek texts with Latin translations. On the verso of leaf y4. American STC Italian. the and the other in roman. with edition est plus complete que la premiere Aldine"). enjoyed the patronage of Cardinal Bessarion.

» -' u Aoo 00 I Aldus Manutius. Leaf b7v. . 1499 Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of Francesco Colonna.

the remainder of this Francesco Colonna (ca. "lest it should hide longer pages that had been removed. it Treviso." Later. mathematics. where "an astonishing the vernacular usually did. packed with bits of Greek and Roman erudition and "expresses in words and in pictures the frenzied Puovenanck: Bookplate of the Bradley Collection of the raptures of a pedant" (Goldschmidt. and References: Barolini. rich artistic feeling. At the Manutius to print a second edition in 1545. disguising himself under the edition used the same woodcuts with a new type. replacing expense. Colonna. . and the sensuousness of its style have attracted cultivated readers in all ages Binding description: Red goatskin. 51)/' It has been Cosmos Club. Ouvrage tres-singulier"). various other matters "highly seasoned with erotic Brunet. a Dominican friar edition must have sold well enough to convince Paulus cloistered in the quiet hill country near Treviso. However. Arabic. books in in the countries beyond the Alps. ." 4 from which to study classical archaeology. find a sponsor until 1499. possibly by censors. notes that the book was written "at Reprinted ten times between 1499 and 1833. history. les dessins sont attribues a debauched monk" (Chatto. it was his only fully books. cords." The author's true identity is revealed by taking was practically unreadable. antiquities. it is the 1904 Methuen facsimile. explained in the dedicatory preface. at his own Several leaves tipped in from another copy. 530. to literary amateurs. . and decorators have used this illustrated book. as fetters of Folia. in the year 1467. . in oblivion. as a romance the Hypnerotomachia May. such a publication. While the Hypnerotomachia is proportion of all Renaissance ornament and accessory written neither in Latin nor vernacular (its text is a design can clearly be proved to derive from Colonna's strange hybrid of Colonna's own devising — a northern Poliphilo" (Goldschmidt. the Giovanni Bellino . on the first day of Goldschmidt notes. sewn on single raised and have exercised considerable influence. (iilt edges. The later end of the work.1/(7/ . Simple gold tooling on front and back which some have suggested as ironically appropriate for covers. a device often used in the fifteenth and offensive to classical taste. 52). on the other hand. Crasso. this curious work did not Green silk page marker. nor as a book C )olumna peramavit. BM. few books from the sixteenth centuries. 32 cm. one downs. its multiple meanings. Although Italy at a work of the early Italian Renaissance ascribed to the time was racked with war. had Aldus publish it. The acrostic phrase unveils the Renaissance have exercised such a profound and wide- author's concealed name. As Title gold-tooled onto spine. (fol. mostly on account of the wars. Marbled endpapers and paste. Yet. when Poliphilo languished in the sweet love. The sponsor's name. Hypnerotomachia is a work of profound culture. contents. in a petition seeking copyright privi- leges. and Chaldaic words). Italian dialect interspersed with Latin phrases and BYU library also owns the 1545 Aldine edition and Greek. but as a The Hypnerotomachia is considered by many to be volume of designs. architecture. "Foliam Frater Franciscus spread influence — not as a book to read. Crasso lamented that the work had sold few The Hypnerotomachia (The Strife of Love in a Dream) is copies. 218). and vast erudition. Nevertheless. HM stc: Italian. Though written in 1467. with double front-beaded green/white endbands. craftsmen. 5:561. 4:778 ("premiere edition dont les exemplaires bien ies suggested by the prurient imagination of a conserves sont tares . Hebrew. 5 contribution was to the appearance and decoration of Aldus's typographical masterpiece. name of Poliphilus. scholarly books in work as a source for studying antique styles. especially Latin did not have pictures. is Leonardo Crasso of Verona. and its illustrations were succession. clearly continued to attract admirers. described as an "obscure medley" of fable. The nature of its Signatures: pi 4 a-c8 (cl signed e) d-y 8 z 1(1 A-E 8 F4 . Artists. art. its the first letter of each of the thirty-eight chapters in antique language was painful.). Fierz- In Aedibus . Generally speaking.Physical description: [234] leaves. Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine and turn-ins. 1432-1527). alchemy. The Hypiierotooiachia's greatest one of the most beautiful books printed before 1501.

(fob). 31 GW. The Aldine edition. 351 ("best illustrated book verso of ci. UCLA. an event which was to become a popular theme in early Renaissance paintings. Catherine's surviving writings consist mainly of letters. 208. Septembrio . [1] [i. masterpiece of Venetian book illustration"). Renouard. Lowry notes that in publishing his edition. Hofer.S. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. 7—12. Parronchi. Hain. oato fecon<. cords. of [the fifteenth] century . especially her mystical marriage to Christ (1368). endcaps. et surtout celle-ci. 28. Bartolommeo da Alzano edited the anni pet il Venerabile feruo di Dio frate Bartholomeo da Alzano da Berga-- modelordinedelaobferuantia deli letters for Aldus. Grendler [19841. working from manuscripts which frati Predicatori:8c eflendo ftam pate di<- Iigentiflimamente:&congrandefpcfa:e ftato impetrato da la Ufa. erable vogue and two partial editions of St. 7223. ccccxiiii. Signatures: * 10 a-y 8 A-G 8 H U) I-N 8 O 10 P-Z 8 2A-2F 8 . was greatly expanded in contrast to those which appeared earlier.ccccc. Proctor. 422] leaves. 21.. 36-37. were written for people everywhere and offer Sapptaciafcuno nelecui mano uerranno quelle Epiftolcche eflendo ftatc adunateinfemicon grandiffirnadiligenria& fatichaperfpatio di circa uinri spiritual consolation. Panzer. Steinberg. Gold-tooled with ornaments on front and back covers. de 1499. edition with an "ostentatious degree of publicity" and an [1500] unusual amount of attention to the dedication.de Venetia che in locht & terrc di quclla da mo a deci an ni aniiino altro fia licito reftamparle o uendere o fa' erable sum in its day) as security to an unknown re uendere (lampate Sotto pena coma in lo pn uiicgio impe' monastery. 67. Anchor and dolphin gold-tooled onto the center front and back covers.e. 5:388.M. David. Aldus had obtained by promising sixty ducats (a consid- .. sewn on recessed pnx. 68. 5501. Physical description: [10]. Errors in foliation: number cii placed on the 118-125. and turn-ins. spine. with single back-beaded dark blue/red endbands. Title Catherine of Siena. Epistole devotissime 4 de Sancta Catharina da Siena gold-tooled onto spine."). 263. 20 . These letters (about four hundred in number). the pope to Rome and reconciling Florence to the Holy See. no.. clxix and ccxxxii omitted. Catherine was canonized in 1461. All of this Introduction . Goff. These letters were in the preparation process at the Aldine Press when the contrasting and certainly contro- versial Hypnerotomachia made its debut.I' NADA SIENA. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) was a renowned spiritual leader of the fourteenth century who exercised EPISTOLE DEVOTISSIME DE great religious and political influence. Catherine's works had already appeared during the 1490's" (Lowry 125). 5 ("les deux editions italiennes. 5575. Aldus "followed a well established trend: texts of the tene. helping restore SANCTA CATHAR. Aldus launched the Aldo Manutio Romano a di xv. Lowry. and in 1939 was named by Pope Pius XII one of Italy's patron saints. Sowell. St. C-767. most of which were dictated to her disciple Stefano Maconi. however. cm. later medieval devotional writers were enjoying a consid- r * . She enjoyed wide fame for her visions and revela- tions. 5574. sont des livres rares et d'un haut Binding description: Dark blue goatskin.. Iversen. False double bands on * * # spine. When the Epistole COLOPHON: Stampato in la Inclita Cita Venetia in Casa De first appeared some ten months later. McMurtrie. Grasse. 11.

1') In Aedibus Aldi . 1500. Epistole devotissime de Sanaa Catharina da Siena. TRANSIirADSPONSVMTRlBVSEXORNATACORONIS Aldus Manutms. Leaf*10v.

145. or Bucolics (pastoral poems). in the time of Aldus. M. Mantua. in Cisalpine Gaul. Brunei. cf. One of the humanist contributions to the difficilement des exempl. Hain. 6222. fact. no. BM STC Italian. In the dedication. Proctor. et dont on trouve theologian. reading of Virgil.was very intentional. unequaled orator. 2:80. . but as an REFERENCES: BM. Transcription of the title page: Vergilius. 4688. DI. GW. 126). Red edges. 79). Virgil's made famous in the 1501 Virgil. including title page] play upon the hideous vices of the time. UCLA. The Roman poet Virgil (70-19 B. 5:562. 23. 32] however. brated poet whose works had long since been printed. Sowell.C. and even prophet and 1:1662 ("Belle edition en lettres rondes. et plus peut-etre. Aldus "took care to first two quires. and from his own day to ours. philosopher. together with the quality of his C Virgil. 159. Virgil's chief works are his The italic type for which Aldus became famous made Eclogues. It was probably fall of Troy and his settlement in Latium). soundness" (Lowry. due to the fact that many saw in his fourth Eclogue a prophecy of the coming of Christ. est de la plus grande the veneration of Virgil during the Middle Ages is partly beaute"). Aldus was acutely sensitive to the Physical description: [228] leaves. Virgil at last a poet had appeared who was capable of these appear to be rough prototypes of the italic font equaling them. and the need for holy writings to act as preachers in converting Binding description: Vellum over pasteboards. (8vo). other Christian * * * writers held the Aeneid to be an allegory of sacred things. Renaissance was to step away from this allegorical Grasse. . bien conserves"). 2 ("livre tres recherche en Italie est perfect poetic latinity. [Aldus] was making the single raised cords. and the Aeneid (an epic works. Many felt that with of St. Georgics (poems its formal appearance in the 1501 edition of Virgil's glorifying peasant life and duties). during the Middle Ages the pagan Virgil had been treated not only as the supreme poet. sewn on Christendom to better ways. planned by Aldus and developed by the punch-cutter Since the time of Cicero. . UCLA. there was never any question as to the PROVENANCE: Bookplate of Giorgiodi Veroli. political and religious atmosphere. regarding him rather as a model of 5575. In Collection. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. In the well-known woodcut on leaf lOv might rival that of the Greeks. Certainly. Aldus used this edition "partly as an atonement" to offset the wake of controversy surrounding the shocking publi. Perrins. Renouard. . Aldus introduced Introduction 11 . aussi rare que les precedents . 29. Aside from the simplicity and beauty of his language. Goff. . During the early sixteenth century aspects of the sacred in Virgil's poetry. Marco Heidner absolute pre-eminence of Virgil as a Latin poet. . Works latinity.) was born near cation of the Hypnerotomachia. . Thus. L'edition. name has been highly revered. Roman writers and literati for at least a year before the printing of the Virgil" had striven to produce a national literature which (Fletcher. 12. continued to attract readers and guaranteed a sure profit for any printing venture. missing pope after the death of Alexander VI). However. Title calligraphed onto spine. present in BYU copy. [title page not Aldus Manutius's 1501 publication of Virgil. carries much more significance than simply providing students with yet another edition of the cele- Colophon: Venetiis ex aedibus Aldi Romani mense Aprili. with single back-beaded natural best of a good chance to display his orthodoxy and moral endbands. 16 cm. . C-281. according to Lowry. the type was "surely not devised in built around the legendary wanderings of Aeneas after the haste with little thought and study. [1501] With the 1501 publication of Virgil. en belles lettres rondes. Catherine's Epistole five words appear in italic. directed to Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini (who became SIGNATURES: a-b 8 (-a-b) c-g 8 A-Y4 [BYU copy .

who gave types to the Greeks. Aldus explains that he first downs. small-size manuscript copies of the classics in the library spine. dont les Aide ont fait un si frequent books. 3:390. Grendler [1984]. Robertson. Fletcher 77-91. A Thesaurus comucopiae Probably more important than Aldus's type innova- tions were his experiments with book formats. and to issue volumes in a small. the printer wrote: book proved immediate and revolutionary. 691. Although he had no doubt read and prob. Marbled endpapers and pastc- dedicated to Pietro Bembo. UCLA. he had unleashed a dual revolution which smaller manuscripts. as well as from three different popes. the II 8 KK f 'LA«. 40.two novel inventions: italic type and the octavo format ot Pietro's father. then in 1500. 32. These legal protections. Panzer." 7 his new italic type and a justification of his method of The compact style of the italic face enabled the orthography and accentuation. poet associated with the Alexandrian Library. M. and Leo X. 207-8. no. and the Lyon printers." Quite literally. where. 2:323. Bernardo. Green silk page marker. BM STC Italian. Mense Augusto. the octavos were in forma enchiridii ("in the shape Siena's EpistoU (see NO. he duced italic type in an illustration in Catherine ot wrote. Eisenstein. 42. he intro. Dibdin. printer to compress his subject matter into a smaller number of pages and thus reduce the physical size of the References: American STC Italian. [ 1496] to be carried"). endcaps. Bfihler [1950]. these smaller books experimenting with roinan typefaces. Grasse. 22. Mambelli. simply a book that would be "handy. Renouard 27. Aldus no doubt contemplated how changed forever the world of printing. however. Alexander VI. 52. board edges. Kallendorf. it quickly became 730. no. Tide gold-tooled onto spine. "Aldus.and gold-tooled with developed the idea of the smaller format after using the ornaments on front and back covers. 5:1277 ("Premier livre imprime avec le carac- the fashionable vernacular type for Italian and French tere dit italique. 12 In Aedibus Aldi . 3 ("livre cxtremement rare"). and doublure. no. 7:334. cords. forced to seek exclusive rights from the Venetian senate." BINDING disc rum ion: Red goatskin. were ot little use. (iilt marbled edges. 31 cm. Signatures: *W aa-zip &« 4 AA-DA 8 EE FZ-GH 8 (> H0 6 ably agreed with the sentiments of Callimachus. Brunet. smaller printed books might likewise be carried in a Aldus had already made a lasting contribution with pocket. The 1501 Aldine edition of of an enchiridion. 8:343. 44. the Soncini in Fano. which COLOPHON: Venetiis in domo Aldi Romani summa cura: led ultimately to his octavo-sized libri portatitlcs ("books laboreq(ue) praeinagno. Julius II. Not until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries did the popularity of the type begin # * * to wane." a manual or handbook) (Fletcher Virgil was the first book to be printed primarily in 88). Blind. be less expensive. 63. IIII. achieving such popularity that Aldus was soon usage").D. and italic type is now chiefly used for emphasis (cf Steinberg 36-37). who wrote that "a big book is a big nuisance. During the sixteenth century. 4). plate 4. Praising his own innovation. 96 ("edizione aldina cstremamente rara"). in 1495 he also began everyday use. and quarto format. Aldus's italic type was freely counter. The impact of the innovation of a smaller-sized italic. and thus more available for the design ot his greek fonts. (foL). sewn on single raised the stimulus for a small book actually came from else. I le first launched were intended not so much as a pocket-sized book as prototypes of the Bembo font. Seeing the utility of the In one work. no. work.C. feited by the Giunti at Florence. Since then. now gives them Following the text of the Aeneid in the 1501 Virgil are to the Latins fashioned by the skilled hands ot three pages containing a notice from Aldus announcing Franciscus of Bologna. with double front-beaded red/yellow/blue endbands. With the 1501 edition of Virgil. As he later explained. octavo si/e. the roman typeface has dominated. Aldus i to depart from the tradition of the stately folio Physical description: [10] 270 leaves. third-century B. Crous. In the preface of the 1514 Virgil (see BYU copy).

but understanding and appreciative of our great labors" Originally these grammatical treatises were collected (trans. EutH fd)/ixvv •z^tK. Both leaves 2B1 of the work and were thus presumably printed THSS'AVRV (Jornucopia:. 12 In spite of occasional typographic and textual Hf«</>«f? we* trK. have redeemed at the price of a gold crown. A/p0£cbcuAs which they were printed. 12).AmM»wv $*)*. Horatian who said: 'Where there are many merits in a llie* -Wei? w flHAvH^opo^^'iu/N. Not only was rity classical manuscripts by publishing them. announces to the world his plans to rescue from obscu- Poliziano. Lemke. The BYU copy is a variant OH2AYPOS. a common weakness of human nature.A/TIH/W ^rtWvj/K^i. Perhaps in an attempt to strike learning of Greek. The Thesaurus comucopiae authorities of the age. TAAE ENE2T1 EN TH. with Angelo Poliziano's help. poem.x. 14). Urbano Bolzanio.JS* Acu £u J91A* jwjwecjoi.AE Th\ BlBAKt When the leaves were reset.3CHortiAdomdu.PA'ifl^N. or the originals were accidentally destroyed. as Ath'u A/ owfftov •snw *kA/ tuv ^h/uoctu AS. "every one f* "TCP inf&j<idxi snnxrjw. Aldus asks his Arurv&or •srtB. I can truly say — yes.* -7rt6< JicLhl*. The edition more important than the work itself. as Aldus informs us in the is part of his textbook series and comprises a collection preface. Aldus had the utmost confidence in the quality of his productions. The works of thirty-four diverse a sympathetic chord with his readers or to reassure them Greek and Byzantine grammarians and texts in various of the intrinsic value of the work by way of his personal Greek dialects are included." 10 The Thesaurus is the first book of the Aldine Press with numbered leaves. during these long years. Aldus was certain that his "impressions were more perfect and correct than the very originals from E «. 9 Aldus notes "In this seventh year of my self- containing "practically everything that anyone could imposed task. / for he employed some of the most capable scholars of his time. if possible. Etc*? ivfujt* Kj eujttl cyaifet tK. by the Italian Hellenists Varinus Favorinus and Carolus The preface to the Thesaurus comucopiae is probably Antenoreus. been surmised that possibly either in the original impression at a later time.iwn« find any minor errors.Aoj9« j£1 trti-^ton. energy. but. edition: leaf and 2B8 are noticeably 2B8 is misnumbered lighter than the rest 4. Aldus Manutius was deeply interested in language this work therefore edited by some of the most eminent and the intricacies of grammar. found in most copies. an enormous amount of time. had an hour of literature"* (trans.. and of Greek texts designed to help students in their preparation went into it. added to and edited by Aldus himself." 13 However.af^fltf^tx. I shall not be offended with a few faults due to lack of care. It a shortage was found of the sheet containing 2B1 has and 2B8. Such mistakes greatly concerned Aldus. and not ungrateful for our work of love. Aldus describes this work as sacrifice. "Please remember the maxim of New ocmo)? OTe*^«AtK7W T^KK. of which I would gladly. tyfeAivsAiiiru/N readers in the preface to the Thesaurus that if they should Ex/WlaJctm ypx/Ajuctrnx. beginning Introduction 13 . tF5? Xoifofrooici mti iy*. errors. who later wrote to Pope Leo X that nothing was more troubling to rite* #?» •?» itafli^et^ j»M(«"n#' him than to see any faults in his impressions. Lemke.TOK- t VfXjtX 1ft& ^5» •B&fOMXfty A«tAMi. the numbering on leaf 2B8 was accidentally altered to 4 from the correct 204. under oath — that I desire in order to achieve perfect knowledge of Greek have not. and others." 11 Nevertheless. peaceful rest.' Be ye therefore fair and most gracious judges of this work of printing. for in it Aldus was revised.

9. 5cntcnci<c monofhchi per Capita ex uanispoens. TbeoaiQ tclogs trigiiiu*. Signatures: AA-AI> LE-0G' 2ZCS 1 10 2Aa-2A6 s 2Le<> nurca Carmina Pythagor<c. t. BINDING DES< RIPTION: Red goatskin. Sheppard concerning the variant the first editions to be published in Greek. Most ot these texts. director of the Syracuse Theocritus.XCV. Brunet. Rcnouard. Referen< is: BM. libri duo. with single front-beaded red white endbands.tot QuteAtj fi<n.M. Gilt edges. Uarmina Sibylla crythrxx dc Chriflo Iclu domiiio nfo. «js*tax.U)f 'ffi iLovKoMtLto. (fol. as well as numerous other texts. But these manuscripts | 14 hi Aedttnu . Eiufdcmfcutum. no.. concludes that "the 1496 Thesaurus is those currently in favor with professors of Greek. cords.i<px^tt4x fftwnmfa*- row IK /)d. tooled with ornaments on trout and back covers. JJitfcretiauocis. tiuldcm gcorgicon. 8. including the Theogony. J" hcognidis incgarcnCs ficuli (enttntuc clcgiauc. Mense februario. he apologizes in the preface by saying. board edges. Gold. Idylls Theognis.CCCC. (inissc. Aldi Manucii Romani cum gratia &c.ecT»U.). Aldus printed this selection texts because of the miserable state of the available of Greek authors in response to a request from Ins manuscripts. printing of sheet 2B and 1 8. Rattey and L. C. 14 Donald Bean. sewn on single raised Mcliodi 1 hcogonia. Theogony foi Ins Greek students.'. lite* QSovov- # # # r^QofXBUiMtosi^iK. 14%| Ocnus Thcocria &dc mucnttoncbucohcui. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. T-158. are (. and turn-ins. Aldus had a difficult time editing a number of the •rdmg to his preface. 1 14 ( ^5. TA AE ENESTI EN TH AE THc BIB Afl . | with Aristotle.'^iut^ flfcWTVVifpL HSU HM*f<x* OPHON: Impressum Venetiis characteribus ac studio Haecinlunt m hoc libro. 5).am^Hfxx. 1 ("belle edition. ll. the Idylls of are the work of an Oedipus.mi. Title gold-tooled onto brown leather label on spine. UCLA. mainly University Press. 5:555. 109 ('"h vanquishes the r\fcu>vvO T\.. 1'iivsk \i DESCRIPTION: 140| leaves: 32 cm. GofF. that he should print such a selection this early in his The BYU copy contains correspondence between career.e.cric<cdi(Hchi. Works Txeurnv a.uiii. CatonisRomaiufciitcnri<cpara:n. A. 1 [esiod. i. 15493. [ Uclmudia.ect'jiit ifvdecuwmzl rd*. !/(// . who needed a text ofHesiod's sheer nonsense. buners of books for all time and it still gives freely to the world a splendid embodiment of the excellence of scholar- ship and the beauty of typography"). Aldus added to this "I wouldn't dare emend the books myself: such riddles •election other works by Hesiod.. . 7:13d. spme. iciitenci* leptem fapiemmu. Hcrculis. Admitting that some of the Greek is friend Battista Guarino. It was m my opinion one of the most neglected landmarks in entirely consistent with Aldus's pedagogical interests the history of modern letters" (Lemke.oirTO» devenue tres rare"): Rostenbcrg.<Pdf<ut *73T)/«tP?v > Xfvm fsrw vvv rsvQx js'f * 7 Theocritus.\jtfiHiZ Pythagoras. Carmen aureum Oracula Sibytlina HfioJbvDtofbvict. Elegies z>Ti%i fftfrvM. Phocylidac Pocmaadmonitonum. 5:806.

Canticatredccim.In Iaudem Vndeuiginri martyrum Cxfar/ poem in honor of Adonis) and the differing arrange.PafJGo Cafllanl.DI. 7:113. 2.Cantica IoannisDamafceni in Theogoniam. AdCallicitum.heroico carmine. and calligraphed onto spine. I n honorem paflionis fanfti Laurcnrii. BM. T ragocdia depaiuone Roman i mattyris. Red Opufculumad Annutiationembeatisj. 1502].abeodem to add certain Greek Christian poets as well.uerfu Hcroico. In Afccnfi T-144.in quibus deridct G etiliu Deor.S-N icolai e graxo in latinum a Leonardo I uitiniano pa< i Greek authors were included for educational purposes tririo Yeneto. The volumes described here are the first two in the series. phaiiiam. 114.II. /* n /.Petecollen.Epi 667. The Poetae Christiani is a multivolume collection of Indie palmarum- D e paffione D omini. Volumes 1 and 2 reversed in binding.IiiTranifigurationem. Virginia grace cunt latino in medio quaternionum omnium.dcuereri & nouotelramctoper tetrafHcha.hoceftcentonesex Homerogrxce cum inter/ prerationelau'na.D. were so mangled and mixed up that even if the author PRVDENTII POETAE OPERA.CotraHomudomtay.Poftieiuniu. v u. 5:554.in qua fini spentametri eft fimilij principio he xametri. that of the BYU copy. An redbum-Poitdbum. 15477. tooled onto red leather label on spine.<.e. m . something than nothing.. probably during the press run. title also gold-tooled Cyprianus de ligno C ructs uerfu Heroico- Tiphcmi deprecatoria td Virginem Elegia.In laudem Quirini De. Binding description: Vellum with Yapp edges. with single front-beaded green/white Homerocentta. no. later. ^ . QKAE HO C LIBR. . for separate editions.&PauEPaffioCroriani. (Jofma. Renouard. Eiufdem de paffione Domini carmineherofco.1. C onrra Symmachulibri duo. Odelnnatal' dip Salnatotfe.Martini epifcopi aSeueroSulpItio profaorarinne. 2:273. Grasse. Poetae Christiani veteres 8 Colophon: (vol. 9) form Title page to vol.Cotraludxos. Adomnes horas. Proctor. and calligraphed onto foredge.In epiphanla. Christian poets which Aldus originally intended to Ad ChriftumutperdatTurcas- Epigrammaad beatiss. the Carmina of Gregory of Nazianzus (NO. leaf 2yl0r): Venetiis apud Alduni. It's better to have Ueieiuniis.in quo futit hymnusdetrinitate. (4to). edges.In infider This publication exists in two states. In laudem FrueVuofi. 2 dated: Mense Iunio . 3 ("tres rare").contra Marrionitaj.S. paffj.& Chelcdonii. Laftantii Fiimiani de Refurreftione Elegia. augufrx. he decided Vita. is recognizable by Liberdecoionismartymm. second state. [1501. however. Elegia in Hierufalem. Demiraculis. UCLA.M. Hain. 5:554.««r£»J-». eighteen pages. . T ituhhifroriarum. Ad Matutinu. Aldus simply reprinted De natura animaE. BM STC Italian." funftoriLlnnaralidie Dni noftri Iefu chrifti.S-Martini Dialoguj.In Annuntiatiuucui. .In diem Dominica Pafcx. sewn on A ratoris C ardinalis hiftorix A poftolicx libri duo. Oratiomarutinaad Deumuerfu heroico- SanftiDamaii delaudibus Pauli Apoftoli uerfus hexamctn.Paffio Hippolyti-Paffio Apoirolorum Pcrri. 5:780. nvincentii. Oratioadeandem ueifuheroico.In exequiis dc . Goff. FiiirdehKmnaideChriftoabincarnatione. These Detralatione S. 7. In laudem.ufqjadafcefione. Au- yorii. 22 cm. 1. i. 1:363. and contained corresponding Latin translations.OdxinhonoieHeme rcrii. Martini abeodem. Lowry. SabclJianoshxrericos.M. 5.. C anticum T heophanis in A nnurionem.Iocoubi Manures ment of the first stanza of the poem on leaf ZFlr.CotraPhantafmaticos. correct them! But great care has been taken to print the tiy mnidiumaram rerum. Brunei.inquoftmr. 5549. preface to vol. himself were to rise up from the grave he couldn't V imrtumcumuitmpugna. laced-in endbands. The L ibcrdeorigincpcccarojv.quipatrempaiTum affirmant.Adiucenixaccenfione-Antefomnu. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. AW tr». Ptobi Falconixceto ex Vergilio denouo & ueteri teftameto single raised cords.hiero(bl^mitani. mense Ianuario . In fact.O CONTINENT V R-- Scdulii mirabilium diuinotu libri quatuor carmine heroico. Dibdin. Hxcgrxce.uerfu Iambico.Dcrcfurrectionc. texts from the best exemplar. InuenddeEuangelicahiftoria libriquatuor. References: American STC Italian. earlier mistaken Contra hxreticos.&EuIogii. Purple paper place tabs along foredge. Physical description: 2 v. C antica Maid epifcopi I dronris. Eiufdem Elegia. Contra les. Introduction 15 . L iberdediuiriirate.Paflio Agneris. Qux oia habet e re gionelatiiiamimcrpretautincm # * * Title page to vol. Title gold. Virgin env restrict to Latin authors only.in Magnum Sabbatum. in the inclusion of additional material on leaf 0G6v (a laudem Eulalix. onem.

it spreads and wins recognition. volume three. by all who arc Renouard) but of great literary interest as well. He consequently devoted Bembo to Aldus was such as the one most of the first volume to the publica. round an anchor was used as a symbol which Aldus used his famous as early as the time of Augustus and was printing device." S. and AVGustus Pontifex Maximus.* Damascus. although the series tion offered by Erasmus and bears the includes other such diverse authors as inscription: "IMIVra/or CAESar D1VI Prosper of Aquitaine. a silver medal from the era of Vespasian writings of Prudentius and felt that his works were which had the anchor and dolphin on its reverse. Aldus was impressed with the Bembo. from a gift Aldus had received from Pietro Like most in his day. P. W. The device originated. Aldus Mauritius. it referred to Neptune and often to victory at sea (102). 33:9). PATIENTIA EST OKNAMENT VM CVSTO DIA ET PKOTECTIO VITAE. Leafd7r. Erasmus. TR. John years of its appearance. sons of Vespasian (339). superior to those of Sedulius and Perhaps the coin given by Pietro Juvencus. John of VESPasiani Filius DOMITIANh. in Christian poet series contains several works published CWE. It meets the descrip- tion of Prudentius. 15 Withm a few the Flavian family. This devoted to the cult of liberal studies" (Adagia 2. an anchor with a later seen on coins struck by princes of dolphin entwined around its shaft. 1499. 399. particular interest to bibliographers S.1. The Poetae Christiani veteres is of PP. COnSul VIII.1. These works are not only of great rarity is held fast and prized in company with books of all ("collection infiniment rare ct precieuse. even outside the limits of any nation of dolphin and trident (later anchor) usually Christian empire." On the Theophanes. At 16 In AedibusAldi . Erasmus wrote of its growing Melville Jones explains that on Roman coins the combi- fame: "In every nation. back side is inscribed "IMPewtor Villi. illustrated here. Hypnerotomachia. Stevenson Stevenson notes that the dolphin curled and historians as the first work in Dictionary ofRoman Coins (1899)." according to kinds in both the ancient languages. according to for the first time (editiones principes). Cosmo I Iagiopolites.

Robertson. addressed to The great popularity of the symbolic printer's device Alberto Pio.e. "Cautum est . Goldschmidt. 103. 339. 24. the old-fashioned trade- Before Aldus ever used the device. S. dolphin and anchor and the corresponding association * * * with the phrase festina lente ("make haste slowly"). & the caduceus (Mercury's staff with two intertwined chrifh'aneuiuere.& fanftis moribus mi crowned serpents and a perched dove). 77-91. 79 ff). Both of uously" 16 (trans. as one should do. Roman medals and their reverses) much without undue haste and we are producing assid. conferendo cognofcite. BM STC Italian. symbolizing reinirituuntadokfcentesJdueroitafit. Aldus writes. 81). Scriptores astronomici veteres (1499. 4:756. 3). and the hieroglyphs on Egyptian obelisks (ibid. .fiid genus tralationis cum grs of such a printer's mark in 1516 with his own device of t<j diligenter conferatis. humanists. sixteenth century progressed. As the printing operation. Likewise. Steinberg.1). P. 209-11. a symbol derived device had real significance to an aspiring Venetian from Psalm 31 ("I am like a broken vessel"). necne. In the second dedicatory preface to the emblems increased (cf. 2. 67. 37. and on the same page are also found variations in Greek and Latin of the mottofestina lente. & graria. Carmina After Aldus had set the example by using the anchor and dolphin as his device and trademark. UCLA. Erasmus claims that Aldus was inspired by an ancient Roman coin. the maritime power of the seaport of 10:16).nam & grace fimul difcetis. NO. and solidity (Adagia 2. 43-59. 31.. phrase "wise as serpents and harmless as doves" (Matt. Goldschmidt. and the anchor rest. Brunet. Introduction 17 . rati non parum c- molumcnri uobismturum." rather than "Cum gratia. 1 ("Collection infini- Aldus Manutius. 542. Aldus's productions marked the first appearance of emblems with mottos on the title pages uregorii epilcopi Nazanzeni carmina ad bene. D.1.quandoquidem fummain Hits Sc doftrina eft. 7. Eiscnstein 280. Christie [1895]. no." as found in some editions. wisdom and simplicity and recalling the scriptural Valetc. Fletcher. he wrote of its marks disappeared and the use of elegant and witty elements. ut in caeteris. Erasmus explains in these areas correspond to different theories behind his Adagia the symbolism behind Aldus's use of the Aldus's devising and use of his device. with areas of interest to scholars of the time: the study of clas- the dolphin and the anchor. P-1685.the time of Aldus. "I am my own witness that I during the Renaissance is often attributed to two main always keep company.fanftos ctiam mores difcere cupicntibus.beare'q? uiueii/ dumutiliflima nupcregraxo in latinumad ucrbumfere tralaia of Renaissance books. 10). & priuilegio. Stevenson. others have theorized that Aldus was influ- enced by Francesco Colonna's free use of hieroglyphs in the 1499 Hypnerotomachia (NO. 46. other printers followed. Leaf 8v. it is said. References: Adams. 49. especially those producing books for the Aldus Romanus omnibus una" aim grxa'y literis. the dolphin symbolizes speed. Q Gregory of Nazianzus.). An elegant prototype of the Aldine anchor does appear in the Hypnerotomachia. As noted. The BYU copy has the variant on leaf 8 of vol. Renouard. Froben at Basel emulated the use imprimenda curauimus ftudiofi adblefcentes . . Geoffroy Tory used his famous mark Venice was well known and therefore the use of such a of the "pot casse" starting in 1524. ment rare et precieuse"). 1502 Poetae Christiani veteres. For we have produced sical antiquity (i. steadi- ness.

Colophon: Venetiis ex Aldi Academia mense lunio. M. ot six) dispersed throughout the entire volume. 17
DIIII. [1504] Whether out of fun, pragmatism, or educational
psychology (offering the incentive and welcome relief of
PHYSICAl DESCRIPTION: [ 234] leaves; 22 cm. (4to). simple koine to the student weary of Gregory's difficult
Greek), Aldus creates an entertaining "goose-chase" by
Signatures: A-N 1() s
O 4
(interleaved with 2A-2N* 20 4
)
instructing the reader at the bottom of each page of
chi 22chi 2 . Gospel text to "quaere reliquum in medio sequcntis
quaternionis" ("look for the remaining text in the
Binding DESCRIPTION: Brown calfskin over wood, sewn on middle of the following gathering"). This is the first

double raised thongs, with single front-headed tan/blue printing of any part of the New Testament in Greek. In
laced-in worked endbands. Plain endpapers and paste- his note at the end, Aldus explains that the rest of the
downs. Yellow edges. Catchplates on back foredge. Greek New Testament would be printed in an edition
Remnants ot leather straps on front foredge. Blind panel of Nonnus. This was never done.
stamp with ornaments on front and back boards. Blind- As described by Renouard, the final two leaves
tooled with ornaments on spine and turn-ins. Title constituting the index at the end are printed on paper
calligraphed onto spine. Remnants of paper label. smaller than the rest of the work. The Aldinc anchor is

on the verso of leaf [230].

Gregory of Nazianzus (a.D. 329-89) is one of the
most important historical and literary figures in early Provenance: The BYU copy was once owned by the famous
Christian church. I Ie was "the great rhetorician of his bookseller-printer Robert de Gourmont. the first Parisian

age," renowned for his irrefutable genius as a popular printer of Greek
preacher and theologian. Later Byzantine scholars
revered Gregory as the "Christian Demosthenes." In the REFERENCES: Adams, G-1142; American STC Italian, 2:81;

final years of his life, retired to his estate at Arianzum Brunet. 2:1728; Christie [1895], 209-11; Grasse, 3:146;

and. attended to by his serfs, he was able to devote Panzer, 8:370, no. 259; Renouard, 46, no. 4; UCLA, 67.

himself almost exclusively to poetry. Gregory chose
poetry in particular because he wanted to meet heretics # # #
on their own ground. Many of the heretics in his age

popularized their messages in poetic form. To this day
the poetic and hymnal form of theology is still a T Q Scriptores astronomici vctcres

common method of instruction among Eastern Julius Firmicus Matcrnus. Mathesis
Christians. About four hundred of Gregory's poems still Marcus Manilius. Astronomicorum libri quinque
exist, as well as over 240 letters, composed specifically as Aratus Solensis. Vita (trans. Aldus Manutius);
models of good literary style. Gregory's Greek, though Fragtncntitm Phaenomenon (trans. Caesar
patterned after I lomer, is difficult and often deliberately German icus); Phaenomena
obscure (McGuckin, v-xx). Proclus. Sphacra (trans. Thomas Linacre)
Undoubtedly because of Gregory's stature as one of
the most eloquent men of his age, Aldus chose him for Transcripiion or TITLE PAGE: lulii Firmici Astronomicorum
publication. His Cannula constitute volume three of the libri octo integri, & emendati, e\ Scythicis oris ad nos

Christian poet series. As with earlier Greek pedagogical nuper allati. Marci Manilii astronomicorum libri quinque.

texts published by Aldus, the Carttlitta consist of Greek Arati Phaenomena Cermamco Caesare interprete cum
and Latin texts interleaved so that the translations are commentariis & imaginibus. Arati eiusdem phaenomenon
bound opposite the original text. However, the two fragmentum Marco. T.C. interprete. Arati eiusdem
middle leaves of each gathering contain the text of the Phaenomena Ruffo Festo Auienio paraphraste. Arati

Gospel ot St. |ohn (chapters one through five, and part eiusdem Phaenomena graece Theonis commentaria copio-

18 In AedibusAldi

Aldus Manutius, 1499 Scriptores astronomici veteres. LeafG2r.

Introduction 19

sissima in Arati Phaenomena graece. Procli Diadochi considerable hold on Europe: ''astrological treatises
Sphaera graece Procli eiusdem Sphacra. Thoma Linacro were thought as important as other classical writings,
Britanno interprete. [title page not present in BYU copy; and were frequently printed" (Thorndike, 415).
cf. UCLA, 27/1]

First colophon: (leaf 2k8r): Venetiis in aedibus Aldi

Romani mensi lunio .M.ID. Iulii Ffrmfci Materni Iunoris Siculi inriconfuIaris.ad Mauor
(1499)
tiiimLoUianummarhcicosubrorumo&ogcncralisclcnchos.

Firrru'cirnatJwfeoshbriprimipirucidion.
Second COLOPHON: (final leaf): Venetiis enra, & diligentia

Aldi Ro. Mensc octob. M.ID. (1499) Primilibri praefatio-
Mathcfcos aduerfaaemulo^argumenca. Cap. .i.

Obiectorum dilTolurio gcneralis. cap. ii.

Physical description: [376] leaves: woodcuts; 30 cm. (fol.). Argumentorum aduerianrium eonfutatio. cap. iii.

Obie&opi diflblutioparticularis.. cap. iiii.

Firmicx mathcfcos libri fecundipinacidion.
Signatures: *'• (-*1) a-g 10 h 12 2a-2h 10 2i-2k s A-D 10 E 12 Secundi libri prxfario.

F^ G-M 10
N 6 2 N-S 10
T 8
(-T8). [BYU copy missing
Zodiaci fignorum diuifio.acnaturar conditio. cap. u
Sccllarum domicilii nomina.ac ptites in (ignis. cap. ii.

title page and last leaf] Stelkrumaltimdodcie&iocp.caruq; conditio, cap. Hi,
fignorum decani.eoruq; domini. cap. iiii'

Signorum per rriccnas partes diuifio. cap. V-
BINDING DESCRIPTION: Brown calfskin, sewn on single raised Sfi-llamm fmes.in unoquoq; zodiaci figno. cap. v"-
Diurna.ud nocturna ftellarum gaudia. Cap. yii-
cords, with double front-beaded green/white/red endbands.
Stella^ ortus,&occafusearuq;conditio» Cap. viii.

Plain endpapers and pastedowns. Gilt edges. Simple blind Matucinarum, ucfpcrtinaruq; ftdlarum partes, Cap. .ix.
SrrlUrum omnium erraticarum ducatus. Cap- X.
tooling on front and back covers and spine. Title gold- Trjgonopt domini ,eoniq;quaIitates. Cap. XI.
tooled onto spine. Signorum natura.formxqualitatefq;. Cap. xii.
Signoruortus.fecundum diucrfaclimata. Cap. xiii.
Signorum ucntis lubiect io ncs. Cap. xiiii.

The Scriptures astronomki ueteres, the thirteenth work Signorum duodecatemoria. Cap. .XV.
circa horofcopum confideranda. Cap. xyi.
printed by the Aldine Press, is a collection of astrolog- cardines eoruq; fuccedentes. Cap. xvii>
Ceniturx cardines. Cap.
ical treatises. First and formost of these is the Mathesis xviii.
Quatuor loca fecunda- Cap. xix.
of Firmicus Maternus (fl. A.n. 334-337), a work with Pigra.deiectaq; figurseloca. Cap. XX.
r^ncorum figuracordines. Cap. XVI.
eight books, which takes up almost half of the entire
Locorumduodecim potcftates Cap- YYl'f.
volume. The remainder of the volume consists of Locopj duodceim nomia apotelefirutaq;. cap- xxiii.
Geniturarum qlitates.q nobilesfint,quxucmedix. cap. xxiiii.
works concerning astrology by the minor poets and SreUarumafpeclus omnes. cap. .XXV.
writers Marcus Manilius, Aratus, and Proclus. The Signorum inter fecognatio. cap. xxvi.
Super humano corpore fignorum dominia« cap. xxvii.
Latin text of Aratus's Fragmentum contains woodcuts
and diagrams copied and derived for the most part from
the 1482 Poeticon astronomicon by Hyginus (Venice:
Erhardt Ratdolt). Ratdolt's woodcuts had wide circula-
tion among early printed books and served as the model Leaf*4r.
for Aldus's illustrations of the constellations (Bliss, 1 1).

The Mathesis has been described as the most
comprehensive ("umfangreichste") handbook on The first book of the Mathesis comprises an apology

astrology from antiquity (GW, 9981). From its early for astrology. Later, after Firmicus converted to
Babylonian beginnings, astrology had swept the Greco- Christianity, he reversed himself and wrote works
Roman world. It permeated the sciences, medicine, attacking pagan practices. The Aldine Mathesis was edited
religion, philosophy, and politics. Even though by Francesco Niger, who had originally found the
( hristianity opposed astrology-, it continued to flourish manuscript in Hungary. The Aldine edition was the
in the West. During the Renaissance it still had a most complete of its day (nearly double the previous

20 In Aedibus Aldi

and mutilated to about half the size of the original [text]. uald. Title calligraphed century" (76). Rose. 130-31. . edges.LXXXXV. the Aristotle has been highly treasured by scholars Introduction 21 . printed 1498] No colophon to vol. These are all present in the BYU copy. with single front. 14559. as well as one of the most beautiful (Bliss beaded laced-in yellow/blue endbands. H<#»6'£/*oc Ae4si T«AovcAortK«5 !3zic/<r«ij?' historical sources for studying a wide range of public life and human activity in the ancient world. sewn on single pigskin thongs. Red edges. Today astrological and magical texts have again •ANtfNYMON- become important as scholars recognize their value as .o*' II Aristotle. Remnants of pigskin ties at the scholarly and printing achievement of the fifteenth foredges of the front and back covers. stating. productions.") •ElS OPr ANON APlSTOTfc'AOYS. 46. Plain endpapers Aldus's title to glory."' 53. 1. with single front-beaded yellow/brown/tan preface. NEOS EIS 4>lAOY2 » » . Kat^l loox99H<n&L Tn>}foc/AMcL'Ti*. the Greek texts at the end of the Scriptores astronomici veteres are absent from many Tor ficv Tvonvyv ju*"C >uujtos A A</&r i£j>0xn A*. Works XfVttVi rlb dl '3T5 Au</M<H WW * A«c^fflC» Colophon: to vol. u. who rambled to begin with. F-191. [It] has been called the greatest and pastedowns. Renouard. Vellum spine 19). sewn on single ence to the incomplete Bevilaqua 1497 edition in his raised cords. Aldus makes refer. had become extremely corrupted. Red sprinkled eque deprauatus erat. final vol. . Hain.1: Impressum Venetiis dexteritate EPPnSOE. Aldi Manucii Romani. The publication of Aristotle (1495-98) was probably Binding description: Volume 1: Limp vellum with Yapp the most classical and expensive of the Aldine Press edges. Because of its importance. According to Barolini. beauty. / family life which plagued the later empire (Bliss. Physical description: 5 v. 579-80. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. et d'une tres belle execution"). In depicting a declining civilization. According to Renouard. 26-28). Goff. [1495. ac mutilus et fere dimidius. ("Firmicus. and deteriorating / » I \ t / . Maternus gives particular attention sKinmNos kaptepoma'xoy- to the rampant crime. Volume 3: Brown quarter calfskin. and onto paper label on spine.1497 edition by Simone Bevilaqua). AAAOY MANOYKIOY BASIA no. 27/2. 27/1. it was "a noble endeavor and linings visible on front and back flyleaves. immorality. Much is revealed about fourth-century Roman civilization and the empire during the reign of Constantine the Great in books three and four of the Mathesis. * * * A vnY A /*t$ottJkeq. References: BM. Calendis nouembris. Fake bands on spine./x/xwtot «V tvpec jt«VoA*. "[Firmicus] qui uagabatur prius. 20. 1 and 3). Kesten.<f. M. Proctor. . 3 ("II est rare. 5570. (BYU has vols. editions. UCLA. endbands. .CCCC. 3 Title page to vol. Title gold-tooled onto spine. value. Eisenstein. 5:560.

who found himself at ec every moment delayed by doubts.and collectors alike since its initial printing. . Throughout the Middle Ages the writings of Aristotle had been accessible only in Latin translation. 16-18). 377. he is a specimen of mental freedom and the vision of his life's mission: glorious to the Republic which nurtured him" (Botficld. 205). • ' the Renaissance now had the ability to study them in the £j/iA/ct KfisvrxWmeAiooaiii&eAcLf ft' original Greek. £/6Aitfr <* illegible or disfigured by the ignorance of the copyists. through education (Barolini. and of which the different manuscripts were cither almost Tov*t»TnvTne«8*</iu«ttflur««t6W5nct7wc. 18 This was Aldus was a man of vision and ideals. By so doing. when old. men c 1 « > the same. Renaissance humanists strongly believed that in order to be truly understood the ancients must £//JAjor Ty<*t»*77>v 2rtfi^uujj«jr»/.iid that Cato. And amongst the youth Greek is 22 In Aedibus Aldi . As Botficld concludes about Aldus men's minds from hostilities and bring peace back to from his prefaces. Renouard explains: T etlxi •7W/'2rt&i ju. Aldus combined impeccable scholarship and classical training Tj*tf7ruOT3JM»»M»C . he explains both the value of the study of Greek is delightful. for the solution of Txcu/rZ-mfioqitDp. be read in their original language.£ £i o THfZ* JilfaA* * To obtain an idea of the difficulties and the boldness of such an enterprise. and he used his Aldus's first famous publication and it was an enormous prefaces to advocate the improvement of society success.<ftf)uac7wr« Ci G\iof cc. all at this time unpublished. In the dedication to his former pupil. it is often Aldus outlines in the prefaces to his Aristotle noted for its prefaces and dedications. PiflAl'* production of Aristotle. presenting different readings. The prefaces reflect not only his culture and [f formerly it w. . In addition to its scholarly and typographic contributions. and simplicity of language about him which Pio..**/«A» OTSTOtf $£/>«. like those volumes his great ambition to promote the study of found in so many other Aldine productions.A''«' « T?«w7ov3rtf//Aiffwr. The Aldine edition of Aristotle has received critical acclaim for five hundred years now. /„. often partially mutilated or obliterated and almost rflfny. and Aldus provided this for them (Grendler [1984]. was seen learning. are beau. All this mass of writings was in the hands of an editor who could obtain no assis. vi). In none of his productions did Aldus demonstrate more TwowTt 0<AAio/j cc Tt\f « £aco(»c»<ima>«' skill and editorial ability than in his monumental Trfowev zrte»\Jwo)ir$<'*'WC. which. a Europe. Quq>fcl<nvnwi%yaip.WwTot/Ml">MO<'A'^f< $i$hl<>* « with technical and artistic capability to resurrect the TovMTDvzrtftcgvTrviwr GtShiot cc classical authors for an age ready to receive them. $£*/« tance from any earlier edition. £/JiAior « Aristotle are composed. he hoped to divert tiful and elegant. luGklov el which he had to rely for the most part on his own licwr>v'7n^\^>Liutt PiGa/o/j * sagacity and critical scholarship (Renouard. Title page to vol. as translated by Christie [1895]. . we must bear in mind the numerous ^lao^^BctfXTTlv • p/PAi<* r treatises of which the five folio volumes of the works of Tyecirusne^uAffcTWf. Alberto self-respect. 147). 3. p</>.is s. so now in our day with us old which he maintained with the learned men of his age. but also the constant and cordial dealings studying Greek in Rome. Greek in the West. "there is a high and a noble feeling. «rtd' «c» .

1:457 work was an illustrious group of gifted and learned men. Renouard. 1:210 ("tres rare"). but they are so rare that it is only with the examples of the Byzantine weave (arabesque) influence help of God that I hope to remedy this defect by conse. several of whom were refugees from Constantinople. Expanded have reaped a rich harvest (trans. Greek manuscripts. In many of his Greek editions. studied equally with Latin. Aldus provided mentum ad omnes sci[enti]as — pernecessarium" "This headpieces and decorative initials which were patterned is the most necessary tool for all knowledge. are Byzantine East. Roberston. Throughout the Aristotle volumes are avidly sought. made Asian and Middle Aldus recommends his edition of Aristotle for Alberto's Eastern products very familiar. in the artwork employed in the headpieces and initials. crating all my strength and all my resources to aid the Byzantium and its successor. Venice. A-959. 2340. 2341. 67). UCLA. 2342. Working alongside Aldus in the production of this References: BM STC Italian. ("bien executee"). 12. 1495 Aristotle. Grasse. classical Greek authors. GW. Aldus was legendary for welcoming scholars from the 1657. many more of the great design. BM. 7. Hain. Introduction 23 . 5. Goldschmidt. 5:553. also. Brunet. and the common motif was the interlaced knotwork besides the rest of Aristotle. For the most part. 5547. And in what an age! When arms are abundance of lavish and decorative ornamentation much more handled than books! I shall not rest until I which the West could not help admiring.") In the after Byzantine manuscripts. these dedication to the first volume. 42. 4. coupled with bursting international commerce. Islam. especially in ports like general education and study of Greek ("Est enim instru. Mediterranean trade routes. Goff. Aldus describes the tome arabesque and Byzantine ornaments were linear in style as the primo irnpressus of his Greek series and promises. Leaf A6v. Aldus Manutius. 70-71. no. had developed an friends of letters. Proctor.

.

62).807 leaves program of the publication of Greek authors in Greek. 111). in Aldus no praise could be too high. 11). not as a printer. The foundation of Aldus's plan for the dissemination but the Greek books were far more substantial. first dated books to come off the press were two Greek The greek fonts Aldus developed have been the occa- grammars. obviously. followed a year later in 1496 by yet another. the publication program really began to flourish. the possession of a good set of (such as Aristophanes. Euripides. Some highlights of the Greek publications of the tions of those by Greek authors — had been published by first decade of the sixteenth century are the works of the end of the fifteenth century. Sophocles yet seen print. GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS ALDUS'S PROGRAM OF 116-17). the ingenuity and addition to the "satellites" to the Greek program. but the pattern For the business enterprise and eager scholarship of governing their publication was much less coherent. Cicero (nos. several of these Latin books were. 22). and when Aldus decided to begin a published included Virgil (the book which introduced printing business these authors were the ones he the italic font in 1501) (no. Horace (NO. His development of and Persius. Latin authors of Greek authors. with which Aldus provided himself at the very introduction to the Greek language. but no extensive publication program had of Greek authors (Lowry. the foundation of the Latin classics. 5). This lack was especially acute in the case (NO. Robert Proctor. In addition. with authors program was. 15). the and a Greek dictionary in 1497. the bibliographical genius from the turn of the century. 24)— in toward a carefully planned program for the dissemina. and works by others Greek and Latin classical authors. sion of a great deal of controversy.212 printed leaves versus 1. appeared in better editions than had previously been whose works figured high in the available — all in a more convenient and somewhat less Renaissance humanist agenda. short. tion of the Greek and Latin classics. and indeed. a large number had not Thucydides (no. 13) explicitly chosen as an greek type. Before his time some Greek printing had been done (the in Lowry's term. Herodotus (NO. crowning achievement of this period was the publica. the ratio of Greek to Latin titles in the Aldine output is approximately even. 27 and 28). Martial. abominated them: tion of Aristotle's works (NO. Of course. Juvenal emphasized. teacher. and as such Works of numerous Greek and Latin authors were saw a need for the publication of the published for the first time. including commentaries on and translations Milan in 1476). and Homer. Following the introduction of the octavo format in ldus began his professional career as a 1501. The exception to this is the publication of the PUBLISHING CLASSICAL AUTHORS Roman author Lucretius in 1500. Between 1495 and 1501. but as favors to Aldus's friends and editors (cf ibid. and Pliny (no. Latin authors were also published in this first period. 25). the beginning of his career. The Greek books been undertaken. While many of these expensive format than the former quarto or folio stan- works — particularly those of Latin authors and transla. the period before the GREEK FONTS introduction of the octavo format. NO. Ovid greek and italic fonts and the octavo format point (no. dard. 16). a resource displayed by him as a printer and the general number of these works appear to have been published excellence of his presswork are beyond question. One of the basic components of such a appear to fit into a coherent pattern. of Latin. the new founts of his invention. of classical texts through the medium of print was a accounting for 4. particularly at first. 23). "satellites" to the Greek printing first book printed completely in Greek was published in program. whether Greek. roman Greek and Latin Classics 25 . Catullus (no.

Froben and Fstienne represent in ides established as the typographical noun all achievements that we have not yet grown above. appropriate degree of attention. . he had given the public what it achieved as the pattern not only of (ireek printing type. not merely crowding and restless involutions of the vulgar script of in editorial matters but also in the details of the right the day and reproduce them in the rigidly fixed lines of a shape for letters. The humani. And scholarly opinion is beginning nately the blunders which in a lesser man would have to change. m spite ot admitted at the least that they represent a technical marvel all his estimable qualities. . . deserves the place it ( ireek si ript ot the day. Nicolas Barker concludes: it was reserved tor Aldus to accept unmodified the it is clear that the influence of Aldus was vital. To know a little more of his III "nl. — or italic. admits that "unless he is a skilled which he produced perpetuated and sanctioned.md his overwhelming influence among his restless involutions —were actually the "great unwashed" contemporaries and successors secured the ultimate he implies. Aldus and the energy with which he devoted himself to that make up a book. . he treats at'ter his death in 1903. as Proctor Aldus? 1 tear that its resemblance to the writing to which indicates. but it has to be recorded against an integral sum of perfected parts. 7-8) have still to comprehend. I lis scholars is perhaps partly the result of the age in (ireek texts and the types with whuh they were printed whuh they livid h (an hardly be said that the readers of are their own monument (Barker | 1992]. In truth. so that the whole became nals accessible to scholars. and barbarously cutting. as now. . Martin Lowry. and unfortu. which endeared it to his contem. clearly asserted: namely. s. arc m each case lamentably devoid ol beauty of the "vulgar" Greek. essors withered at the roots and cursive (ireek was to come. Although one of the latest of Aldus's biogra- been unnoticed. intellectual and physical. (Proctor palaeographer or well acquainted with the text he has to [1900]. In his recent full-length treat- Victor Scholderer informs us that ment of these typefaces. the enormous influence ot the books phers. the modern reader who attempts to study an Aldinc ( ireek text will soon experience a prickling in the eyes and Proctor's influential opinion carried the clay for years a woolly sensation behind them" (Lowry. ." For all the difficulty today's readers of Greek nor can we any longer see with the eyes ot a Bodonist. the study of Greek in the West disappearance of the older and purer models. To us. this very class. it must be misshapen and ugh were admirable. does not appeal with equal tone to ns to-day. the greek touts of Aldus were much admired by they were accustomed. . . who evidently shared his "phenomenally poraries. ugly. . 102-3) hand. . What. . to used as they are to simple modern type styles —have with whom everything beautiful was "barbarous" and only the Aldus's fonts and those based on them. |I]n technical him with regret that his (ireek type systematically violates terms it is clear that Francesco Griffo | Aldus's engraver] the first principles of type-design and that its success was a achieved a masterpiece hilly equal to the forms he gave to disaster from whuh (ireek printing did not recover for toman and italic type. 93. snobbishly upper-class tone of both work is to realise how much more there is to know. . Then. Ulted. 131). holderer. I low much more is this true of Aldus. Aldus seems to have been a and that they have a certain beauty and calligraphic man of phenomenally bad taste tor his time. who were |W]hat is to be said of this much-vaunted type of generally members of the upper classes. script described by Scholderer — that form other than that conferred on them by good public clamoring for misshapen. was confined to academicians and scholars. I think. has been instinctively clear metal block — a proceeding running directly counter to the to lovers of books from the outset needs now to be very nature and genius of the printed page.• . let alone emulate. bad taste. elegance ot their own. 102-3) 26 hi . Thus. by giving to each its proper and the often unremunerative task of malting the (Ireek origi. Indeed. . that we I . . in 1*^27 the typographer the subject sympathetically. . that Aldus had a gift for making ties are deeply indebted to the I [ellenic enthusiasm ot" a compact of all the qualities. iedibw I/*// . with the result that the finer traditions of his but of the shape of (ireek letters in any medium for years prede. [A]s a set of printed forms in derations B\ providing books imitating die familiar its own right. the Aldinc (ireek .

Depending on the format of the book. but without the image of a letter on the end) simply left a space for the Greek words. both minuscule and mony poured in. the body (the part below the image of the letter) ated in Greek hands. But aside from these aesthetic consider- all were of a uniform length. contain type for two. it was struck with a hammer onto SPECIAL PROBLEMS a thin piece of copper called a matrix. 52. This was not so with Greek. When this had cooled. bypassing continued to set lines of type in his composing stick scribes. When the line was filled. four. particularly in same matrix until the desired number of pieces of that the form that was familiar to readers of the fifteenth sort — all the pieces of type of a single letter form — had century. or more pages. In addition. The pieces of type were then placed in a galley. The compositor printing: the ability to mass produce texts. A number of different craftsmen and blocks. Uniformity. and the distributed into a case that had as many boxes as there iota subscript. the chase might To appreciate Aldus's achievement. a compositor set the technical problems of Greek printing. — EARLY TYPOGRAPHY and carefully moved this block to an iron chase. The mold was locked firmly nearly a generation after printing in the roman alphabet together and a mixture of molten lead. Using this model. so that possible forms. which were wedged around the laborers were involved. was well established. six. Greek and Latin Classics 21 . in the early days trained as a goldsmith or silversmith ready to be inked and rolled into the press for printing cut punches. which a scribe throughout the line to spread the type until it was tight. The purpose of this was to ations. called furniture. the piece of majuscule. Barker [1992]. a few millimeters deep. copper. eight. some under. The standing is necessary of the processes of early type on the chase was held tightly in place by wooden type-making. steel bars on the end of which the letter was on paper. This was obviously an ened firmly against each end of the composing stick. were essentially rectangular and thus fit print type was removed and other pieces were made from the very well. At this point the font was ready to be used in Early printers hit upon a number of solutions to the printing. in which the piece of printing in that language did not really begin until type would be cast. interweaving letters and continued casting until the entire font. combination on nearly any vowel. Initially. a punch cutter —often completed form was then set on the bed of the press. 1 engraved using files and counter punches. and anti. the ensemble of creating complicated florid abbreviations. The matrix was then Greek printing posed special problems. This a set of letters. all the sorts for a given type style. Contemporary Greek hands displayed a fluidity been cast. two breathing marks. He then compositor often miscalculated the amount of space tied a cord around the outside of the entire block of type needed. Once the punch was completed. The pieces were then of Greek of three accents. the nonsolution used by some printers of Latin texts compositor added spaces (cast in the same way as the containing short Greek quotations: the compositor letters. 76 ff). classified by letters one at a time on a composing stick. exactly as long as the desired length of the line in the 80-81. was not appreci- casting. or unsatisfactory "solution. had been cast. which is why squared and slipped into a mold. Proctor [1900]. so each letter often had several of each piece of type was burnished and squared. The type caster then changed the matrix and unknown to roman scribes." since in the first place it justified. any of which can appear in almost any were sorts. leaving too much or too little. The impression OF GREEK TYPOGRAPHY left on the copper. The first was really a final printed page. a second and more difficult technical problem assure that no letter was any higher than any other when for the typographer is the presence in the written form the type was set up for printing. Roman letters. After prized in writing the roman alphabet. The stick was Proctor into four categories (cf. the until the entire page had been filled with type. a model was chosen for type on all sides to ensure that it could not move. later filled in with written Greek. 122. To create a printed page. especially for longer quotations. a completely missed the point of the invention of frame where the page was set up. was an exact replica of the desired letter.

Thus if a simple alpha were wanted. but (these normally only appear over an initial vowel). creating an impossible situation both for the type cutter and the compositor. 1476 Nonius Marcellus. plus separate sorts for each of o-cxhC curium a turbin e ac uertigine. a. a. a. a. a. Homerus kcli ^openS aiopHytNETHC jxf'yct^ This solution. the accents subscript. a. a. The compositor. a. a. Greek-reading customers were unwilling to accept accentless Greek. a. sorting box of huge numbers of different letter combina- was used by Jenson for his elegant greek tions. a. This might have been a viable solution.- >•"'"' "*X Vrum di&U CLWTHC ECOpEONTCt: <% fla letter. plus separate sorts for each qui graece notos dicftus ab humore & ne possible ligature (combination of ^>ula:cj> NOTi'Cgrceee humor launa inter'' letters). a. breathing marks are often not positioned correctly Thus a second variation was used in which majuscules over the letter. procellofus . not floating on a line above the line of writing. must have set up the line of with the maximum number of diacritical marks were accents as best he could. a. who had to keep track of the location in his cutter somewhat if not the compositor. accent. a. in Greek writing. that of casting letters and diacritics separately. then set up the line of letters. and also by the fact that some printers and minuscules not requiring accents were cast on a full- not as careful as Jenson left the type uncut in sized body. a. There / tremendously. a. Thus a fourth solution to the problem are twenty-four possible combinations / arose. if only the combinations the page to the bottom. This method can be detected in the final and breathing marks are nestled in with the letters them- product by the fact that the remaining accents and selves. thus: a. A This solution. In the first. TRACTATIBVS nobilivm philosopho A third solution was to cast a separate /^RVM _QVAESlTAE. There were three variations on this alone. breathing marks. the accents and letters were set on a. he cast. to of accents. breathing mark. 17-18). Auftrum. the accent. sort for each possible combi nation of ^ ""*i. and the iota desired calligraphic effect. working from the top of be reduced to six. created an overwhelming number of sorts — some fonts have been estimated to have had as many as 1400 Nicholas Jenson. including all the possible pretattonedicatur:ac fiisuentus fudo' tis effector : ut eft Homeri no'toots 2iv accent-letter combinations within each ligature. The type caster then shaved must then have adjusted the position of the accents on off the unwanted part of the letter to create the the line above so that they were above the appropriate needed sort. though used by some KVJULCt KvAlN^-CON. a. the desired abbreviations. a. a. was very difficult for the variation on this method. Leaf elr. a. a. even though VENTORVM PROPRIETATES ET NONNVL classical Greek had originally been written LARVM DICTION VM SIGNIFICANTIAE IN that way. The number of pieces of type cast could separate lines. Proctor [1900]. a. a. a. the letter. fit subscript. a. relieving the compositor. method. while minuscules requiring accents were cast 28 In Aedibus Aldi . a. a. however. and iota be combined by the compositor at the point of composi- subscript for the minuscule vowel alpha tion of the page. giving anomalies such as words letters of the Greek alphabet with no accents or with several accents (only one per word is permitted breathing marks and print Greek without any diacritical in Greek) or breathing marks in the middle of a word marks at all. with which oream hoc eft aquilonem ohffo thC Q>oh$ (£ fonorus fit & Greek writing of the time abounded. printers. this no doubt slowed down the composing process font (cf. a. and iota •/ /« \ Jtus eius ab oriente f hyemah. — A second possibility was to cast the twenty-four composing the page. though used. The main disadvantage to this method was that it caster could take any one of the six cast types and wasted a lot of space on the page and was not true to the shave off the breathing mark.

TO AA$A,MBTA TOYBHTA-

Ay<$Aetf Kq.^ct-TUt
v . d,

fl\G €TJt-TW.'TiJtOUtiLAQ)eC c*.p)CcA.KS<UAP>iA
J

Arerci 5-&$<*-v* .^AjAoA^ho-c^ .

A f»«^,Ku§ica<;o /«.m 6VJJJ £itfjj.>3 vjxcnxis ^^(Sa
* <*?r» tu aw f pA^TriWjdLffaoLf <; Kjtt ctccp q .
A^n OidJJ^HTSOTE art J|J<A)Q .OUTOQ tt^/wjJ.njitTeti^ot^ot

Zacharias Kalliergcs, 1499 Etymologkum magnum. LeafA2r.

on a body two-thirds the full size and accents were cast been reinvented for Greek typography (for it had been
on a one-third-sized body. The line was then composed used before in roman typography) by Aldus Manutius
by filling in unaccented spaces above vowels with blanks or rather Francesco Griffo, his type cutter. With the grecs

and simply placing the accent above the vowel when du roi, in order to make the letters and diacritics seem to

required. This was an improvement, but it still did not flow into each other, a system of horizontal "kerning"
give the flowing feel of the handwritten Greek that was used. This system consisted of casting a letter with a
printers were attempting to reproduce. shortened body on one side so that its face, which
There is still in existence a complete set of matrices for protruded beyond the body, could overhang a blank spot
a greek font from a slightly later period than Aldus, that on the body of the adjoining piece of type, allowing the

of the famous grecs du roi designed and created by Claude two pieces to mesh together and causing them to have the

Garamond under commission from the French king appearance of a single sort. Barker discovered that Aldus
Francis I. These show how the third method for this actually used a somewhat different method. He set the

solution worked, a method believed by Proctor to have accents and breathing marks over, rather than beside, the

Greek and Latin Classics 29

'

vowel sorts, on a separate line. In addition, he sometimes sively used by printers all over Europe, with Aldus

kerned vertically, so that ascending and descending letters leading the way; and there really is no reason other than

could mesh with the lines of type above and below them modern taste for Proctor's vehement scolding of Aldus

(on Aldus's system of kerning, see Barker [1992], 77-78; for choosing this style as his model.

Proctor [ 1900], 20; Lowry, 90).

Proctor's fourth category of solutions to the problem
of creating a greek font was one used by Zacharias '6IUT0MH TWN OKTW T 0Y AOrOY
Kallicrges a few years after Aldus produced his first M6PWNKAI XAAWNTINWNXNArKAl
Greek book, but which was apparently under develop- ttN-CYNTeeeiCA aapA kwnctan
ment at the same time as the method Aldus devised. It T1N0Y A ACKAPeWCTOYmANTl'OY
appears to be a combination of the second and third
solutions; under this a separate sort was cast for each

combination, but the casting process was simplified by r p
a jlji tt . ICT} JupOC lAa.;yiq-oy <£coy*c audi

cutting separate punches for letters and accents,
clamping them together, and then striking the matrices. pa-. TovT^y <p«*>y»<fy7S n-;y {'TfTa.-a. 4

Thus the number of punches was greatly reduced, m t ojUKpop v *ftXoyK<u M J*ifa.-

though the eventual number of sorts was large.

PREDECESSORS OF ALDUS Z&( <£u.->yH(yTwy j^xf a- /ijy d vo m kcu <*> V-*(°-

gpa^cet. ^.i d\/o • I •/ \o###BOT_TEXT###gt; Kcu. o fLUcpop •
A'^P ^ -

Of all these solutions and their variations to the basic ^.t Tpi^ ou i v 6^<* Y 3fc i4^°n °«
• J Xvpt«4>c jiiy t£

problem of printing Greek, that developed by Aldus best •yiV°V^*u,<u ex*/ oi <C <J ov • Ka ^T a-A'P KC 1>tc >c
» *

answered the needs of the profession, given the tech-
nology of the time. The main objection modern scholars nlQosyeL tu\f oyfio »^ ^ *f» ^ |c y p c^yai
appear to have to the Aldine greek types is his choice of *TAcuj*ty T-pia..^ ^ •/-• AK«"ra^3o?v^ 2n TtftT^.
model. A fifteenth-century printer could choose a model pa-«^ )i- V p - A4 >e*>
V^'^* <^'l'l'* aL * ^ r ^ X.TT
from two traditions of Greek calligraphy: an upright, T 5" 4> K
*'$t'*/lA ei'*«V**"P» a- , > "7T T-.Aa^*
formal hand, mainly used for writing books for the cL^.i«Tpi<»-«5" <p ^•Mto^ -2^«T-p»^ '(^ r*^- t

church; and the florid, free, and informal cursive hand (jX-Toy 2v JMpM/it^ c^F ^clwp^t Vf 0L^4x.cuI<»>tf au ov
used for the copying of literary texts. The first style was A^a^Jcu^-ivoiTcu .ojoy 'Ut • bfltf a*X«^C • oi ojf in
much easier to adapt to metal types and so was used by Tpoq • t£ u>j» eXofoc oi oy o«v?Tpoc ^yafiy«<r>c<| •

the earliest printers of Greek, but the established distinc-

tion between the two styles caused a definite tension in

the minds of readers of literary texts. Thus, when Aldus Dionysius Paravisinus, 1476

imitated in his type the more informal, literary hand, it Erotemata of Constantine Lascaris. Leaf [3]r.

became very popular and soon the older, simpler forms
were used almost exclusively for the printing of liturgical Proctor classified early printers of Greek into three
works. It is difficult for twentieth-century readers to categories (Proctor [1900], 10-15). The first of these he
understand this strong association of certain writing styles called the Older or Early Greek Type. This consisted of
with specific types of literature. Perhaps an analogy could printers who printed Greek books under Hellenic influ-
be made to our current practice of setting off emphasized ence (mainly Byzantine expatriates who flooded into
words or the titles of books in bibliographies with the Europe, and especially Italy, after the fall of
italic typeface and not generally using it elsewhere. In any Constantinople to the Turks in 1453) up to the estab-
case, it is quite clear why, once the technical difficulties lishment of the Aldine Press. The prime example of this
had been overcome, the cursive style was almost exclu- category is the type used in the first book to be

30 In Acciibus Aldi

caq Dicuturm fcoKs-e-HTifcwC'poffidua aOnnn
Ipc ozaroziu tmnfFcro t)iccdi gcmm. t>oc t'm opus
m aperru ut rcfotns.nicbil po(Vulo'f?6 cnim ef> rale,
vt m accc poni pofTtt«qi mmcrun Hia fidic-f; tntu vc
ex cade offtcina cjcifTc a#>arcat«m bac cade fig-ura

sjcJTcaiparear. oti'xoMoW TOfcaa o^axa-e-oi.

Johann Fust and Peter Schoffer,
1465 Parado.xa of Cicero. Leaf k5r.

published entirely in Greek, Constantine Lascaris's the complexity of the operation (as well as the necessity

Erotemata, printed by Dionysius Paravisinus at Milan in for finding financial support for the expensive proposi-

1476. The type, designed by Demetrius Damilas, was tion of printing large numbers of Greek books with no
fairly simple but was able to resemble handwriting proven market), this seems plausible. His first greek font
without the elaborate artifices of later fonts by reducing appeared to the public for the first time in the Erotemata of
the white space between letters to an absolute Constantine Lascaris, published "the last day of February
minimum, causing the printed letters in many cases to 1494," or 1495 by our current calendar (the Venetian

look as though they are connected when in fact they are calendar's new year began March 1). Barker describes the
printed from separate pieces of type. Erotemata as a "set-piece," a work designed to publicize

Proctor calls his second category Greco-Latin fonts. the new press and its impressive Greek printing ability
These were used by printers who normally printed in (Barker [1992], 45). After the Erotemata, the best known
Latin or vernacular languages and were not under direct example of this Aldine font is the famous complete
Hellenic influence. Printing in this category is often edition of Aristotle (NO. 11).

very haphazard in the use of accents and breathing One of the innovations of this new font was that
marks, and the forms are often clumsy. The majority majuscule and minuscule letters had been designed to go
simply copied Greek quotations from Latin manu- together, something that had not been done before.
scripts, with varying results. Jenson's fonts, mentioned Barker believes the model for this first font was the hand
above, are an example of the best of this category. The of Immanuel Rhosutas, one of the many Greek scholar-
first printed Greek ever attempted also falls into this scribes in Italy at the time (Barker [1992], 52). The font

category: Johann Fust and Peter Schoffer's 1465 De included three hundred separate punches, not including

officiis and Paradoxa of Cicero, printed at Mainz. Fust the accents and punctuation. It included numerous liga-

and Schoffer's greek font consisted of only seven letters, tures and abbreviations, as well as variant forms of
rj, 0, k, p, t, <fi
and co, as well as a form of ju.. The individual letters. One important problem this first font

remaining letters were either supplied from roman fonts had was that Aldus's system of vertical kerning frequently
or were unneeded for the small amount of Greek being produced "collisions" between ascending and descending
printed. This produced some unusual results, and one letters in adjoining lines. The first solution to this
can hardly imagine that his Greek was intelligible to problem was to expand the amount of space between
anyone. lines, but as Aldus continued to develop his presswork
other improvements were made.
ALDUS'S FONTS The year after the first book was printed a second font
was introduced, substantially smaller than the first, but
Aldus arrived in Venice in 1489 or 1490; his first book otherwise similar in appearance. It cannot be said to be an
was published in 1495. He himself claims that he was improvement over the first font (if anything, it is less

spending this time developing his greek fonts; and given legible than the already difficult first font) and it

Greek and Latin Classics 31

^/>^ HS AE nEPI TOYS Ofour™>*r Tfo^cofovx.cc^. 1498 Aristophanes. Ot/X. B JV\trff tfM<tl^OJ'Kj "Bf* *8JW ^(M*im AcW *©» Act* ft Tie c* iwer At!hfftvLm4 Greek Types 1 and 2 Aldus Manutius. & ireivi \lccQov TP0V01JLCLH& 70 y AtfJ$A?» 2l£ *fa 70 n ^ ^AJJOIG*. Leaf I7r (actual size) C 0- QtaiTou<?j£ifntU<.H$i(. Leaf^lr (actual size) 32 In Acdibus Aldi . i^lttAi 8$ ItVOQ » OWL Greek Type 1 Aldus Manutius. 1495 Aristotle. old}*.*. p>A> .

It also did well when two there is much less vertical kerning than in type one and different typefaces were wanted. remained in use for just three years. The Aristophanes (no. this seems plausible enough. and does well in the 1497 Horae compositor to get much more on the page. first appearing in the for this period. tt(paMKn>tez& c/v Tsttfnt rtJ'n. In this font beatissimae Virginis (no. '**. It was useful for the printing of very tion. Leaf 181r (actual size). page and less paper used (Barker [1992]. The edition of Aristophanes was the last book to be This font was his most successful in terms of popularity. according to Barker. and the letters are more regularly drawn. 1502 Sophocles (no.offjxv' koutuv ij^vflj txjS«7Dtvcc tt& j £«fDi/nA ^v -my «9tf flv ax/7tf> x<*i iyloaaiv a 'rijjuofyHgu iQoc^Ji tou j j«c^i «t«&n) £ iS* tityftut* not ocmdcurc* Itun in&sp v eiaam iiffd fa wt&u xiraAetout vi ftA-nfitfovovctuToJ-Tl Zfiravn 04 Greek Type 2 VKpOW Aldus Manutius. 8"' 1497 Horae beatissimae Virginis. which followed the medieval model for this font.K9CJ 77' JlKcucaiwH (Mt>/Moituv> pvitvu- !«V7aoX7Ei> K9tit6of4 flM ' 06"'jiv C#<flf/<•>£• J£flM 07**' ?i5«Arn. but much more legible. 59). XcUfivMf&'itefXd. It tends to be more the new octavo format. its size — -slightly smaller than type two — allows the small books. as in the 1498 thus less opportunity for collision between lines. was probably the practice of surrounding a block of text with commentary script of Marcus Musurus (Barker [1992]. printed in type one. Barker believes this to be a function it remained in use in all Aldine quarto and folio books for of economy: smaller type equals more printing to the many years and was extensively imitated all over Europe. 12). the most in smaller print. In addi- set exclusively in it. It was designed expressly to go In 1499 a third font appeared — a smaller font like the with his new italic type. Leaf 08r (actual size). 7JB/a. Greek Type 3 Aldus Manutius. 1518 Sacrae scripturae veteris novaeque omnia. only six books being vertical.' J **i \ / e / ssitau/an ccvvoi et-\ctv oui-riw fife Ttf 7JDC$tf ? ax/7% I » < » A7TWA Jt <& 7WJ&/W JU^BC 7HJ >CVflUKif OX/Ttf. important editor Aldus employed for his Greek materials. 15). 13). however. 85). This font is therefore rather Greek and Latin Classics 33 . both of which were created for second. Since paper The fourth greek type developed by Aldus was a is consistently named as a printer's largest capital expense dramatic change from the first three.

iKentr tuT*/tAp»r \ffii APPLICATION FOR PRIVILEGES ntmctftt. *Tetrnt&. it did not catch the fancy of European Greek printers. He notes that both of these methods had been Aldus Manutius. apparently treated them somewhat as a if I1S4T ixkut iiiir'unot su/kttwTTvkZr trade secret and did not wish to give them away in his appli- 7iv/"*'rt*"tfi7iffrtT. his prior privilege to print all books in the Greek 34 In Aedibus Aldi . Aldus naturally wanted to protect it i/Xryitf rrc&Wet. 3 In justification for this application. smaller than the first three." but also the exclusive right to all printing in */ \fxeifi\ri/\t fivttt KmyarHtp'ikut Greek.. this fourth type. In 1498 Gabriel of Brasichella obtained Aldus's own Greek hand. firxc itr 5y»*T»>»r kfr'ius • *%4t7l Ki'**avjctr . Aldus's application for privilege was granted.r*t'ivf} method of kerning (Proctor [1900]. and to chal- (Barker [1992]. although the third type continued to be used in and then infringed on the right clearly granted to him by larger format books. 93). but natu- rally such a broad copyright could not go unchallenged.Ttf y »T'*t%ftr > rT'et7ifi»ri& a-rtiar i tion by his many competitors. but neither in Venice (Barker [1992]. Barker points out J £7l9cAt« /Ar'urktyvi/tl rvrf'lltf f that it would be difficult for Aldus to justify a copyright on a xfm&ettSiKcuayHcurtpu miTttj4tth t **fvii } T«ittnftirtm/4«rn*f«~ir . Greek cursive) and believes that the two methods mentioned were the vertical kerning of the letters and the system of using separate sorts for accents Greek Type 4 and letters.t/ Z <w rur «cr O //< After all the work and expense of developing his first #r#'«r »w rw7r tTt{urcumAtt from imita- . What these new «t«/i pfai/Str i n» Kfyttur sy>ct. wishing to tr w*ti r* rvr } *fir Jif vrtfrtftr protect his work.e. Leaf v2v (actual size). and Aldus was immedi- uppercase letters come from type three though they are ately involved in a lawsuit. and ligatures and abbreviations than the earlier fonts. 89).7«r methods were is not entirely understood. In Barker's analysis. other printers printing be simplified tremendously. in fact. In his defense. Thus on February 25. however. Thought to be modeled after Greek in Venice. used before. Aldus H3X TVfyTl rei/T «M f**) TCU/nfUf TtfA/ applied to the Venetian authorities for a twenty-year privi- HHfvyf**. Proctor believes they were Aldus's la iyxf reupov tut tu h**i}t'htu K ^ iar adoption of the cursive Greek style as a model and his r«r fitr.Tft7ir*t 7«TJ£rifta. and because of its size had to especially since there were. seems the easiest to read. . This must have seemed a dream lenge his exclusive right to print books in an area so broad come true for his compositors. and most of the fonts in use for the next three centuries descended from the TOGOKAEOYZ AN TITONH. plus ten between the privilege granted to Aldus for his typefaces accents and abbreviations and four punctuation marks and that for the books printed with them. Aldus mentions *» »/v/ } irT«A^r«ri*IT^l/#T«l/ A/oir cLfwpoir input* /utr /v« somewhat mysteriously "two new methods" which he has } fUf tdtatTUT H fitiff SlTTM) Vtfl ' invented for the printing of Greek. Iffi kxilkti lege giving him not only the exclusive right to use his y TrfaerovrQitorT s%i^arr*rtur i^tpwr k«x« j "lettere greche. } rut rvTTtKti/M>r in rxorr lyutucmur • simultaneously with the publication of his first book. The containing in all only seventy sorts in the lower case (the two privileges collided head on. used a type that resembled that of Aldus very closely. greek font. To the modern eye. Aldus. 1502 Sophocles.wtfitrim)iitir' cation for protection. this font has dramatically fewer a Venetian privilege of his own for Greek printing. 1495. Gabriel's much better suited to type four and share many sorts lawsuit had two purposes: to eliminate the connection with the upper case used with Aldus's italic). :«?*«?« . accustomed as they had by as the entire Greek language. third type Aldus developed. Aldus coun- now become to the larger number of sorts in the earlier tered that first Gabriel had imitated the shape of his type fonts. 100). whole class of writing (i.

kirl apyovTos Avyovcnivov [sic] prayers to major and local saints). and the The Book of Hours was the prayer book of the lay Litany." This may seem rather an Roman Church had had the texts of their prayers and unusual offering for a humanistic printing establishment liturgy more or less standardized in the Missal and the dedicated to the revival and dissemination of the Greek Breviary. In the first Greek and Latin Classics 35 . many other BapfiabiKOV ttjv fiacrikiba toov Tiokecov javTTjv texts may be associated with a Book of Hours. but there were good reasons for this. During the thirteenth century the Little Office became detached from the Transcription of title page: ^Qpcu Trja aenrapdevov Psalter and stood as an independent text. copyright was granted for Prime. In addition. and None (done at approximately specific titles only (Barker [1992]. three-hour intervals during the day). but lost the exclusive privilege to print in Greek. the T7)<j Qzoyovias eret [1497]. the TtTpaKoaiocTTG) [sic] kvvevqKoaTco [sic] efibopLto airb apostles.ol basic text of the Book of Hours. becoming the Ma/n'a? kolt' tOos 7779 pco/xatx^o" avKrja. uirginis Book of Hours attracted several other devotional texts or secu[n]dum consuctudincm romanae curiae. the Seven Penitential COLOPHON: EveTiKjicriv [sic] €TV7roo6rj -nap* akbw [sic]. the archangels. Latin Book of Hours: the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary. the Little Office. and 142). Binding description: Missing binding. Aldus won the day texts sung or spoken at Mass and daily at the canonical on the matter of his type design (the rival type was hours. well as a text entitled "On the service of the most holy Since very early days the clergy. )(tAtoarw [sic] Litany (a brief invocation of the Trinity. 801] purchaser. these contained the prayers. and the Little Office began to be written with Hours) manuscripts containing the Psalter. After lengthy deliberations. endpapers or pastedowns. Middle Ages) and was created both in mass-produced. Gilt into Greek of three of the essential texts of the standard edges. p. at night). UCLA. relatively inexpensive editions from large workshops for the newly rising middle classes. The "essential" texts are the Calendar (informing [title page not present in BYU copy. and in elaborate and Signatures: a8 (-al) b-£ 8 (-$8). Psalms (Psalms 6. 12 cm. hymns. Matins and Lauds (usually done together. 801] the worshiper of the correct timing of the festivals and saints' days). 31. Septem aids. avev p. the Athanasian Creed is printed. 50. cf. At about the same time.language. was introduced to the Breviary and GREEK CLASSICS became extremely popular. more sensibly. In addition. 129.r\vb (. From then on. 101. There were seven or eight such daily services: banned). 127). depending tVTvy&cr rjvioyovvToa [colophon not present in BYU on the location of its manufacture and the tastes of its copy. Tierce. The Book of Hours was an extremely popular book (it has often been referred to as the best-seller of the Physical description: [112] leaves: ill. a shortened version of the services at the canonical hours. 'Etttcl ^/akp. Hours. UCLA. 37. the ttj? /xerayota?. During the tenth * * * century a text entitled the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary.evov. and nuns of the and eternally virgin Mary.cf. and other classics. and a long list of saints). the ovk. the Virgin.ivToi Trpovojxiov [sic]. (woodcut). most of which will be found in the typical Book of psalmi poenitentiales cu[m] Letaniis & orationibus. as people of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. 91 ff Lowry. the Seven Penitential Psalms. with no endbands. Sext. sewn on recessed The 1497 Aldine Book of Hours is a direct translation cords. lavishly illuminated editions by famous artists for the ostentatious devotion of the wealthy. 4 . and Vespers and Compline (done during the evening). Horae beatiss [imae] . monks. (16mo). lay people became interested in imitating the worship of the 9 Home Beatissimae Virginis (Book of clergy. At the same time. TToatibeiovos Txi\x. and the Suffrages of the Saints (short io-Tap.TXTq Office of the Dead.

Goff. place. This extremely small book. Marcus Musurus. 13 ("extremement rare. in a » « book of this small format.IID. The editor. Panzer. H-391. 2253. (fol. offset smaller profits from its less popular offerings.() 7r-u 8 <£ It seems likely that the press could use such sure sellers to H-A 8 M 4 N-O 8 n 10 P-2 8 T 6 (-T5-6). A 11 [1498] [colophon not present in BYU copy] Lcafa2r. References: Backhouse. however. sewn on double raised cords. The book is printed in his short-lived second greek font which had been reduced in size from the first. 801. The Little Office and the Seven Penitential Psalms would have been two of the most familiar texts Aristophanes (mid-fifth century B. 3:304. Signatures: pi 8 a-y H 5 10 e-£ 8 o . Title gold-tooled onto two day. consulted several manu- Aldus also had many friends and contacts among Uniate scripts. no. One Church and who might have appreciated a printed Greek of the most important manuscripts for the text of version of these important texts from the Roman rite. M. it works well.).C. Renouard. Plain endpapers ducing the Greek language to the educated class of his and pastedowns. being repeated daily by the surviving representative of Greek Old Comedy. 32 cm. one of which — Modena Ms. £*nV<?. Greeks who favored union with the Roman (Gr. . no. # * * vuv* Stj-W* O choj aa TOO bOH 2 Aristophanes. Wieck. devotional purpose in publishing this book. Physical description: [348] leaves. was a part of the library which 36 In Aedibus Aldi . Finally. The fact that most of the texts normally modern times. Aristophanes. making it more difficult to read. no doubt even one in Greek.5. language. 3:421. the very popularity of the Book of Hours assured a x _a)8 A-E Z 6 8 6 market for a printed edition. Hours fit in very well with Aldus's program of intro. a Greek translation of portions of the Book of Binding description: Vellum. Labels gold-tooled with foreign languages is to study a familiar text in that ornaments. One much-used pedagogical method for learning brown leather labels on spine. UCLA. l'impression est fort belle"). 15. Brunct. The 1498 Aldine edition with scholia is the first cially the Calendar and the Office of the Dead) may printed edition of Aristophanes and is generally consid- indicate that Aldus had more of a pedagogical than a ered to be one of the finest early efforts of the press. Gilt edges. Graecus V. Venetus. in sextodecimo format. found in the Book of Hours have been omitted (espe. Idibus Quintilis. Harthan. . Eleven devout and no doubt at least heard several times a year by of his approximately forty known plays have survived to the less religious. 127) — is still extant and contains his signature.) is the only Aldus could have chosen. . Works Colophon: Venetiis apud Aldum. in many ways anticipates the introduction of the octavo format by Aldus in 1501 and perhaps was one of the things that suggested it to him. 10 Catholics. with single front-beaded natural endbands. Secondly.

Aues Aristophanes. [1502. 1:173. Lowry.DI. said. In his own preface.. Dibdin. This Nt^tArff Ncbulx is not just my opinion. commentators.D. BM. Easterling and Knox. greatly lessening their value and causing the Aldine Preface (part 2) signed: Venetiis mense Maio. 42. that he is sending a copy of his Aristophanes to Clari to further Clari's own task of teaching Greek.. Panzer. 1:451. most learned man. along with the best ancient commentaries. Greek and Latin Classics 31 . Later editions by other printers contami.DII. References: BM STG Italian. [1] leaves. go back to the Alexandrian COLOPHON (part 1): Venetiis apud Aldum Mense Martio. Renouard. UCLA. J»«jf*X» a I-wTnitf - . Aldus's program of introducing and promoting the unfortunately for Aldus. 16. The manuscripts Musurus used advantages students of Greek in his day had over those lacked the tenth and eleventh comedies. Proctor. Wilson [1962). Aldus comments on the public at that point. 5:559. Aldus announces Giunti edition at Florence for publication. learn Greek than these. 1503] Greek. including the avail- and the Thesmophoriazousae. * * * Many of the scholia. -'Wtosa'noys KOMaAl'Al enne'a these nine. as the library had not been opened to the tools. it remained maddeningly out Greek language through the publication of educational of reach. 22. Pax Chrysostom is said to have taken this advice so to heart E'tiAAiadfyvotU' CJotltiuuamcs that he always had twenty-eight Aristophanic comedies with him. (fol. for only he . 3. arc ARJSTOPHANIS COMOEDIAE NOVEM. 'Only Vdpx U/nJJVr'.IIII. 2333. Goff A-958. M. 73. 1:775-77. collected by Musurus from T A Philostratus. De vita Apollonii various manuscripts and printed around the text in this edition in the medieval style. nevertheless. 5567.e.. [1501] nated these ancient scholia with modern interpolations. 230. the Lysistrata of just a few generations earlier. tin y» tsm Jtwvmt \%t n\tf<m. making clear its part in PirysiCAL description: [73]. Equiccs when asked which of the Greek authors should be the AjgtfS/. 114. GW. tni «. nothing can better be read. enough: nothing would be better for those desiring to IMoirnj Plutus." The book is dedicated by Aldus to the Greek teacher Daniele Clari of Ragusa. these had to await the 1515 ability of texts and competent teachers. i. no. M. 35-36. Acharncs most carefully studied by students of Greek. 232. [1504] The preface by Musurus treats the necessity of studying Greek and the excellence of Aristophanes's Colophon (part 2): Venetiis In aedibus Aldi mense februario. Explaining to Clari that he could only find half of the Lysistrata and thus did not print it he says that. but also &41J<C that of Theodoros Gazes. of which I don't boast. Brunet.Cardinal Bessarion had given to the people of Venice. style as "the perfect guide to conversational Attic M. 2378. 31 cm. 1:209 ("plus correcte que la plupart des editions posterieures"). 3:438. no. and even used them for a pillow when he slept. A fwhm Grasse.). edition to retain its importance long after its publication. is pure Attic' John Elphuu. who.

(Apoll. similiar to the tales of old women. mystic from Cappadocia. active at about the beginning Panzer. A. with single front-beaded brown/white endbands. This work of Philostratus resembles a number of ancient genres. and visiting lands as distant as signed Apoll. Lowry. 1504 preface. 148. In the Idem lanniu intcrorctc Zcnobio Acciolo hotciitino ordtais pndicjromm. Gold-tooled there is fascinating evidence that Apollonius and his with ornaments on spine. from the Greek novel to fictionalized Binding description: Brown calfskin. who spent his life teaching. in an unusual "advertisement" for the book he has just published. 512. tional conclusion that the Vita was worthless. 2:574. Apollonius was a plus rare que recherchee").n. Aldus's waning enthusiasm is the probable explanation for the very odd printing history of the work. Reynolds. 1503. Aldus began his publication of Philostratus with Philofhati de ui u A pollonii Tyanel libri ofio. 65. E uicbias contra H lcroclcm 31 Tyin cum ctuifto content co rutin fuerit. 1:657). 5:273. was not really worth his while. the first part (the Greek text) being printed in 1501.3) 2a-2h» i 10 . Brunet. most learned Zenobius. sewn on double raised travel literature to saints' lives (though this is a pagan cords. 156. I cannot remember ever having read worse trash. UCLA. For the sake of the work's profitability. actually were in India as leather label on spine. the second Philostratus (b. 40. and the work as a whole not published until 1504. 8 SIGNATURES: a-g 8 h 1(l (h 10 blank. a book less worth reading. no. but he evidently soon came to the conven- I idem libri h rini imuprete Aleraano Rinucrino florenrino. a life of Apollonius of Tyana. ca. a narrative "rich References: Adams. though sincere. of the Christian era. called Apalunya iA»>j>«rVii«V •>•» A-DtM&rioo -nvivuicit Cici C/£Ai««ktw- and Damisa (ibid. The work has been dismissed as a fraud. Gilt edges. expression of opinion. Philostratus wrote. But what was I to do? It seemed wrong to stop what I had begun. but the contents were insipid and clumsily written. Damis of Nineveh. 3H In Aedibus Alcli . Philostratus says they were. Grasse. Renouard. work). 8:342. no. he put the project on the In addition to his biographies of the sophists. Title gold-tooled onto brown assistant. 4:621 ("edition events" (Easterling and Knox. I couldn't easily say how annoyed and bored I got reading the book. one hopes that the buying public was not completely discouraged by this bizarre. 26. 2. but things have turned out far differently. For not only did every- thing seem to be fantasy. but Plain endpapers and pastedowns.). at the instance of the empress Julia Domna. that I would read in Philostratus's Life of Apollonius of Tyana much espe- cially worthy of note. proverbial back burner. 170) was the biographer of (translation and commentary) nearly two years later in participants in what is now called the Second Sophistic.4 performing miracles. BM STC Italian. he laments: I had hoped. American STC Italian. in fabulous details of exotic lands and miraculous Anderson. missing) Apoll. India. P-1067. since Sanskrit tradition unconnected with Philostratus records two yogis in India under the right circumstances. a period during which performing rhetoricians became As Aldus concluded that the Life of Apollonius of Tyana immensely popular and wealthy for their declamations. enthusiasm.

DII. was discov- Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. The single Binding description: Vellum. presenting us with a correct text" (2:595). and very rarely earn[ing] mention in a modern MTiyWH • Antigone. using to the "canonization" of seven of the plays around the the proper pronunciation. . who all promise that they supposed to have written more than 123 plays.vvos' Oedipus tyranrnf* ship. Therefore." This description of Aldus and his " Signatures: a-y H 8 4 e-rj 8 d 4 i-A 8 p. sheds interesting. and by modern stan- dards of textual criticism. gathered with The fifth-century B. the topic of our conversation turned Augusto . but the Aldine editors worked from just two. The 1502 Aldine edition is the first printed has been collected for a party. dedicated to the Greek scholar Janus Lascaris: "As we sat in a semicircle at the fire in the cold of this winter with our fellow New Colophon: Venetiis in Aldi Romani Academia mense Academicians . but two prominent tuxr juctsiioipofoS' Aidxfldgilijtr* scholars of the current generation condemn the edition HMHTf>X' tleflrd- as "not a notable achievement in the annals of scholar- cifnntsTvfot. (8vo). . In this document we meet Aldus. valuable edition. when I recently printed library copy) Sophocles's seven tragedies in small format I wanted to publish them out of our New Academy under your Physical description: [392] p. The worth of this edition has there- ZO*OKAEOYZTPArnAlAI EPTA fore created much controversy.. and CVM COMMENTARHS. C. name and send them to you as a memento of my high esteem for you. at which time the version. the fines rise geometrically if the offender fails these are the only plays to survive in the manuscript to pay. sewn on single raised cords." This is the first of his publications with such a colophon. century the text was the best available and valued accordingly. r C Sophocles. l).M. fined. New Academy (probably to be dated 1502). now in St. . . 17 cm. Works Sophocles. 5 Ol/tTVStTI HOAWyZ' Oedipus colonw* Aldus announces in his colophon that the book is Trd'chinl*. Renouard. similarly. Gilt and gauffered ered in the Vatican in the nineteenth century 6 and edges. [1502) [colophon not present in to you.D. accurate. Pearson's 1923 Oxford Trdgtedidrim nomina.C. y y well known. Title blind-tooled onto spine. if not conclusive. Thus Moss's Manual of Classical Bibliography SOPHOCLIS TRAG AEDIAE SEPTEM (1837) calls the edition "a very beautiful. Greek tragedian Sophocles is six of his scholar friends. but due henceforth will speak only Greek to each other. and they are to be kept in a box until enough tradition. apparatus criticus" (Lloyd-Jones and Wilson. Classical Text edition (still in print) does cite the Aldine edition in its apparatus criticus. Petersburg and Vienna. Anyone who fails to do so is second century A. calls it a "premiere et excellente edition. but the purpose and composition of this New Academy is not entirely clear to us. Vhilo fates. light on the ques- tion. . Approximately two hundred medieval and Academicians are to "entertain [themselves] grandly Renaissance manuscripts are now available for and not in the style reserved for the printers. but in a Greek and Latin Classics 39 ." A. . published by his "Academy. 4 v-a* t U) u-$ 8 x 1 learned friends warming themselves beside the fire is ^-2a 8 2 S 4 (-2 84). The Academy is also mentioned in his preface. or Rules of the with single front-beaded yellow laced-in endbands. Until the nineteenth METEiHrHZEflN. into an anthology of school texts. existing copy of the Neakademias nomos. they worked rather unsystematically.

described by Lowry as an "excep- page has a bilingual table of contents and p. though members of the group enthusiastically taught Greek and delivered Physical description: [124] leaves. never reappears thereafter. a loosely organized group of friends (Lowry [1979]. 113. M. and spine. designed especially for his new octavo format. 48. Venetiis rally be the centerpiece of such a proposition. sewn on single appears to have made tentative plans to move to cords. no. Aldus's fourth greek type. 126.ivov. The document was at first thought to be the charter for a OOlKliliHI- real Academy. aiocrTcp. 238-39. but this never came about silk page marker. [2]-[3] tionally important first edition" (Lowry. 40 In Aedibus Aldi . Greek text of Thucydides. to plan an academy whose purpose was to be the promo- tion oi~ Greek language and literature in Western Colophon: EveTLrjai Trap' AA. Fletcher. the 1502 edition covers. endcaps. Lowry [1976]. but they were not ready in time and so he published them the following year with an edition of # # * Xenophon and Herodian. By 1504. in fact the commentary was never published Treviso by Joannes Rubeus (BYU special collections by Aldus. no commentary is published with tion was published in the early 1480s. 129 ff). the title Peloponnesian War. no. Aldus had intended to publish scholia with UCLA.DII. Title of Sophocles is of interest as the first appearance of gold-tooled onto spine. [2]-|3] arc blank. 34. Thucydides was REFERENCis: Adams. Gold-tooled with ornaments on front and back From a typographical point of view. 1502 to 1504. False bands Wilson [1992]. this edition. 130). 3:189. translation into Latin. It was finally printed at Rome in 1518. 5:445. [1502] academy was never realized. historian of the book and p. Blue Germany for the purpose. Gilt and gauffered edges. Wilson [1992]. 6:439. on spine. This edition includes the complete Grasse. 90. but the current consensus is that it is IHVCIDU»U- actually a slightly humorous document with the serious purpose of engaging its signatories. owns a copy of this edition.). however. Historiae the Neakademia and have already in the Platonic sense almost established if (trans. American STC Italian. However. turn-ins. Lowry. Blue silk endpapers and pastedowns with (see discussion in Lowry [1976]. and the name of the I'G4) AD-ZF 8 (ZF1-2 signed ZZ1-2) HG-EO 8 OP 4 academy. This transla- Aldus in the preface. not widely available in the original Greek until the Buxton. tt:354.8co xtAtocrTw irzvTaKO- Europe. in The Aldine 1502 edition of Thucydides is the editio the first.fashion worthy of men who are already dreaming of t /I Thucydides. Interest in contain the preface to Lascaris and an epigram on Thucydides had been encouraged by Lorenzo Valla's Sophocles. Aldus continued to dream of setting up an academy and even Binding description: Red embossed leather. 197). Dain. the Aldine printing establishment would natu. 142).C. as well as two lives of the Panzer. orations in praise of the language. 105. probably at this edition. (fol. gold-tooled border. The BYU copy is the second state. in the second. as well as several editions from the sixteenth century). The edition exists in two states. Lowry. 378-420. which appears in Aldine colophons from (OP4 blank). 32 cm. The in domo Aldi mense Maio. ix€tcl yetTVLoovos TtTapTrj laiap. commissioned by Pope Nicholas In spite of the title and the promise expressed by V and completed between 1448 and 1452. 196-200. 89. Rcnouard. the signatories of the original document were already Signatures: AA 8 (AA8 blank) 2 AA 8 BB-LC 8 (LC4 signed drifting away from Venice. historian. S-1438. Brunet. board edges. 6. with double front-beaded blue/gold endbands. Aldine edition. 66. the title page does not list the contents of the princeps of the fifth-century B. Robertson.

Qjias idciico bis curawmus in «. Aesop is said to have been a Although he neither used the services of a professional Thracian slave on the island of Samos. and endpapers and pastedowns. De incredibilibus >. ["7 Aesop's Fables P aixpharusdenoncrcdendishiftoriis. which had been published at and PI.C. qil&U rraduccndis multum ccnecJ. living during the editor (as he says in the preface.uidelicet.e. 142. 7:148. turn-ins. 3:268. 4. board edges.auiinuj. De natura deorum dam. 124..j uniusmiufqi arbirrio . prxtcr ultiwaiu * # * Scazonte. Perrins. grxcopoliitD-.quod facillimum crirrci 'tcitlld lognofccrc. CXDC. 47). P humutu* feu. [1] leaf.D. ciaiit. admodum quain incoiTCctcexcufxfuerant exempli culpa. .K. been inscribed on Egyptian temples and the language Greek and Latin Classics 41 . (fol.Tum de forrnicLi.D. nine tralatJi lir. Dibdin. least four times before 1505. no. BM STC Italian. One of the more interesting and significant of the Binding description: Brown calfskin. Lowry. ascribed to him probably came from other sources. more than a century after the last hieroglyphics had Tide gold-tooled onto spine. Aldus. sewn on single cords.operxpretium uifum eft iterum excudendas cuiaie . 27 cm. Marbled who lived during the fourth or fifth century A. a native of upper Egypt with double front-beaded red/white endbands.V. aginta ex rrimetris iambi?. everything except Aesop. and encaps. who edited the text himself.e.a!ios'qj habentur per ordinem literarum. Alberti.Cumutus de natura deorum. Fabulae Aesopeae O A pol ri Niliad hieroglj'phica. quia priorcs. nam qua. 2:291. 672: Barker [1992]. Defabula Philostratus. 140] p. Heraclides. Hieroglyphica A pologiu Aefopi de Ca&ita apud Gellium. Lucius Annaeus Cornutus. Horapollo. Defabula Hermogenes.fi: t-abellx Aclopi cum into p/ctationr lany-> . Habcntur hoc uohuninc hxc.x formadar. American STC Italian. 45. spine. Brunet. Grasse. or manuscripts with close affinities to them. other texts is that of Horapollo. 5:844..ibo. and he probably learned man") nor employed any scientific method of did compose some of them. many of the fables textual criticism (these methods had not yet been devel. Horapollo lived and back covers. REFERENCES: Adams. uc ex fecundis prima qucant corxigi.C. Babrius. quarcnacti cmenda* ium o. Allegoriae Homericae D c Fabula ex imaginibus Pliiloltxari grxce. E x Aphtlionii cxercitamentis de fabuI-i. False bands stained who wrote "the only true hieroglyphic treatise preserved dark brown on spine.be Knuiuinfida admodu UCLA. CLXV. 159.&:latiiie. 85. Gold-tooled with ornaments on front from classical antiquity" (Iversen. centuries B.& Didy^m. Rcnouard. SC latine E x Hermogenis exercitamenrix de fabula Priiaano interprere. Gilt edges. Defabula Colophon: Venetiis apnd Aldum me[n]se Octobri . [1505] Physical description: [88]. T-662. Jinij C ollectio prouerbiomm Tarrl)xi.& cicadij gra> Palacphatus. Signatures: pi 1 A8 B 1() C 8 D 10 a-h 8 i 6 k-j 8 o4 . V ita.quxapud in .ubi latinum a graco fciungi poteft. G. Aphthonius. 8:354. it is still generally accepted that the resulting text tales were collected as early as the fourth and third is quite good.). consulted three This curious collection of texts is the first edition of manuscripts — probably those now identified as K.a tamen uticparari * Panzer. o nbrix Inbellx tics & qu. 33.M. A large body of fables has come "nullius uiri docti auxilio" — "without the help of any down to us under the name of Aesop.cmplum. 172 col. however.ut alii. no. The oped). he prepared the text early sixth century B.cum larina inteiprctarioe .item eomm. 142 [i. H eraclides PonricusdeAlIegoriisapudHoiuuuiu.

translated into Greek.). )) ( (ibid. "Aesop"). Physical description: 2 v. 28). M. [1509] mately prevented these scholars from deciphering the Egyptian language. similarly. 49. handed down. Moralia tual community. incorrect reasons for the meanings of the signs. the vulture is the damurfingula. 2): Venctiis in aedihus Aldi & Andreae of themselves. This was related to notions about Platonic Ideas: to a Neoplatonist the hieroglyph. (fol. The deeply entrenched notion.ubi ui loves its children the most.habcrui hoc qmtemio example. 77. in fact. Hammond and list to write his Hierqglyphica. partly originating with Horapollo. 1:135-36. some modern scholars think that its original language may have been Coptic. that hieroglyphics had an allegorical significance in and COLOPHON (vol. and Aldus used one of these copies to create the first printed edition of the work. which was greatly intrigued by Egyptian 18 hieroglyphics. # * * The discovery of the sole manuscript of Horapollo in 1419 caused quite a stir among the Renaissance intellec- Plutarch. Marsilio Ficino knew and used Horapollo in his work on Plotinus (Boas. and Rabelais owned a copy which is still in existence (and he mentions Horapollo at Gargantua \. Horapollo's allegorical interpretation of the hiero- glyphs appealed to Renaissance belief in hieroglyphics as symbols with mystical significance beyond the text itself (a belief reinforced by the etymology of the word "hieroglyph" which literally means "sacred carving").. kcci tcSy q/Xar- Horapollo has generally correct notions as to the meanings of the hieroglyphics he describes and even correctly gives the pronunciation for some of them. 6. in a real sense. Asnlani Soccri.D. other Renaissance scholars who attempted to translate hieroglyphics relied heavily on Horapollo. but the actual reason tor this is that the names of the animals in Egyptian are homonymous with the signified words (Iversen.Numerusautem Arithmed cm icmittit Ic&orcm ad "son. Goldschmidt. he declares that a goose is the hieroglyph for ne. The goose and the vulture are. Numerous copies were made. but lists of hieroglyphics had been secretly References: Dibdin. 84-85. hieroglyph for "mother" because vultures only exist in the female gender. UCLA. 1:886.suppressed. For ipfis tra&amur. 42 In Aedihus Aldi ." because the goose is known to be the animal that femipagina . Renouard. no. 11.v. but PtYTARCHI OFY5CVIA. the hieroglyphs for son and mother.. 48). including one for Cardinal Bessarion. and it appears that Horapollo used such a Gardiner. was one of the obstacles which ulti. Athanasius Kircher and tert^K'^Jiff&jLU^grjns. Easterling and Knox.. repre- sented the visible form of the celestial Idea. claim that it was originally written in Egyptian and Roeder. Geoffroy Tory read and translated parts of the Hieroglyphka.LX. mense Martio. 29 cm. 19-20 (s. The work itself makes the Scullard. 34). IXXXXK- he unfortunately combines this with bizarre and usually Index Moulium omni um & co rum qux in .

edition of some of Plutarch's essays in Paris. 2:614 The 1509 edition of Plutarch was the product of BM STC Italian. somewhat Pindar. Renouard notes that the size of the final leaves is so large that if this had been the procedure. The work was edited by Demetrius Ducas. 527 the work on the Moralia was very difficult and Lowry. ensuring that the type for a given C (tllimachi hymnt (MimuemwnruT* T> ionyjiusdeptuorbif. Ducas was assisted by Erasmus as well as Girolamo Aleandro. with single front-beaded red/yellow endbands. piece being printed in two sections and then folded into tooled with ornaments on front and back covers. In fact. its state is a case study in a towciov TRQMynms. Rather than make a new. Works improved. Therefore. 55. page ended and started at the correct point. P-1634. References: Adams. Dibdin. corrected. Alexandra those which Bessarion had donated to the city of Venice along with the rest of his extensive manuscript library. Ducas and others simply wrote olympi*. each Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. * * * pant in Aldus's academy. cut the sheets in two and printed them as folios. no. Renouard. There is evidence from this manuscript that even as manuscript pages were being handed to the typesetters the editing of the work was still in process. 84. Panzer. sewn on single raised known to have had. 483. no. a Cretan scholar who was a partici. leather label on spine and gold-tooled onto spine. 5:357. endcaps and spine. Title gold-tooled onto brown This is the first edition of the Moralia in Greek. who just one month after the Aldine publication published his own. American STC Italian. Renouard posits that he cords. vythitt* changes onto the original thirteenth-century manuscript nemea- itself. 1 comments that he had been nearly forced to abandon UCLA. 4:732. It PIKAAPOT- now seems unlikely that Aldus or anyone else had access to these materials until nearly a century after Bessarion's death in 1472. 19 Callimachus. 8:397. edges. Some of the I. how early printers treated these manuscripts. the press copy of much of the Aldine edition of Plutarch has been discovered at the K OtMlftXgV VfiVOlJt $ yiPHOfiWOl • Ambrosian Library in Milan. the project many times). each piece of paper was printed in four sections and then folded to form four leaves. and edited copy of the text PINDARL for the typesetters. Grasse. indicating that those sections had already been printed from another source and there was no need to go over them again. 239-40. 2:171 many years' work (Aldus complains in the preface that Geanakoplos [1962]. Hymns Renouard and other early scholars guessed that the Dionysius Periegetes. iaphronis jdexanArdpbfcHrwnfocma' pages are marked stampato ("printed"). Although the direction of the chain lines in the paper implies that this is a quarto book. Parts of the manuscript contain the page markings Ifthntia- of the Aldine text. Gilt edges. that is. Orbis terrae descriptio manuscripts used for the preparation of the text were Lycophron. Brunet. Gold. board two leaves and sewn together to form the book. 527. Aldus would have needed a much larger press than he is Greek and Latin Classics 43 .Binding description: Brown calfskin. Hillyard. 223-25.

As Aldus relates in the preface. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. an Callimachus (ca. 280-245 B. ignoring subse- B. but because of these awful times.C. Aldus. Dibdin. You former owners. 373. and endcaps. words of the doomed prophetess Cassandra (also known as Alexandra).COLOPHON: Venetijs in aedib. growing power. wrote a long treatise on comedy and one of the first Physical description: [ 16]. The text printed here is and valuable estates. 16 cm.. 1 1] p. 63.). Bound by Sangorski and tion myth. which is a ence.e. Because of the early date of this refer- Except for the Hymns of Callimachus. London. "This land belongs to me. he and June 1512 Aldus was out of Venice. around 1494 or 1496 in Florence. [1513. Pythian. For another Aldine edition of won events at one of the four major athletic festivals of Dionysius. the poem is the earliest extant reference to Aeneas's Simple gold tooling on board edges. Rome was in Lycophron's time a new and Sutcliffe. and even this reprint is inac. wrote victory odes for wealthy patrons who had quent discoveries. in instrumental in persuading him to return to printing preparing the text for printing. being simply a copy of the of mine. the Boeotian lyric poet of the sixth century Eratosthenes (late third century B. with single front-beaded brown/green/yellow detailing the returns of the Greek leaders. Nemean. this edition is the editio Dionysius Periegetes was a Greek geographer of the princeps of all the works contained therein. and also since I the library. Another reason for his absence was the quent editions of Pindar until that of Buck was extremely unstable situation in Italy due to the ongoing produced in 1811-21. the manuscript for the Isthmian odes.. but still essentially Italian rather than Mediterranean. used several manu. The Aldine edition remained the basis for all subse. The odes were collected into four Andrea Navagero. me. men of influence all over northern Italy (Lowry. Though he was not the librarian of the It has now been four years since I decided to neglect museum at Alexandria. A report of the Sicnatures: * 8 1-23 8 24 4 (final blank leaf missing).C. difficult. early second century A. turn-ins. see NO. Rome's founda- Title gold-tooled onto spine. printed here. ancient Greece: the Olympic. 2:124.) has been called "the important purpose for his absence was to attempt to most outstanding intellect of his generation" secure his war-ravaged estates outside Venice. 1514?] early third century B. The (Easterling and Knox. while old. Mcnse Ianuano M. and recherche work. also associated with the museum in the Soceri. 160-61). got [to them] alive. I lis Hymns are the main surviving remains was forced to leave Venice in order to recover my lands oi his vast literary output. His Alexandra.. the poem consists of nearly fifteen Binding description: Brown goatskin. his main used a recent manuscript with a fairly poor text. who based his work on that of Pindar. settlement of Latium (lines 1226-80). 64). each named after one of the contests.C. the preface). an associate of his who had been books.D. (8vo). Between June 1509 scripts of varying quality: for the Olympian odes. sewn on single raised hundred iambic lines foretelling the fall of Troy and cords. as is sometimes thought.XIII. Aldi. French invasions. and Aldus writes an extremely interesting preface to Isthmian contests. i. Gilt edges. 1:549) and was one of the most attempt was unsuccessful: important figures in the development of Greco-Roman literature. is an intricate. which I lost not through any fault actually not very good. compilations of anagrams. get 44 In Aedibus Aldi . after a hiatus of nearly three years. During this time he visited scholars and was very corrupt (cf. some scholars have challenged the attribution of reprint of the anonymous first edition probably printed the poem.D. as cataloger of comic works. the text pursuit appears to have been an attempt to drum up he used for the Pythian and Nemean odes was quite enthusiasm and support for his academy (mentioned in good. Although I earlier Florence edition. Renouard. he this hard profession of mine because I saw practically all was very instrumental in designing the organization of of Italy burning with the cruelest war.C. et Andreae Asulani Lycophron. Of interest in endbands. the [new inhabitants] rudely said to curately printed.

160-61. Dibdin. E infdem hymni- Aldus also uses the preface as a platform both to reit- v rpheus de Lpidibni* erate his program of the publication of the classics and to announce his plan to print a polyglot Bible: It is my intention to publish the best books. Aldus should be taken as approximate. Thereafter I intend to undertake the Hebrew books as well. 39-41). 16 cm. or labors. labors which I know well now. (woodcuts). it M ufiei opufailtm de Herone seems likely that the figure of twenty years offered by & ~Leandro. 4:657. luck and the fires of the war appeared to be starting all BM STC Italian. "another Athens. my neck prepared 20 et Leandro This passage has been important evidence for the chronology of the Aldine Press. 2:597. American STC Italian. which were translated from Hebrew to Greek and then from Greek to Latin. which we might call 5:293." . Greek and Latin Classics 45 . 1:547-50.XVII.. returned to my labors. [printing them] parallel to our Floly books. In any case. (8vo). Aldus would have needed a considerable amount of lead time to prepare for the complex printing and publishing task he had set for himself (Fletcher. I have bowed my head. one that Aldus continued. Grasse. May God the Giver of Good Things look with favor on this enterprise. mense Nouembri M. and this to the benefit and glory of the Christian reli- gion. both Greek and Latin. to bear the yoke. 39-41. Rcnouard. as long as I can be of Musaeus. A date in the early 1490s is about right. [1517| The signatures are signed with arabic numerals rather than letters. I return to Venice. UCLA. although T * tu>70UVf*vor his first book was not printed until 1495. something I have often promised in the past. 8:412. Lowry.D. De Herone use to men. over again. though Aldus did experi. as we can infer that H&AtOtYS)CQT- Aldus began printing approximately twenty years before 1514. any day.. 2:124. This was a very unusual practice. But I have long since made it a rule for myself never to avoid any inconvenience. Brunei. 520. and put them into the hands of the studious. expense. 92. I changed my mind and have 64. Fletcher. after twenty years' experience. The Bible was never printed. to be extremely difficult * # * and almost too much for my strength. so that it will be possible to compare them. 9. 620. o rphei argmautiat. no. no. Panzer. out!" So since I was making no progress and my own ill References: Adams. and not Physical description: 80 leaves: ill. which I had hoped would be extinguished Easterling and Knox. P-1218. and if there are any errors (for they say there are very many) so that they might be removed. COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi et Andreae soceri ment with Hebrew type off and on during his career.

lists the European literature" (Braden. an epic poet of the late fifth had been printed without translations. is renowned for the elaborate rhetorical Greek scholar and friend to Aldus. . This may be attributed to the quality of the spine. 55).. in his was "one of the most popular stories in Western publisher's price list issued in October 1498.. Between its first publication in proposed edition of Aristotle. The Aldine editions of Musaeus formed the basis of Gold. Julius Caesar Scaliger translation.and blind-tooled with ornaments on front and back most of the popular editions until the seventeenth covers. The 1517 Aldine edition contains two reserved his highest compliment for him: "I think popular woodcuts on facing pages which depict Leander Musaeus' style much neater and more polished than swimming the Hellespont and Hero throwing herself I lomer's. If Musaeus had written what Homer from a tower after viewing the dead body of her lover.). there were dozens of Binding DESCRIPTION: Red embossed leather. I lis Hero and Leander is the story of two of Hero and Leander was the first work ever issued by the lovers on the Hellespont. Abraham Fraunce work as number eight. He notes in his preface that his wrote in 1592 that "Leander and Hcros love is in every edition of Musaeus is a perfect introduction to his mans mouth" (ibid. Leaves 8v and 9r. showing that it preceded 46 InAedibusAldi .. 1517 De Herone et Leandro of Musacus. provided the Latin display and design of his poetry. this is not clear.D. 215). wrote. century A. recessed cords. Greek (the Aldine edition. Simple gold tooling on century. Cloth green/white endbands. the date of Chapman's English translation. board edges. Gilt edges. 1494/5) and 1616. sewn on versions of the story in several languages. Andrea Torrcsani. during the sixteenth century it Aldine Press. Title gold-tooled onto spine. and turn-ins. Marcus Musurus. Aldus himself. Aldine text and to the fact that the other noteworthy texts (principally those of Lascaris and Henri Estienne) Musaeus Grammaticus. I believe he would have written it much better" Although some believe that the undated first edition (Scaliger. Signatures: a-k 8 .

of Musaeus. [1] leaves. This being the case. Simple gold-tooling on spine. 161). MDXVIII mense Februario [1518. no. 15 cm. three great Greek tragedians of the fifth century B. and we are devoting rolled brown cloth endbands. 2:440 BM STC Italian. . Clements. the book contains an enthusi- 9 ] Aeschylus. both in Latin Greek and Latin Classics 41 . advancement of letters. Now that he is dead this same drive so consumes us that it increases day by day. and I.e. 2:87 The 1518/19 Aldine edition is. These correc- tions. taking great pains to % correct his books before allowing them to be sold to the public. We are not ashamed of anything gold-tooled onto spine. Binding description: Vellum. surprisingly enough. no.C. 3:1957. the earliest of the UCLA. Red edges. American STC Italian. Aldine edition. Works astic preface by Francesco Torresani declaring an intent to continue Aldus's program: COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi et Andreae soceri. sewn on recessed cords. and no amount of work or expense can keep us from this purpose.. Marbled endpapers and ourselves to this alone: the production of useful works pastedowns. These texts are not accompanied by a Latin translation. 8 the first printed edition of Aeschylus. source" (Levin. Dibdin. writings were copied from the 1500 Giunti edition given to Aldus.that edition. Many books. are the writings of Orpheus. described tPH E P r OHSAI X. AtiMnrHi. He closely supervised both the actual printing and the textual editing. and as with the poetry them "they were E then i & e x.. that we have produced so far. . Renaissance readers PEPZAlv were intrigued by the mythical and magical properties A r AM EM NON- attributed to the Orphic hymns. 457. Title for all studious men. B. 4:633. with my brother Federico. i. We are all united in this. * 14-19- L X Provenance: Henry J. 81.EXI& E Z. 851. here. Renouard. 8:440. Printed within a few years of the death of Aldus while * # # the impetus of his program of publication of the Greek and Latin classics was still an important factor in the firm's selection decisions. Panzer. PPOMHOEIi. 10 Signatures: a-n 8 o . though relatively insignificant with respect to the text. . (8vo). my father Andrea. probably printed in early 1495. 1519?] I suppose that none of you is unaware of the drive and enthusiasm that my brother-in-law Aldus felt for the Physical description: 113. M-1991. References: Adams. Grasse. The 1517 edition of Hero and Leander contains Aldus's original Greek preface and several textual emendations which he had made to the earlier edition. Included with the 1517 edition of Musaeus. Renouard states that the Orphic AESCHYXI TRAGOEDIACJEX. Brunet. it is an extremely early AIXXYAOY rPArnAIAlEZ. 138. they felt that in reading communing with the spirit of poetry at its elemental IK. are important for the light they shed on Aldus as a printer and editor.

it to a lucky misprint. board edges. [1503] part. Dibdin. Hence the number of plays announced in the title is six rather than the standard seven. I. Title an edition ot Prometheus Bound printed in Paris by gold-tooled onto green leather label on spine. Brunet. 2 (Epistolae): Red goatskin. At any rate he allowed a great quantity of Colophon (vol.. 85. 1503] defective. [1502] of an attempt to make sense of it that when he does put something right one is amazed. it would seem. declaration. however. board edges. (West.DII. References: Adams. Spine misnumbcred vol. particularly in the boast about the quality of 1:29. with the first play of the Oresteia.DII. generally agreed that this edition of Aeschylus is one of the worst Aldines ever produced. Marbled endpapers and paste- first part of the Choephori.DII. 48 In Aedibus Aldi . and tempted to ascribe Colophon (vol. even during the Vol. 1:126-27. missing the first Academia Aldi mense Febr. and so seldom shows any sign M. in 1518. The complete death of Aldus. missing everything from lines 1160 to the Colophon (vol. False bands an improved edition for a generation after this editio on the spine. False bands on the spine. M. Few. the Choephori. The next printing of a work by Aeschylus was and endcaps.. gibberish to be printed. sewn on recessed cords. 9. [1502] The most famous of this "gibberish" arises from the fact Colophon (vol. could be improved text of Agamemnon was not printed until 1557. Gold-tooled Agamemnon. Title gold-tooled onto green which are quite opaque because of difficulties with the leather label on spine. i. 357) mense Decembn. with single front-beaded Aeschylus is quite difficult. American STC Italian. Spine Chrestien Wechel in 1548 for the Greek teacher Jean misnumbcred vol. publishing all the Latin and Greek authors. simple gold tooling on turn-ins. 17-21. Works man to whom tragic Greek was evidently a total mystery. lacuna. Binding description: Vol. sixteenth century it was recognized that the Aldine was a with single front-beaded yellow/rcd/green endbands. the Agamemnon. UGLA. 3 Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto): Venetijs in end. and Greek. who needed a text for his lectures. West is representative of the widespread criticism: In was just at this time. 3 Fasti): Venetiis in Aldi Romani Academeia that Torresani did not notice that his manuscript was mense Ianuario. manuscript tradition. M. The Aeschylean * # # specialist M. There remain many passages in Aeschylus with ornaments on spine. no. Nevertheless. simple gold scripts available even in Torresani's day containing all of tooling on turn-ins. the works produced since the death of Aldus. M. 8:446. mense Octobri. and endcaps. 143. It is no. princeps. Rcnouard. Aldi. edited by Franciscus Asulanus [Francesco Torresani]. A-262. Torresani joined the two as if they were a single play without so much as a break at the point of the Physical description: 3 v. and the second. 16 cm. no one printed Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. although there were manu. It must be said in Torresani's defense that the text of sewn on recessed cords. 1 (Metamorphoses): Red goatskin. Surprisingly. 1:15. II. terrible edition. We still do not possess the yellow/red/green endbands. 8. that the first printed LATIN CLASSICS edition of Aeschylus appeared: the Aldine. by Henri at all. BM There is a certain amount of unintended irony in this STC Italian. Grasse. 1): Venetiis in aedib. Gilt edges. Panzer. [1502. 907.DIII. We will not be dissuaded from our set purpose of Estienne in Geneva. have been published by our firm since the Dorat. Gilt edges. Gruys. L. 2): Venetiis in aedibus Aldi Romani. Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine. (8vo). This was a 22 Ovid.e. downs. 1:77.

which it is forbidden to anyone in the realm to use or imitate. the riNENTY R. it is dated November 1502. and in the fifteenth century. 225-58. both male and female. most fond of. 12-14. a book of witty instructions for aspiring lovers. 4:269. Panzer. Aldus. enduring his last days in exile on the Black Sea apparently in part for his Ars Amatoria. after 1503. in libro feenndwm ordine'm alphabcti. at with single front-beaded yellow/red/green endbands. were not only read and endcaps. their gold-tooled onto green leather label on spine. 133. Controversy — and popularity followed the career of Ovid's works through the Middle Greek and Latin Classics 49 . 5:68. UCLA. Ovid was Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. Still. which he calls here "hasce portatili forma A Uo prittilegmi concr/Jum <td reij> literdri* ttfa Metamorphoseis Ouidij. Title but were often attacked for being indecent. always prepared for self-advertisement." Detailed indexes follow of the litatem- Latin and Greek forms of the names in the work. to Marino Sannudo. one month after the date of the colophon. BM STC Italian. simple gold-tooling on turn-ins. Saenger and Heinlein. Saenger and Heinlein. added the pagination. the time of the development of printing. A fine for violation is prescribed. This privilege takes note of the many contributions Aldus has made to the city of Venice. The poet Ovid (43 b. no. — Vol. and thus one of the earliest octavos printed by Aldus is this edition of Ovid. 0-423. sewn on recessed cords.d. 8:355. most are (cf. mentioning in particular his designs of greek and italic typefaces. 2:493. board edges. References: Adams. Hindman. Gilt edges.-a. Ages to the Renaissance. takes this opportunity to xd ULdYimm Sannutum tfi[kU'quidpudgr&: remind his readers of the convenience of his new octavo cos fcYtpferint /uiTx/uoptpuo-w format. False bands second only to Virgil as the poet the reading public was on the spine. 252). QVAEHOC VOLVMINE CO K«= In his dedication of the first volume. 7 (The original owner of BYU's copy has. 252. 1. American STC Italian. Brunet. where the reader was OVIDII METAMORPHOSJflM expected to add his own foliation. 37-38.c. None of the books LIBRI QVINDECIM. pref- OYthogrdfhU dittiommgr&ctiruinffer ordfc aced to a second index are instructions to the owner of nemliterarum- "Vita ouidij ex ipfitts oferib the book to add the page numbers so that the index will index fkhiddrwm et caterorum t qu£ mjhnt hoc be usable. His works. published by Aldus in 1502 are paginated or foliated. 479. 17/18) was a controver. Renouard. . publication represented a sure seller for a printer. * * * sial figure in his own lifetime. 3 (Fasti): Red goatskin. however. 52-54. Grasse. nos.) This stems back to the prac- tice with handwritten manuscripts. Metamorphoses. the proceeds of which are to go in part to the feeding of the orphans of the city. Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine. fact. Aldus's privilege from the doge of Venice is also included in this publication. Title page to vol.

Aldi. Gaisser. of Messalla's literary circle. recently been rediscovered. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. 17 cm. in addition to the 1502/3 edition. Brunet. UCLA. 100-06 cords. Prodigiorum liber subject. Simple gold tooling on front and back covers and spine.e. 1562. Ring and pin clasps.ilso wrote love poetry in elegiac meter. often addressed to his mistress Lesbia. M. American STC Italian. Natural linen braided tackets at the head and from the Renaissance humanists. 40. Me[n]se Nouembri. 1503?] text of Catullus from then on. 2:86. Grasse. References: Adams. i. 16. Catullus. 17 cm. Girolamo Avanzi. 1:1677. logical choice for editor when Aldus produced his edition in 1502/3. with single front-beaded green/white endbands. Suetonius. Propcrtius next century and a half a variety of readers made attempts at emending the text or otherwise resolving the numerous problems. 39. turned his CATVLLVS. in 1375. The poets Catullus. the third book which has come down to us in his corpus is actually a collection of poems by members Physical description: [24]. marbled edges. Venetian printer Johannes Tacuinus. 160. Catullus (ca. 50 In Aedibus Aldi . Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. [1502.DII. Binding description: Original brown calfskin boards. 525 p.C. with single front-beaded. no. Works usually been grouped together since Wendelin of De viris illustribus Speyer's 1472 Venetian editio princeps. 1554. Fletcher. Catullus had only tail. together with an COLOPHON: Venetiis in Aedibus Aldi..C. 121 Pink silk page marker. The BYU collection owns. (8vo). 50-19 B.c:. C-1137. who was born about the same time as Tibullus.) wrote poems varying both in meter and Julius Obsequens. He Signatures: * 8 2* 4 a-2k 8 . . [1508] meter. Tibullus. He continued his work on the poet after this and thus became a PR. and became a part of the circle of the wealthy statesman Maecenas. Tibullus. Toward the end of this period a young scholar. was PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: [152] leaves. Renouard. Title gold- corrupt manuscript which has since perished. De claris grammaticis et rhetoribus 84-54 B.VIII. Tibullus (ca. mcnsc Ianuario. sewn on The manuscript tradition of all three poets is poor.9 3 Catullus. Panzer. This edition was far superior to its predecessors (a fact of which both Aldus and Avanzi boast in their prefaces 8 ).OPETIVS. Propertius. natural linen and they therefore received a great deal of attention endbands. Title gold-tooled onto red leather label * * * on spine. unusually large press run. and this. attention to Catullus. 24-65. reprinted frequently by the press. 1:383 rebacked with brown sheepskin. double raised cords. Binding description: White alum-tawed pigskin. For the tooled onto spine. 8:353. and Propertius have 24 Pliny the Younger. in a single Raised cords blind-decorated with tie-up cords. sewn on single raised BM STC Italian. usually with Tibullus and Propertius. no. died before 2 B. the 1515. (8vo).D. Signatures: A-E 8 F4 A-D E 8 4 a-i 8 . publishing a set of emendations as well as an edition of Catullus in 1500 with the TIBVLLVJ. and 1566 editions. ensured its influence on the M.) wrote love poems and poems Colophon: Venetiis in aedib. 1558. et Andreae Asulani in praise of the soldier-statesman Messalla in elegiac soceri.

dc ex Hono iibro otfxuusfiftuf. Grasse. leaves. script. as the manuscript tradition for Pliny had up to that time existed only in fragmentary state. 3.) is also of great textual importance. were numbered at the upper right-hand corner. Aldus. manuscript of the letters.et in di nrinijlYdnddP. He also Greek and Latin Classics 51 . 909. 2:611. In this first experiment. ten books of letters. } its own time. The important manuscript Aldus used disappeared immediately after the publication of the 1508 edition of Pliny. some of them manuscripts best known today for his elegantly crafted letters to a and some printed editions. based on his own research. Pliny prepared the authenticity of the "new" letters and proudly announces letters himself for publication. Thereafter. no. since the unique manuscript which Aldus used has again not survived. 4:721. Renouard. fed decern quocp epijh>l<e interpo --< The 1508 Pliny is also of importance to students of pt<e. However. P-1536. intervals during his own lifetime. Lowe. He notes the scholarly controversy over the on subjects of interest to the author. a vellum * * * manuscript ("in membrana scriptas") written in a diffi- cult hand ("diuersis a nostris characteribus") which Aldus believed was so old and accurate that it must have originated in the time of Pliny himself. Brunet. who speaks of other printed it clitumno finte twnfblum uerttci atlx ddditut. tt edict ucrtex . Pliny the Younger (ca. editions with disdain (Adagia 2. public mention of the partnership between Aldus and Wmir<& . putting pifbU deami libri dd Trdidnum probdtuur effe the even numbers in the gutter. Aldus vlimimfiefuenti epifhU. Panzer. rifilluftribHS t no Trdn$lh. Lowe and try to procure it. 61-ca. no.ld'q. Rand. both even and odd pages ulii obfcqucntitVrodigoYHmhbcT. Fletcher. 24. because its colophon contains the first ho nomf. at the time. Also of interest is the fact that iitfdem deViris illuflribus m Re militori. and Aldus sent out agents to 112-115. 320.acpotin5Ucncrand<e Vetujhhs> his father-in-law Andrea Torresani. to be authentic. Case. In da etJHif locis rejhtutc.1. it was singled out for special praise by uera repofiti. 8:447. Winship.l 12) became a rela.D. 82. and they appeared at them. Ifiibi etidm liber de Vi numbered even pages at the upper left-hand corner. \temfragnunw& epifbUyinte: gr&fhft&> in medio etiam epifbU libri oftnui Erasmus in his Adagia.D. in CWE. UCLA. By 1504 Aldus had a copy of the manu. et ex o&t the Aldine Press. 525. his preface. around 1501 rumors began to circulate about a complete BM STC Italian. it was from the French broad circle of acquaintances covering subjects from manuscript and these other sources that he constructed business affairs to personal observations to short essays his text. as well as the De viris illnstribiis.™ quibus tm\t& hdbentur thrown away. atyreieftit ddulterinit. 33:10).1. benefiao exepUris correftifftm. more than a decade iufdem Vdnepriw rraidnoimp diflw- after its establishment. 1660. In Reynolds 196. This represented quite a coup for The BYU library also owns the 1518 Aldine edition. References: Adams. leaving the The 1508 Aldinc edition is the first publication of all 1508 Aldine edition the only evidence for this work. and in 1506 he received the manuscript itself. Merril. American STC Italian. mentions that Giovanni Giocondo had brought him six tively important Roman official during his life but is other partial copies of Pliny.ep' this is the first Aldine to number pages as opposed to ueiomi TriquiUi declarisGrimatidi et Rhctorih. 5:345. once a manuscript had been transferred C-PIrlNTI secvndt NOVOCOMEWSrS to print its importance was discounted and it was often cpifbUru libri Decern. Aldus enthusiastically describes how Alvise Mocenigo obtained it for him in France.fed vliniicflc onditur> The inclusion in this edition of the prodigy list of Julius Obsequens (perhaps fourth century A. no. 53. 9 This edition thus retains great importance epijbU non ante impref}ie'TumGr<satcorre- today to textual critics in establishing the text of Pliny. A.

(8vo). with double. 52 In AedibusAldi . your kindness to edges. label on spine. As he tells the story in the preface to this edition of Horace: Three years have now passed. Vndeuignti metrorum gner<t. so when the two were approached by border guards as they neared Asola. This is the Q^. Mantua on a royal mission. A few days later. By July 16 he was dlicpiidtmta. and endcaps. and he was imprisoned for the next six days. much to the printer's astonish- ment. and whatever else had been taken away from me. & The preface is dedicated to Geoffroy Charles. you yourself.) was a member of your name. . Federigo had earlier had a serious brush with the legal authorities in Mantuan territory.. his works were extremely popular 9 ^ throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. I spine panels between the raised cords. 16 cm. The guards thereupon arrested Aldus. Federigo panicked and fled with Aldus's horse and belongings. M. Title gold-tooled onto black leather me and have often considered how I could thank you. and were so glad to see me at Milan that you even invited me to be your guest —such is your courtesy —when many of your learned friends were dining together. my dear Charles. . and as such represented a big seller for a printer. . You happened to be in SIGNATURES: 1-2 8 a 8 (a8 blank.. Geoffroy Charles.. Mantuan soldiers. and provided pocket money. since you took me into the circle of your friends. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. about twenty miles from Mantua. and the press subsequently {kifHnt&infhtutiones frit has popt*. accused). horses. comments published twelve more. Gilt edges. corre- second Aldine edition. [1509] to arrest some scoundrels who were supposed to be passing through on horseback that day.D. turn-ins.HoratiiTUcn poematawquibHS tmlfa .. . . board have not forgotten. Asola. Gold-tooled with ornaments on front and back covers. out Martio. green/yellow/red nobles — rushed out to the town and freed me (the ei idbands. with all your Binding description: Tan sheepskin. At length I decided that as I was about to publish a new edition of the poetry of Horace I would publish it under The lyric poet Horace (65—8 B. missing) 8 4 b-u x (x4 blank). mistake! They kept me imprisoned at Canneto. . front-beaded. Works complex and difficult. As soon as you found out what was going on .C. Horace. . I like- the Roman Empire. my work to you. presi- e quibus arnfknt pedibits . arrested me by Physical description: [46].IX. rdtioredditur- Federigo da Ceresara. Although his meters were often wise dedicate . in addition to four editions of riorum qtiodummcdouict fungintuT' the Ars poctica. 310 p. when I was hastening from Cremona to Asola COLOPHON: Venetiis apud Aldum Romanum mense through the territory of Mantua. my savior. .<t dtite uolumcn fiml hit dent of the senate of Milan and a friend and benefactor bentur^ttntusmHoltitnineftif loas> of Aldus. riding back to Asola accompanied by a distant relative. sewn on single raised horsemen —and indeed with numerous other Mantuan cords. clothes. benefactor Maecenas.. During the early summer he visited Adnobttionetnonrtuttctmtctooftre % m qHibus uel Carpi.ndimofkndmrpcl <ht tmhttum fit. in order that as Horace himself dedicated the Augustan circle of literary figures at the beginning of his composition to his . In 1506 Aldus had left Venice in search of reli- able manuscripts.et quatutm fint . Milan and Cremona.

) and Roman in the HOC VOLVM-INfe CON civil war against Pompey (49-48 B. Panzer. turn-ins and spine. vicTurd Vontis in Khcnc. h a t c. Jententia yellow. man on the cm. Vithtrtttotw GdU. Signatures: A-B 8 C 4 a-2k 8 (2k7 blank) 21-2o 8 . Aldus included a Caesar.i<e } diui[km pdrtets trn$. tiomirut locorwn l urbiwm'a. Aldus does add. a lengthy essay on difficulties in Horace's Soceri. to be followed by »colimdicebdnturUtme. libri iiiji. 8:397. Tontifiotm . Caesar's Latin IINENTVK. with navy/gold single front-beaded Grasse. u e betfo Hifydnicnft. 3:312. Fletcher. Navy silk page marker. meters. mense Aprili. (woodcuts). Title gold-tooled onto spine. Aldus claims that although he has just printed Colophon (leaf 264v): Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. Simple gold Pastorello. Leaves A3v and A4v have been corrected by hand (three words being deleted). no. scholar. Renouard. red. Gilt edges. printer. In fact. Commentxriorum dc bello c dllico hbri VIII style was considered from antiquity to be a brilliant X>e bello audi fompeuno. UCLA." The latter corrections were made because the woodcuts were inadvertently printed backwards and do not corre- Greck and Latin Classics 53 . tooling on front and back covers.DXIII. the original blue possibly having faded over the years.ty'popHlorum C <tlluc. and for this reason ve bcllo xlexdndrino. stenciled with colors at the lice Secundum ordinemdlphdbeti. H-858. this edition has been soceri M.Mdflilia. sewn on BM STC Italian. to recognize. 333. uenddt'ue &c -ut in littriffufr poena. The 1513 edition of Caesar is the only Aldine edition with colored maps. Physical description: [20]. Colophon (leaf 296r): Venetijs in aedibus Aldi & Andreae however. green and blue —and many copies follow this plan. 2. 11 The X. Lowry. 3:348. green for southeastern Gaul. 96-97.ir nunc diotnturgaU map of Gaul and Germany. excommamattionis IdJa. 85. 296 leaves: ill.nequv hbrot curd noflr* original plan was to use six colors—purple. 17 right forbidding anyone — "noble. saffron.C. The volume concludes with a notice of Aldus's copy. liber I. 2:135 Binding DESCRIPTION: Black embossed leather. Gold-tooled with orna- ments on front and back covers.itene Max . merchant or servant" 10 — to touch his italic type ("id genus characteres"). References: Adams.). The stenciling in the BYU copy includes three colors only: red for Belgium.. 9 f\ Julius Caesar. 196. street. item Kttarici -Alexia: time of publication in order to make the divisions easier v xelloduni. and the seas appear to have a very light yellow tint. many more. 484 endbands. as Aldus explains in his preface. liber Caesar is to this day one of the first authors students of I.C. ka a p> imprimdt. 157-59. and the woodcuts on leaf CI have been labeled "Massilia" and "Uxellodunum. (8vo). Dc bello Kfridno. it is almost an exact reprint of the 1501 edition. 56. liber l Latin read. Works Caesar's Commentaries are his own third-person account of his activities as general in the Roman wars for the conquest of Gaul (58-52 B. American STC Italian.[tcvm The 1513 edition was the first Aldine edition of dutn C-Cfftrif Cominentariof. 11-12 single raised cords. . model of simplicity and good taste. Brunet. no. [ 1513] greatly expanded and corrected. et Andreae Horace eight years previously. simple gold tooling on * # # board edges.

most extant copies (cf. Fletcher. 1504. since they occur in lation published by Paulus Manutius in 1547. The claims that these corrections are in Aldns's own hand. Included with this first edition are letters from Pope References: Adams. no. 622. 99. and 1588 editions. his work in Italy would be punished by excommunica- tion. Such measures evidently had little effect. 1:1453. lus copyright warning that any unauthorized edition of no. Sander. 1:320. 96. 1. dated December 1502. 8:412. 1513 Caesar. Brunct. no. they were certainly 1571. STC Italian. Harold B. dated January 1503. 1566. BM Alexander VI. 1. Mortimer. Brenzoni. as well as an Italian trans- made at the time of publication. Aldus secured as part of his ongoing efforts to protect Panzer. 1. 60. Leaves a2r-a3r. vol. vol. no. American STC Italian. 1559. 135. Grasse. spond to the explanations on the facing pages. 1 16-18). since a * * * Giunti edition flagrantly copying the Aldine came out in * * 1514. 1575. 2:6. 116-19. 92-94. 54 In AedibusAldi . 97. Lee Library holds the 1513. and many other printers also produced imitations * of their own. Rcnouard The Aldine Press published Caesar many times. Aldus Manutius. 1519. and Pope Julius II. These are general letters which Fletcher. While he offers no proof of this. UCLA. Renouard. C-26.

15 cm. after the second Signatures: a-2k 8 21 4 (final blank leaf missing). 7 Marcus Tullius Cicero. but these came out piecemeal. Cicero (106-43 B. False bands on spine. Aldus states that he is publishing the Epistolae at this Greek and Latin Classics 55 . him to publish the works of Cicero. Leaves Clr-Clv. a Binding description: Red goatskin. Title gold-tooled onto spine. and then the other Physical description: [267] leaves.l'. with the letters to Atticus not published until 1513. (8vo). gold- familiares tooled with ornaments on turn-ins. Aldus dedicates this volume to Sigismund Thurz. 2. The only surprise is that Aldus waited until Colophon: Venetiis in aedib. Aldi. and his collections of letters were especially important as models for correct grammar and style. In the preface Aldus promises that he will soon print the letters to Atticus. 1513 Caesar. works.C. Gilt marbled edges.) was considered the epitome of M. It is thus natural that the humanist Aldus Manutius should print editions of Cicero. Hungaro-Polish homme d'affaires who had encouraged with single front-beaded red/yellow/green endbands.DII. mense Aprili. In the preface. Simple gold tooling on board edges and endcaps. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. 1502 to print his first edition. and then only the Epistolae M. Epistolae Red/yellow/green page marker.CEPISTOLAt good latinity during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. yutiu Aldus Manutius. ?A MILIAR* 5. sewn on recessed cords. [1502] familiares. edition of the Epistolae familiares was published in 1512.

liiifdetn deor4tort4dQufntumJrdtrtm lib% in. 127. the endbands. "We give you Cicero's Epistolac boards. Title gold-tooled onto brown leather and then the rest [of the letters].XIIII. Fletcher. Various interpretations of the term that have been ZiiifdtmTopiatddTrcbtttiim lib. no. format would mean that busy people like Thurz would not be able to use them: "Occupied with your own and Binding description: Original brown calfskin boards state business as you are. Tcntifioan AltxandrijulSae u* rutdctmm dtcretis. Rhetorical works Rhetorica ad Herennium This edition of Cicero's rhetorical works and of the anonymous Rhetorica ad C. 33. 2:167. et Andrcae soceri less than nine to come from the Aldine Press. ment in the winter. Lowry. so CONTINENTVR. no. Blind-tooled with ornaments on familiares now. * * * Ho. is not entirely clear what Aldus means when he refers to them here and tmfdtm orator ddsrutum lib. References: BM STC Italian. UCLA. I. Brunet. portable libraries. 43. 2:45. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. is not ready to publish all of Cicero's works yet. t ^8 Marcus Tullius Cicero. 245. Fletcher's guess that Aldus's establishment was in a building where a bath- house or tavern might once have been seems plausible.D. dry the paper or ink. that they come out of our thermae as correct as possible. nil You will undoubtedly recognize this in reading them. Herennium was the first of no COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibns Aldi. Thus Aldus states his intention in creating the octavo l format for classical texts. one tail. (4to). 8:354. i. works worth reading. Missing clasps. As thermae is a perfectly good Latin/Greek term meaning hot springs or baths. The thermae in question have caused some debate. [3] leaves. later extended to mean other establishments associated with baths. sewn on double spend time studying in libraries. Lord willing. 178. with single front-beaded tan/natural format can be taken out of libraries.ne<iuif aliufufyui L Wm rum tmfunt tmfirimt mtum tfl. 287. both Latin and Greek. one head. n. xhttvriarrmt diC'Htrtnmwm lib. pressmen. yellow sprin- better to fit into the lifestyle of Thurz and other busi. such as gymnasia and taverns (thermopolia). you would not be able to rebacked with brown sheepskin spine. We will take care to furnish. Panzer." But the new octavo raised leather thongs. Ubrot t&m. offered range from stoves — needed to heat the establish- I'mfdemordtoriapttrtitionet lib* i. kled edges. I 15141 including various editions of the separate works and the 56 InAedibusAldi . Grasse.time in part because of this encouragement but that he Physical description. publication of them in the traditional large Sicnatures: *6 a-k 8 l 4 m-z 8 A-H 8 I 4 . Aldus reasons. [6]. I- in three other places between 1498 and 1504. 23 cm. not mense Martio M. 60-61. Rcnouard. 2. two on the front and back nessmen and diplomats. then all [of Cicero's] label pasted on spine. as it tiufdem de cUrU oratoribusfltii diatvr Brutus : lib. or cast the type — to the heat of the physical exertions of the tiufdm de optimgntreordtvrtmprafitiofttdm." M-T'Cictromdcfnuentiom lib. Even if he were. and soon will give you those to Atticus front and back covers. We IK HOC VOrVMIME HAEC have lavished great care on these Epistolae familiares.

others to rustica see what new work is going on. and Rutillius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius. I have set the following warning B. which they expect me to publish. Venice in 1512 to continue publishing after temporarily leaving the business. . or some prose composition. 8:420. But I have begun to rid myself of these vexatious Binding DESCRIPTION: Vellum. much for them). the libri tres constant letters from learned men. 2:28. Carthage. 130. but very little of his output survives. Navagero became responsible for # # # much of the editing of Latin works published in Aldus's later years and so presumably was not the target of his complaint in this dedication: O Q Libri de re rustica Marcus Porcius Cato. Greek and Latin Classics 51 . C-1676. no. or Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. 1546. 1550. with having persuaded him to return to 65. ciate of Aldus during the last years of his life.1583 edition of Cicero's complete works. 2:159. and 1569 editions. I ask that nobody This collection of four ancient writers. Robertson.XIIII. those of 1521 and 1533. 102. [1514] droves and sit around. 683. like "a leech that's not about to let go of your skin until it's full of blood. UCLA. Title if the messages are important. Panzer. Oswald. Rerum rusticarum my work with their continual interruptions: first. sewn on recessed cords. do this because I am proud or vain.C. et Andreae soceri "Well. Lowry. UNLESS ence as a gentleman farmer in central Italy. was frequently published in the As for those who drop in to chat. sent to me from all Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella. 1. no. those who drop by. (4to). . (NO. 17-18. 19). 1:412. then. lived during the first half of the second century work and thought. THERE WILL ALWAYS BE 1559. ARMS OF AN EXHAUSTED ATLAS. 21 I won't mention those who come to recite a poem cm. .. or for any other fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and is often referred to reason. credits him. De re sides: whole days and nights would be taken up in rustica writing back if I were to respond to them all. 1533. I respond briefly. (woodcuts). Cato. in the preface to the 1513 edition of Pindar 165-66. TO HOLD UP THE collection includes the 1514. usually a rough first draft (the labor and delay of polishing is presumably too Signatures: * 8 2 a-2b 8 2c 10 a-h 8 i 4 k-z 8 A-Q 8 . I have taken care to warn them no longer to as the Scriptores rei rusticae. the earliest of the four make nuisances of themselves or rudely interrupt my authors.C. from his own experi- YOU MAKE IT BRIEF AND THEN LEAVE DIRECTLY. and Aldus Brunet. . but so that I can have some time to edit good books. 1564.D. De agri cultura Two things — aside from 600 others —keep me from Marcus Terentius Varro." 12 Physical description: [34). Navagero was a close asso. I don't calligraphed onto spine. dealing with take this badly. gaping. Renouard. Blue edges. . is the dedication Aldus writes to his friend Andrea Navagero. 1521. De re second. 308 leaves: ill. and was famous for his implacable hatred of above the door to my office: Rome's vanquished enemy. The BYU YOU HAVE COME. LIKE HERCULES. agricultural topics. who write me if they have nothing important to say. REFERENCES: Adams. TOO. . WORK FOR YOU TO DO HERE. wit interruptions. some just to chat. AND FOR AS MANY OTHERS Of particular interest in the 1514 edition. repeated in WHO WALK IN. Fletcher. American STC Italian. 57-73. I either do not respond at all to those single front-beaded natural linen laced-in endbands. Grasse. and others —by far the largest crowd — since they have nothing better to do say Colophon: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. let's go visit Aldus!" So they come in mense Maio M. De agri AND AGAIN THAT IF YOU WANT ANYTHING FROM HIM cultura was written about 160 B. He was a prolific To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: ALDUS ASKS YOU AGAIN writer.

I lis family owned land in both Spain and central Italy. Giocondo. books. 66. one for each month of the year plus an introduc- After Caesar's death he devoted himself to the scholarly tion and final book on the care of animals. ^Uirt autzm id fi- famfumt:ofonditurinej>ifoU<iiU(krtm' V A L L A D I 1 jub. Panzer. here. like Cato. * * * 58 In Aedibus Ahli . no. C A T O N I 3 X. Vtduobus ditrim nntribus : pmty it wmWifjO" horif au£4pui nut t ClCD Vdttddifmjmtdidtpfoli ddltfhrtm. Leaf 105v Columella was a Roman from Spain of the first (cf. XII. 6:331. experienced upper-class farmer.md 65. Of his many writings. 5:246. one of Aldus's regular editors. 8:420. century A. protecting all he had printed or would print using M. in his work is his concern over the decline of agricul- ture in Italy. 103. xiur.IBi I. cianl* nam ampofitum* M os librot Pontificit ttidm J. IK. V. leaf 103v). Renouard. A partisan of Pompey during the ence. are two prefaces by Aldus to the reader. in 1514 Libri de re rustica. An important theme 685. also printed M.C. Varro's life spanned the first three quarters of the The later writer Palladius also wrote from experi- first century B. lite. M E E E A E E r B. n*fti{ dbusufqudmloaTtmimpH nt hnprimat t mtum </K Woodcut of "ciconia" (a measuring tool) and plumb line illustrating Columella. and the man who had been instrumental in helping Aldus obtain the manuscript for the 1508 printing of Pliny. introducing the work and extolling the virtues of the rustic life. who had given Aldus a fifteen-year privilege. Grasse. De re rustica was written between A. he was pardoned by Caesar.l). c eorpj A Uxdndritu tmrrdtiontt frifa(mm iifanumrfu* in hit * librif Cdtonii: Vdrrom: ColumtUdi. UCLA. IVNII MODERATi C O I. Also included L. This edition lIBRl D E RE RV5TICA includes a dedication by Giocondo to Pope Leo X. any type he had invented or might invent. 60 . he wrote from the standpoint of an References: Brunet. who put Sardinia. no.eom ( decrtrv.n. Rerum rusticarum libri tres is The 1514 Aldine edition was edited by Giovanni one of only two to survive. TERENTIZ VARRONI5 2* IB. His fourth-century work consists of fourteen him in charge of the planned public library at Rome. being the possessor of farming land in Italy and Roman civil war. 2. liufdmdcdrboribits hber fefdrdtut db dlijt. 1533 ed.

VME.I DE RI RVJIICA. Rerum rusticarum Binding description: Brown sprinkled calf. and it seemed that he would obstruct Cr her if. C A T O N I S IB. M. maw Woodcut of sickle illustrating Columella. back.<[u<t in hit librlffatu iign* leovntur.( the type closer and adding one line to each page (the Greek and Latin Classics 59 . 259 = 295).pmlq dc umbrif? outstanding writer. 206 = 204). Gold-tooled orna- rustica ments on front. In the text of the ancient authors.LXAJS J. on Columella. but the press improved the book by the addi- 22 cm. (woodcuts). Leaf 1 17 (d'. present edition because Fortunatus "hardly seemed VALLADll LIB. 205 ( = 213). in addition to the four X. Title gold-tooled onto spine. XII If* worthy to be added as an interpreter of such an De duebuf dltrum gneribui-. with single front-beaded faded Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella.XXXIII. 1514 ed. M. De re gold tooling on front and back covers. in 1533 Libri de re rustica. De re red/yellow/green worked endbands. snarrdtionet frifartm uecumfer eriintmlittrtrm difrfl<t. Comparison of the 1533 edition with the 1514 Colophon: Venetiis in aedibus haeredum Aldi. 247 = 248). De agri cultura Marcus Terentius Varro. the 204 = 202). Errors in foliation: 140 (=130). the text taken from the 1521 Giunti edition (Florence). ISRENI1I VARROWU LIB. We wish to publish nothing index omnium fir? rcrnm. mense Decembri M. (4to).2 Q Libri de re rustica Signatures: *4 A-E 8 F 10 a-z 8 A-O 8 . the commentary of Fortunatus COX. The 1533 edition lacks the privilege statement (the fifteen years having Physical description: [54]. of leaf [5]). The 1533 Libri de re rustica is essentially a reprint of the X 1514 Aldine edition (no. Gilded edges.1B. and turn-ins. TI authors here published. leaf 119). yttedfudvdlUdiwm.D. et Andreae edition is of interest as an example of the reprint prac- soceri. spine. ZXBR. I V N I I MODKRA. rather than help your study. 255 ( ( ( 1533 press workers got more text to the page by setting (=245). XII. XXX III. index gr/tatrim diChvimm. Marcus Porcius Cato. A note in the 1533 Aldine edition some- what glibly explains that this has been omitted from the Eiufdtm dc arboribus Ubtr fifdutus ab aliji. 295. 4 i. Simple Rutillius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius. 111. 203 = 211). from our firm for you except that which bears fruit and is not of minimal use" (v. I.*fulus d Srtlprii c adttr t Kcflrtm cvw f Starts. V. sewn on single libri tres raised cords. passed). The Giunti edition included. [ 1533] tice of the Aldine publishing house. ( tion of an index. board edges. 29) with some corrections to M. [1] leaves: ill. Paste-decorated and rustica printed endpapers and pastedowns.

though he warmly acknowl- SIGNATURES: ** (*8 blank. REFERENCES: Adams. 9. the 1533 has 40). missing) a-q* (q7-8 blank except edges the efforts of Navagero. 3:152. (8vo). dark green endbands. even if they began in mid-sentence. 16 cm. reproduce. no. Aldus. The danger of this method of operation is shown in this reprint. 6:331. the work of its editor. Title blind-tooled show that the same blocks were used for the later onto spine. edition as had been used in 1514 (though the printed captions have been reset): evidently the blocks had been This is the second Aldine edition of Lucretius. the text is reset letter for letter in exactly the same time —was superior to that of Girolamo Avanzi. no. own ill health. Thus 60 In Aedibus Aldi . Although the second edition was not based on intriguing. because there is much PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: |8|. American STC Italian. is Aldus's cords. Andrea preface from the 1514 edition (no other prefatory matter Navagero —Aldus's principal Latin editor for the period is reprinted). for the pages have been printed out of order. Brunei. that the compositor did not need the entire text at the same time in order to set up the new pages: instead. 228. * * * j 1 Lucretius. however. Marbled month of publication of this. it seems. Raised cords Comparison of the woodcuts illustrating Columella blind-decorated with tie-up cords. 295 in the 1533. with single front-beaded. Perhaps most edition. is the reprint of the second Aldus new manuscript evidence. The main problem.1514 edition has 39 lines per page. Aldus notes that although mense lanuario M. he could be given individual pages from the original to LVCRETIVS. [ 1315] much of the philosophy expounded by Lucretius is repugnant to a believing Christian. who worked quickly in tor device on q8. 8:532. presumably differing both in editor and format from the 1500 quarto with an eye to an eventual reprint. sewn on double raised festinationem"). 5:246. Simple blind tooling on front and back covers. Grasse. 125. dedicated to his former patron and COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. Renouard. missing). tooling with ornaments on front and back. 109. Ring and pin This represents a modest saving in paper: there are 308 clasps. et Andreae soceri pupil Alberto Pio of Carpi.XV. who position on the page as the earlier edition. Blind pages of text in the 1514 edition. now sixty-five. spite of other obligations and the "importunate haste of the pressmen" ("importunam impressorum nostrorum Binding description: Tan goatskin. would die within a Green/white braided tackets at the head and tail. Here no attempt is made to compress the 1512-15 and one of the ablest editors of Latin of his type. [2] leaves + blank leaves of value in his work he should therefore be read anyway. He mentions that this edition has come out more slowly than he would have wished. De rerum re natura In the preface. This meant edited the first edition. his last production. UCLA. no doubt causing considerable confusion to the reader.D. S-812. The second page of the preface has been printed as the fourth page in the 1533 edition. Panzer. interleaved between printed leaves. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. 1680. edges. stored at the shop for nearly twenty years.

3:285. Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine. 204-5.XV. Fletcher. A. poignant: "But.his complaint concluding the preface becomes the more Physical description: [16]. mense Renaissance Lactantius became a popular author and was Aprili. Greek and Latin Classics 61 . [4]. sewn on single raised simply wore himself out. one green STC Italian. 1 12. Selections 32 Tertullian. This edition of two of the major early Latin Christian writers was the first book produced by the Aldine Press after the death of its founder. 16 cm. Renouard. Grasse. is a reply to attacks on Christianity by early philosophers. Only his Christian works survive. no. the main work here published. 48 leaves. 240-ca. although he also wrote on other subjects. Aldus Manutius. I have been rather harshly afflicted for some months now." From all accounts. marker. if it weren't for the bad health with which (8vo). The Divinae institu- tiones. Liber i Zfitvme in libra {hot liber acephdlot. 320) suffered under the reign of Domitian for his Christian beliefs.D. 4:287. 32) states. 348. 74. 3:1218. Brunet. Red edges. et Andreae soceri. fhcenix - carmendeDominiaiJLeJHrreiHont. * * * TERT VLLIANY5 Lactantius. text of Lacantius and that of Tertullian] This would have appealed to a publisher like Aldus. Aldus Binding description: Brown calfskin. 11. Liber I De ofifiao D«. testify to all of our diligence. Though the Christian apologist Lactantius (ca. quite a bit would have been added which would Signatures: 2a-2b« a-z 8 A-Y« [*] 4 2A-2F 8 . Green silk page 1515 edition of Lactantius (NO. American STC Italian. UCLA. Apologeticum L*Ccelii Ld&intii Timti^diumd- THmtnjhtutionum Libri/epttm* De vrx D«. L-1651. During the Colophon: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. 123-24. BM tooled onto two labels (one brown leather. paper) on spine. Simple gold tooling on front and back covers. [1515] [identical colophons at end of the known as "the Christian Cicero" for his fine Latin style. he eventually became the tutor to Constantine's son Crispus. and in this edition are collected most of his extant works. Title gold- References: Adams. 397. 163. with cloth green/white endbands. as the eulogy printed in the cords. M.D. [12]. Lowry. and would have made [the text] of Lucretius itself fuller.

Tertullian (ca. a.d. 160-ca. 240) was one of the In addition to this, the bitterness of sorrow grows

earliest of Latin Christian writers whose writings daily the more serious because he so lived with all

survive. A native of Carthage trained in the law, he, learned men that since he never disparaged anyone, nor

too, engaged in apologetic writing, including the did he oppose praise of them, he always embraced and

Apologeticum, in defense of Christianity against cherished all with a remarkable devotion. Thus there is

charges of atheism and magic, among other things. practically no one in all of Europe with even a modicum
Although the two texts have separate pagination, of education who has not been touched by some match-

title pages, and prefaces, both were edited by Giovanni less benefit from Manutius. So I rightly grieve for him
Battista Egnazio, were issued together, and are always with those others, and believe it ought to be mourned
found together today. Their subject matter naturally the more by all that such a man has died, the equal of

links them intimately and, as Rcnouard puts it, "they whose industry neither our own nor an earlier age has

cannot be separated without making them into two had. If we remember that even great cities have

imperfect fragments" (Renouard, 70). The two were mourned the passing of mediocre men, or even the
published together again in identical format in the death of birds, as when with solemn rites the Roman
1535 Aldinc reprint, which the BYU library also holds. people celebrated the funeral of a raven (corai), 14 who
This edition is particularly important to the history of then will not grieve deeply when he thinks of this man,

printing because its preface contains the first public lost, dead, who almost single-handedly resurrected and

announcement of the death of Aldus which had restored lost and unhoped-for literary works?

occurred on 6 February 1515. The eulogy found in Praise for this restored literature ought to be the

Egnazio's preface shows the warmth which those who more appreciated since a loss of letters would have been
had worked for Aldus felt toward him, his reputation as greater than a diminution of political power or borders.

a man of letters, and something of the master's working For once the former are lost, not only will they not

style, which may have contributed to his death. We revive or flourish anywhere in the world, but they so

reproduce the entire preface below. 13 completely disappear that scarcely even a trace of them
survive. As for political power, important as it is, when
Giovanni Battista Egnazio, the Venetian, to the most it perishes among one people or race it the more gladly

illustrious and worthy Bishop Antonio Trivulzio, most and brilliantly arises somewhere else, so that the majesty

noble ambassador of the most Christian King of the and splendor of this power and the magnitude of its

French to the Venetian Senate: wealth, by its loss from a single people or nation, is

We have recently received a grave wound, most often transferred, greater and more brilliant, to another.

worthy Bishop, and in the opinion of all, a very great But since not even to Aldus was perpetual enjoy-
misfortune in the death of Aldus Manutius. Nor indeed ment of life promised, nor should we hope this for any

does this affect me alone, who am deprived of a most man, we have put an end to our mourning, lest we seem
pleasant companion and a man most valued in business to mourn more for our own inconvenience and loss.

dealings, but it also affects all educated men and For he lived as long as he was permitted, and he lived
students of the liberal arts. We cannot but be deeply with the highest reputation among all men for honesty

moved again and again, all of us, by the death of so and scholarship. Nor is there any people so barbarous,

singular and outstanding a man. This sorrow of ours is so remote, in all of Europe who has not heard of the

increased by the fact that in such a dearth of learned name of Aldus. Indeed, it is known that many important
men and of good books — how great a dearth is now men came to Venice just to greet and see this man, and
clear — a man both outstandingly learned and one who also to shower him with gifts. Such an admirable city

rose up to benefit literature at his own expense and did not itself draw these men to admire it, but the fame
labor has been taken away at a wholly unseasonable of one man led them here, a man who rallied men to

time, so that he has left behind a mournful longing in the best of his ability so that he might be able to pursue

.ill tor Ins erudition and singular industry. his program of restoring the Latin and Greek language.

62 In Aedibus Altli

Because he threw himself entirely into the contempla- Lactantius, not only does it seem to me not to be

tion of this day and night, he was afflicted with a serious, worthy of this man for its eloquence, but it should not

long-lasting illness which he contracted from too much even be compared with the Phoenix, which he wrote,

work, too many late nights; and so he died, unseasonably since in addition to other problems it limps along

perhaps for himself, and most certainly for us, nor would metrically. We have not printed those notes to
an earlier time have been more fit, since long experience Lactantius by some unknown friar, since many of them
had made him most skilled, and he had prepared many are blameworthy for their ignorance and also because

projects which, had he been able to perfect and complete we wish each to make his own judgment, especially

them, you would not ask for much closer to perfection. since [Lactantius] lived in those times in which many
Indeed, he was other things for other men. He things had not yet been condemned by common
entrusted to me the editing of the seven books of the consent. Which things, in any case, an intelligent man
Divinae institutiones of Coelius Lactantius Firmianus, and would neither have obstinately asserted, and, once
the [other] remaining works of that most learned of admonished, would easily have corrected. Farewell.

Christians, so that he himself meanwhile might spend
his time either more profitably in emending other When Aldus died the great contemporaries of his age

authors, or in improving his health. We prefer to leave to combined to honor him. Erasmus, Reuchlin, and
the judgment of others how hard I have worked, how Musurus proclaimed that Aldus had done more for the
much diligence and erudition I have brought to this spread of learning and the development of literature than

edition. I can, however, affirm this fact: if this edition is all the scholars of his day. Fellow printers —colleagues
more correct than other editions of Lactantius which and competitors alike —acknowledged his supremacy as

have been published to this day, Aldus himself easily the master printer. "As a pioneer, he established so high a

deserves the credit before all others. And these, indeed, standard that no one has surpassed his work, even with

ought to be named to you, either because you hold the the aid of modern mechanical improvements —and it is a

first place in dignity among the nobles of our religion, or question whether any printer has yet equaled the quality
because you were born to a highly distinguished family and taste shown in the Aldine masterpieces" (Orcutt,

in the Italian lands, or because you shine as the legate of 72). Raphael Regio, then humanities professor at Venice,

the most powerful and most Christian King to the delivered the funeral oration over the body of Aldus as it

Venetian Senate, in the amazing favor and prudent lay in state in the old Church of St. Paternian. "The
opinion of the city, or, finally, because in counsel, casket rested on a catafalque banked high with choice
genius, authority, and liberality you have almost no peer. editions of the volumes he had created. These tangible
We desire the reader to note that the epitome, which evidences of the devotion of a lifetime form the ever-
we have taken care to add from the witness of Jerome, living monument to the continuing benefaction of his

not only lacks the beginning which that most learned greatness" (Orcutt, 73).

and holy man joined to it, but it is just a fragment. This

is because I have made the effort to rescue at least an References: Adams, L-16; American STC Italian, 2:213; BM
oarlock, such as it is, from such a shipwreck. As for the STC Italian, 366; Brunet, 3:736; Grasse, 4:66; Panzer,

Carmen de resurrectione, which I found ascribed to 8:424, no. 723; Renouard, 70, no. 2; UCLA, 1 14.

Greek and Latin Classics 63

as Signatures: a-m 8 (ml unsigned) n-p 8 . the publisher who had received a humanist educa. specialist studying those writers. Their cords. other printed editions. as in the case of Sannazaro. including the Dialoghi d'amore (NO. It was of even greater importance as a disseminator of * # * humanism from Italy to northern and eastern Europe. Aldi Romani. Not all the works considered already "classic" work of Dante. work which was considered frivolous by works which show the general climate of European some. Petrarch. Physical description: [8]. 31 cm. as often as not. and Boccaccio. In calumniatorem Platonis libri described here have been selected in an attempt to quatuor reveal this aspect of the efforts of the Manutius family. as well as the means by which the work of northern humanists could be introduced into Italy. editions. simply on translations. along with much more popular fare. and here are important in and of themselves. Iulio mense. At other times. topical interest and. commentaries. nevertheless. scholars approached them. the importance of the Aldine their influence upon that climate. Simple gold tooling on stances by which each text came to their attention. The books 2 2 Bessarion. — sometimes to be tion and was the admirer and friend of eagerly welcomed. such as the first edition of Castiglione's 77 libro del cortegiano (NO. Humanist Texts 65 . This output came nowhere near the number Indeed. although BYU has copies tises. (fol. taken up the publication of humanist authors right Outright expropriation of an earlier edition was also a from the beginning of his career. or some- hoth scholars and poets — should have times to be ignored. finally. Petrarch. On front and back covers. and included are M. and much more obscure titles. Marbled endpapers reasons for publication were as varied as the circum. Erasmus. some books by very famous figures published of ancient texts published. 1 12 leaves. the variety of by the Manutii are of very little interest to the modern humanist works put forth by the Aldine Press is consid. as editions. Boccaccio.). as well as more polemical and oratorical works of of Aldus's editions of Dante. Simple blind tooling on board edges. sewn on single raised consciously to strive for such eclecticism. northern and eastern European humanists are represented. Finally. — HUMANIST TEXTS INTRODUCTION occasion. such as Leone Hebreo's but by humanists of earlier generations. with blue/white cloth endbands. The aim is rather to choose vernacular. carefully t is no surprise that Aldus Manutius entreated Aldus to publish his translation of two himself a scholar of Latin and Greek. Thus. tragedies of Euripides. and pastedowns. In their variety these publications reflect. It is doubtful whether Aldus and his heirs set out Binding description: Brown calfskin.DIII. works of considerable erudition are considered COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedib. for example. Thus. well as a wide variety of Italian authors. Press as a gathering place for humanists of all nations. during his tour of Italy in 1508. enjoyed a particular vogue. It includes strictly scholarly work such as on faulty manuscripts or. approached the humanist or poet. He and his successors well-established custom at the Aldine Press and seems produced a fairly steady stream of works not only by to have been especially true in the case of works which contemporaries such as Pietro Bembo and Erasmus. as in the case of Pontano. poetry and prose in the they are not included here. Blue speckled edges. espe. 39). since they were based erable. humanism during the lifetimes of these publishers and cially in the early years. [1503] both extremely famous and valuable editions. 41). and erudite trea.

from an early age. he also endeavored to disseminate the Greek tradition by promoting the study of Greek by Westerners in Western universities and by welcoming Italian scholars into his own circle. although clearly a influential humanist. Throughout his (f/Eiufdem correcWo librorum Platonis dc Iegibus CeorgioTrapezuntio interpretcubi pafsim uetba grxca ipfius Platonis rcatanrur & emenda residence in the West. 367-74). For example..ac doftiss. good customs. In 1463 he narrantur. Bessarion was patron and protector of Poftremo Trapezuntii ttaJacio fubiungitun quod eft perq utile iis : qui g rxds literis iftituuntunatqi ex grids bonis. rhetoric. He was born in Trebizond but Metaphysics into Latin. he became moderate and eclectic in both philos- Orthodox and the Roman Catholic churches. in quo pri. which prompted Bessarion to write In calumniatorem tion in grammar. In 1468.& Patriarch* Conftatinopolitani In ca lumnutorc Platonis libri quituonopuj uadum. but as an ophy and theology. patron of humanists.ac dodu. Bessarion assem- bled a library of extremely high quality.cj difciplinis initcuendos breuiten daic'qj .qui fingulij Iibris pettiaftanrar. and he continued by every possible means 0*«vjO to add to his remarkable collection of manuscripts. and Platonist.. Bessarion felt that one of his foremost duties was (T/Eiufdemdenatura&arre aduerfus eundem Txapezuntiii ttadativad- modumcj acutus. participating in a number exile. of the chief advocates of a crusade to win back the city. and Christianity Florence (1438-39).& pladdo ftilo many diplomatic missions for the papacy. one black) on spine. I le attended the Council of Ferrara and as the enemy of virtue. The "calumniator" of the title was another Greek man he also entered public life. as well as a patron of scholars. the many Greek scholars who sought refuge in Italy. Title eastern and western churches.bona latina facere nolut. Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine and endcaps. Although he began his philosophical career as a Bessarion of Trebizond (1403-1472) enjoyed a pupil of the eccentric pantheist Georgius Gemistus remarkable career. and philosophy. he had been an avid book collector.& cum fuis accentibus : nam in libris Romi olim imprefcis defimt. Bessarion thereupon took up residence in Italy but did not by any means forsake his important position in the East. where he drew attention as one of itself. Deindea Beflarionefxpe argumento prxmiflb in larinum uertuntur. not only as a cleric in both the Eastern Plethon. Constantinople. he donated this outstanding collection of 752 manuscripts (including 482 Greek items) to the city of Venice.& digna ledu: quz a Plarone fcripta funt ad homines tam moribus. became patriarch of Constantinople. who in a previous of diplomatic missions on behalf of the emperor John book had attacked not only Platonism but Plato himself VIII Palaeologus. where they became the foundation of the Biblioteca Marciana (Vast. the preservation of an intellectual and cultural heritage (TJTndex corum omnium. Bessarion became one QVAE HOC IN VOLVMINl TR. four years before his death. the scholar George of Trebizond. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453. he took the time to translate Aristotle's Neoplatonic philosopher. George also sought to show Aristotle's superiority the principal Creek spokesmen in favor of unifying the based on that philosopher's supposed accordance with 66 In Aedibus Aldi . rewarded him with the cardinalate in 1439. Bessarion was a scholar himself.ACTANTVR. But perhaps his most important contribution lay in the fact that. It was precisely this moderation at an early age was sent to Constantinople for an educa. his stated goal being to preserve the Byzantine heritage by collecting the best works of the Greeks. Being knowledgeable as well as enthusiastic. a (T"B eflarionis C ardinalis N iceni. but especially after the fall of ta. which he believed would perish under the rule of the Turks. In addition to sponsoring Greek intellectuals. Indeed. goal he actively pursued while simultaneously filling darifcima quxq. As a young Platonis. Pope Eugenius IV duly gold-tooled onto two labels (one red.

lacking both a proper place to to reconcile Plato to Christianity. must congratulate ourselves to the highest degree" (quoted in Vast. At the age of ten he was sent to live with Humanist Texts 61 . 1:353. but to reconcile Plato house this splendid collection and any real appreciation with Aristotle and find the appropriate place for both of of its true value. no. Panzer. no. Remnants of leather straps on manuscript copies of In cahimniatorem Platonis now in the back foredge. Binding description: Brown half pigskin over wooden Aldus gives us no clue. with the preface). with single front- manuscript of Bessarion came from. 5 the following year under the patronage of the Medici. 164-66). Omnia opera and all of us. The book was first printed in Rome by the German printers Sweynheym and Pannartz in 1468. The result was a great improvement in legibility. as to where this boards. sewn on double pigskin thongs. his family. the differences in the Latin texts of the two editions are very minor. whose Florentine Academy was founded Grasse. BM STC Italian. the soul of Plato can rejoice. "Plato predicted to King Dionysius that after long centuries there would come a * * * time when. American STC Italian. 8:363. 197. until nearly a century after Bessarion's death. not only the government of Venice. 32). painted in red entirely different manuscript family (Lowry. wrote of Bessarion's book. a nickname derived from the Latin name of advantage of it in any way. and the Greek was corrected.IID. simply left it boxed up and inaccessible them in Christian philosophy (Vast. Indeed. Bessarion's book became highly influential in the spread of a christianized Neoplatonism in fifteenth- OMNIA OPERA ANGELI Poliriani. has shown that it could not have been any of the four Clasps on front foredge. It provided for Aldus Manutius two qusedam. 1:214 Neoplatonists of Italy welcomed it with enthusiasm.). Ic&udigna. the mysteries of theology would be clarified by a profound discussion.ctalia century Italy. and in many cases Q_ R l() S 8 T 10 v 6 X-Y 10 Z 8 & 10 2a 10 iteru[m] aa 8 separating or uniting words that had either become iteru[m] bb 8 2b-2d 8 (2d2 signed 2c2) 2e-2h 8 2i 6 2k 10 . (fol. Angelo Ambrogini (1454-1494) is better known as erable circle of scholarly friends were ever able to take Poliziano. bequest was nearby during all of Aldus's publishing career. 2 A Angelo Poliziano. .Catholic doctrine. 1:142-43. however. 40. the Aldine Greek shows considerable Signatures: a-p 8 q-r 10 s-t 8 A-I 8 K 4 (K4 blank) L-P 8 changes. 229-30. While Physical description: [452] leaves. however. Bessarion sought. onto a white painted background on spine section above Lowry [1974]. Blind-tooled with ornaments on all areas of Biblioteca Marciana and in fact seems to come from an the pigskin. Modern research bead laced-in endbands. B-833. Those times have arrived . just as fire purifies gold. Brunei. it seems that neither Aldus nor any of his consid. 361). UCLA. The fledging References: Adams. . Aldus claims in his preface to the work to have used a manuscript in Bessarion's own hand which enabled "us to correct Colophon: Venetiis In aedibus Aldi Romani. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. adding accents. 58. punctuation. This was due to the fact that his native city. conflated or split in Sweynheym's text (Maloy. no. Title calligraphed on foredge. Bietenholz." An Iulio M. [1498] "argument" to Book III was added (printed. 79. 327-361). mense much which was wrong in the Roman edition.quorum nominainfc/ opportunities: to publish a text still highly regarded in qucnti indice uidcrc licco his own generation. although Bessarion's the first raised sewing station. 1:827 Marsilio Ficino. in his reply. 90. and in doing so to demonstrate his scholarship in editing and improving upon the Sweynheym and Pannartz edition of 1468. Renouard. 33 cm.

After Poliziano's death. a play produced at Mantua Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola. a confirmed anti-Ciceronian. recondite style. it is to 1494. architecture. Poliziano did return to involved in publishing his hero's works only by acci- Florence and to Lorenzo's favor. In this he was. who also published his collected vernacular works in ments remained extremely varied. started a project to organize Poliziano's both Renaissance drama and the vogue for pastoral papers to the end of publishing an edition of the (Krailshcimer. He continued translating. Clarice. he had considered the father of textual criticism. Benedetti was again to be the after his return to Florence took on more and more of a publisher. the Manual of Epictetus. Piero and concentrating on philosophical texts: his translation of Giovanni (the future Pope Leo X). Poliziano not only composed would later adopt as a printer's device. but he died unexpectedly in 1497." traditionally repre- These interests were accompanied by a remarkable sented by the dolphin-and-anchor emblem which he ability to handle Greek. politics. by the age of sixteen. Aldus cites in his preface the jurisprudence. but was the first humanist to appre- vendetta. which anticipates the rich developments in of Pietro Ricci. Aldus became 1478. a learned commentary from his pen to benefit posterity. Greek proverb "make haste slowly. who in 1485 wrote admiringly to Poliziano his teaching and persuaded Lorenzo to dismiss him in to offer friendship and service. in both Latin and Italian. for example. Poliziano continued such scholarly work as standard for many years (Krailsheimer. In the and whose range of interests included history. in which members of the imitation of Cicero in favor of a Latin style that took Pazzi and Riario families plotted to assassinate Lorenzo what was best from all classical writers. the humanist Poliziano that we owe Orfeo. 118). he produced much poetry. 53-54. however. Poliziano. turned his attention largely to philosophy and medicine Aldus makes no secret of his admiration for Poliziano until his premature death in 1494. He studied with the Greek. M In Aedibus AUH . Other wrote in an erudite. His own translating four more books of The Iliad but also poetical output reflected his scholarly eclecticism. Poliziano was something of a celebrity in his day. talented scholar whose breadth of reading was very great The work was again edited by Alessandro Sarti. On the whole. In his preface. For one thing. For example. him during his youth.relatives in Florence after the murder of his father in a epigrams in Greek. and philological and philosophical character. remained the tion. While in this posi. He taught the through Pico's agency the entire project was turned classical poets and rhetoricians until 1490 but then over to Aldus (Lowry. There his extraordinary talent as a linguist and ciate the differences between various dialects of ancient scholar became evident quite soon. His interests and accomplish. Still. After two years of travel. and even cooking. especially household in 1473 as tutor to Lorenzo's sons. and laments the untimely death that prevented more 1'oliziano was the outstanding humanist of his day. displaying his own endeavors included a history and commentary upon the considerable reading. although he never dent. for he was the proven his ability at Greek by translating the second first to consider carefully the relationship between book of The Iliad into Latin. who disapproved of Manutius. He had dedi. A number of Poliziano's individual works had resumed his position in the Medici household nor already been edited by the scholar Alessandro Sarti and enjoyed anything like the intimate favor extended to published in Bologna in the 1490's by Platon Benedetti. 26). matter of Aldine lore. His influence on the subsequent course of Greek scholar Johannes Argyropoulos (and later with humanism was considerable. botany. and consciously eschewed the famous Pazzi conspiracy. 267). He brought all these talents Marsilio Ficino and Cristoforo Landino. with the assistance in 1480. he may be Demetrius Chalcondyles). murdering the latter. de' Medici and his brother Giovanni and did succeed in like Erasmus. to bear on thorny textual and interpretive questions in cated his translation of Homer to Lorenzo de' Medici texts like his Miscellanea (1489) and his commentary on and soon found sufficient favor with him to enter his the Pandects. Poliziano also regularly manuscripts and to stress the need to reconstruct some- attended the lectures of Italian humanists such as thing like the original text. had in some fashion incurred the Among those who idolized him was the young Aldus dislike of Lorenzo's wife. Poliziano's career collected works.

careers of younger poets such as Jacopo Sannazaro. no. Opera of the Renaissance Latin poets. became the subject of much of Pontano's poetry. De pactiana coniuratione yraru<i. Title blind-tooled onto back cover him as leader of the academy. P-886. who. Brown tailband around a wooden core. 17 cm. Panzer. BM. Some years later he married endpapers. 3:439. The status of Poliziano as a scholar of note may be observed in BYU's copy by the fact that some of the more significant treatises in the volume have marginal notes written in five different hands. Brunei. also known as Panormita. Renouard. 24. DBI. along with their children. Pontano succeeded blind tooling on spine. ueteorormt liber mus- because he feared Rome's disapproval. it is not. Nonetheless the omission was not Qjt* uero m tvto of ere habednturm India. humanist activities. Although this book is entitled Omnia opera. 2:691-702. * # # Giovanni Pontano (1429-1503). academy founded in Naples by Antonio Beccadelli (1394-1471). References: Bietenholz.D. where he fostered the and gold-tooled onto spine. UCLA.. Plain Charles of Navarre. 2379. 5:559. In 1456. Goff. band. who became the most important humanist of fifteenth-century Naples and who remains today one of the most highly admired 2 C Giovanni Gioviano Pontano.fiuedeStellif libri qtlmcp' commentarium Renouard speculates . complete. [1505] chancery. look bad. VeHortishefterickm libri duo- ately omitted it Lepidina Jiue fofkralet f>omf><e since the history implicated Pope Sixtus IV in the Jef>tem-ItemM. no. Prominently absent is Poliziano's history of the Pazzi conspiracy. In Gold tooling with ornamentation on board edges. raised cords. (8vo). was born at Cerreto and studied in Perugia before attaching himself to the court Colophon: Venetiis In aedibus Aldi Ro. 4. 17. l'ONTANI OPERA- in fact. upon the death of Beccadelli. including the study of Greek with George of Trebizond and admission to the humanist Signatures: a-H8 2g 10 . Grasse. 5:389.elifeus-M<eon Aeon- conspiracy. Blind tooling on front and back covers. one of the more Binding description: Brown goatskin. Humanist Texts 69 . 23. 3:106-8. gauffered edges.V. He pursued a lengthy career in the service of the Aragonese kings of Naples while engaging in Physical description: [484] p. Pontano was made tutor to the king's nephew. Simple 1471. This explanation seems doubtful given the KendeatfylUborwm libri duo- fact that the Holy See was occupied at the time of the lutmlorum liber wnm- book's publication by the Borgia Pope Alexander VI. sewn on double important humanist poets of the early fifteenth century. BM STC Italian. Henia duodecim- who probably would not have been overly concerned tpgrdtnmata. 4:780. that Aldus deliber. with single front-beaded blue/brown head. Gilt and Adriana Sassone. the della Rovere. Calligraphed waste vellum pastedowns. duodecim* about any book that made the family of Sixtus. mense augusto of King Alfonso I of Naples with a position in the M. made good until the 1553 edition of Poliziano's <pi m dice ejt licet ? uidert- complete works at Basel.

532. volume.XIX.NNIJ IOVIANI FONTANI. Bietenholz. 67-87. Opera becoming the king's secretary in I486 and also serving omnia soluta oratione composita as counselor and diplomat. marker. for upon the return of the house of Aragon to power IOA. 1: Vellum. M. and pastedowns. single front-beaded green laced-in endbands. sewn on recessed published by Aldus in 1505 was not joined by a second. 2. is COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. DE SERMONE LibriSi*. perhaps most remarkably of all. Brunei. QVOD FERDINANDVS SENIOR weather. Pontano greeted them with great enthusiasm. ANTONIVJ Dialogtt. or poems on agricultural subjects. although some. * * * The Aldine Press published three volumes of Pontano's prose works in 1518-19. 2 and 3: Vellum. Vols. fiKl 5tX- Aldus Manutius dedicated to Pontano an edition of the Thebaic! by the Roman poet Statius. References: American STC Italian.NHE ANDEGANJENIlVM much lyric poetry devoted to his love for his wife and DVC £ GES5IT. history. offering in it to publish anything Pontano chose to send him.M. Nonetheless. Completion of the edition was held up by Pontano's death and by the fact that some Title page to vol. This cost him his career. later that year the poet was deprived of public office and spent the remaining years of his life in retirement. 21 cm. 75. Plain endpapers much more derivative. no. A. Aldus's 1505 text. mense lunio . 49. ethical treatises. 4:807. cords.D.Meanwhile. MM STC Italian. UE ASPIRATIONE Zibridko.M. Green page 5:406: Panzer.] [1518-19] the Aldine Press was haphazard. CHAK O N Dialogtt. Brown sprinkled edges.D. Title gold-tooled onto brown leather label on spine. They had to compete with a collected works published in Naples between Physical description: 3 v. 10 lii Aedibus Aldi . Pontano's prose works included such subjects as the treatises on the virtues of obedience. the one shown here is the middle volume. such as Pietro Bembo. when the French briefly conquered Naples. Plain endpapers and pastedowns.XVIII [mense Aprili . no. 2 ( Giovanni Gioviano Pontano. The first volume of Pontano's poetry Binding DESCRIPTION: Vol. 8:376. (4to). Pontano was well regarded by his contemporaries. NEAPOLITANVS REX CVM I O- cism. representing as it does the author's final version of the poems included in it. In 1502. regarded his work ACI1 V 5 Dudotaa. 308. 2:629. 1505 and 1512 and edited by Pontano's friend Pietro Summonte. Title gold-tooled onto brown leather label on spine. The subsequent publication of Pontano's works by mense Septemb. he continued his career in the civil service. with 3:113-14. 221-22). Perosa and Sparrow.. Red sprinkled Renouard. however. didactic poetry on the constellations and the BELLI. Grasse. material went astray between Naples and Venice. LI- children —unusual subject matter for his time.D. until 1518. sewn on recessed cords. with gray rolled cloth endbands. edges. His output includes A EGIDIVJ both Latin poetry and prose and covers a wide range of AH NVS Dialogic. satiric dialogues. literary criti.XIX. and finally. 142). as licentious (Krailsheimer. ct Andreae soceri important in the Pontano corpus (Lowry. subject matter: georgics. 4. Pontano responded promptly by sending copies of his three major poetic works to Aldus. In 1495. UCLA.

he provided his manuscript. he is also known by the Latin name Actius Syncerus. preserves Charon intact. who published a revised and corrected version in 1504. sewn on single raised cords. being the court poet of King Ferdinand I of Naples and a member of Pontano's ARCADIA humanist academy from the 1480s on. Vellum tips. BYU's copy. sides. 16 cm. As with Pontano. after Pontano's death. and splendor written in 1490-93. 4:808. 156. Aldus Manutius approached Sannazaro with a request to publish his work in the dedication of a work by Giorgio Interiano. et Andrea socero. Yellow edges. He spent most of his life in Naples. as well as De COLOPHON: Impresso in Vinegia nelle case delli heredi d'Aldo sermone. He led the life of a courtier. with rolled leather Renouard. born to a prominent 2 H Jacopo Sannazaro. and several dialogues. to Pietro Summonte of Naples.D. 147. 5:406. Arcadia Neapolitan family. Humanist Texts 71 . Brunet. [1] leaves. contains anti-clerical material [1534] sufficiently virulent that it is often mutilated or torn outright from the volume. For biographical information on Pontano. The request was spurred probably not only by Sannazaro's reputa- tion — for he dominated the cultural scene of southern Italy as Pietro Bembo later came to dominate the north — but by the commercial success of a pirated edition of Sannazaro's Arcadia which was published at Venice by Bernardino da Vercelli in that same year. paper label on spine. 87 nos.XXXIIII. 8:455. Sannazaro assumed the leadership of the academy. was a poet whose work both in Latin and Italian was extremely fashionable in its own time. which Aldus published in 1502. 37. see NO. References: American STC Italian. nell' anno M. The text of this pirated edition is notoriously incorrect. endbands. Title gold-tooled * * * onto yellow leather label on spine. Rather. D. reprinted in 1534. nonetheless it enjoyed an immediate and enduring popularity. 161. The Aldine edition of 1514. Signatures: A-L 8 M 4 (-M4) (final leaf blank). 82. Aldus has been accused of treating Sannazaro with a high hand. leaving for only a few short years to follow his king into exile in 1501.liberality. 2:630. no. no. Aldus's request. a treatise on poetics. which Pontano DEL SANNAZARO. Jacopo Sannazaro (1457/8-1530). UCLA. Perrins. Charon. One Romano. Binding description: Brown sheepskin spine. (8vo). Physical description: 91. bestowed upon him. Panzer. Simple gold-tooling on spine. XXX III I. however. In 1503. which he in fact had finished as early as 1489. such dialogue. 223. with red paper Grasse. 3. Indeed. 973. 6-7. Sannazaro apparently did not respond to M. a friend of Sannazaro. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. was merely a reissue and simplifica- tion of Summonte's text.

XXXV. The Aldine Press first published 12 In Aedibus Aldi . Petrarch and in Latin has surpassed him. 606. for example (Lowry. with double front-beaded green/red/white endbands. Panzer. These works were ct Andrcac Asulani soceri. American STC Italian. Title gold-tooled onto spine and onto brown favorably compared to Petrarch by scholars other than label on spine. Redolent of a world of unchanging beauty and simplicity. no. 150). Grasse. 6:266. 3:120. 8:538. was the author of highly-regarded Latin poems which fall into three main categories: Colophon: Venetiis in aedibus haeredum Aldi Manutii. Still. 63 leaves. 229. Sannazaro's pastoral appealed deeply to his contemporaries —deeply enough that this work. 5. Sincere recounts his IACOBI SANNAZARII OPERA woes to a group of shepherds in an idyllic rustic land- scape.correcting the poet's orthography without permission. to the scholar. whose elegant and cultivated harmony provide OMNIA LATTNE SCRIPT A. 16 cm. appeared in a new edition virtually every other year throughout the remainder of the century. It tells the story. Gold- Arcadia is the hest-known of Sannazaro's Italian tooled with ornaments on front and back cover. NON SINE PRIVILECIO. Gilt edges. the Aldine editions of his Latin poetry arc quite valuable I'kysk Al DESCRIPTION: 39. # * # 2 Q Jacopo Sannazaro. incorporate elements of the romance into the pastoral setting. been turn-ins. 236. Renouard. mense Septcmbri not collected and published until late in Sannazaro's life. its descendants include Jorge de Montemayor's Diana and Sir Philip Sidney's two versions of Arcadia. lyrics. remarking Binding description: Red goatskin. Aldus (Krailsheimer. however. in his preface Aldus professes to honor Sannazaro very highly. D. dramatic unity. 1736. 37). UCLA. Arcadia is. BM STC Italian. donnee par les Aide"). and religious poetry. 248). sewn on single raised fulsomely that in his Italian verses he has equaled cords. 1535] | and unlike the derivative edition of Arcadia (see NO. the real focus for a work which lacks resolution and NVPER EDIT A. eclogues. as these three works do. although Sannazaro's work does not. (8vo). spine. very alien to modern tastes. 3:193-94. in fact. in prose and verse. 5:129 ("medicare edition des poesies italicnnes de Sannazar M. Brunet. 1 12. in addition to his considerable reputation scripta as a poet of Italian.D. REFERENCES: Adams. Arcadia is the first nondramatic Renaissance pastoral. and works. Bietenholz. and in his style and spirit he has. less remarkable for its debts than for its influence.XXXV. S-320. of the frustrated love of one Sincero for a certain Phyllis. M. no. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. Signatures: a-e 8 A-H 8 . Opera omnia latine Sannazaro.

6:265. openly criti- cized Sannazaro's attempts to portray a Christian theme in pagan language. Panzer. 3. more material was endbands. one of the most distinguished members of a Jewish family noted not only for its wealth and polit- Colophon: In Vinegia. 1 14. Brunet. Of his Latin works the most famous is De partu virginis.e. Bietenholz. Renouard. similar productions. Ul NAc hundred lines long. see no. 1788. producing a work which is so STIANO. 8:543. 16 cm. The poem relates the birth of Christ in a Virgilian POI FATTO CHR1 epic style and form. Erasmus. and as the writer of numerous learned commentaries on Humanist Texts 73 . Perosa and Sparrow 142-58. XLI. 244. 37. The fashion for such writing in early sixteenth-century Italy is not shown only in Sannazaro's work: there existed other. Blue/yellow speckled edges. S-313. Green silk page marker. 261 [i. D. was such a careful reviser of his own work. humanism and be influenced by humanist ideas. For biographical information about Sannazaro. and spine. Title gold- Sannazaro's output was not great. the 1535 edition. [1] leaves. It was first published at Naples in TIONE HEBREO. but also for its scholarship. 3:193-94.. whose swift printing perhaps indicates the single raised cords. sewn on editions. Gold-tooled with achieves a real utility. * * * Judah Abrabanel (ca.Sannazaro's Latin works in 1527. American STC Italian. in the five subsequent BINDING DESCRIPTION: Brown sprinkled calfskin. ornaments on board edges. pastedowns. perhaps because he tooled onto spine. Isaac Abrabanel de' figliuoli di Aldo. although it is only fifteen PER LEONE MEDIC O. References: Adams. no. a work on the nativity which took Sannazaro upwards of twenty years DIALOGI AMORE. for example. He was (8vo). the eldest son of Isaac ben Judah Abrabanel Dialoghi d'amore (1437-1508). nell'anno M. 241]. ET DI* 1526. highly classicized and so incongruous in its imagery and style when set next to the biblical account that it made Sannazaro's contemporaries uneasy even while they admired his skill. no. Marbled endpapers and progressively added so that this one. Lisbon. [1541] was himself a broadly educated man and was among the first Jewish scholars to be familiar with Renaissance Physical description: [2]. BM STC Italian. M. Grasse. 605. with single front-beaded white/orange vogue for Sannazaro's poetry.D. 3:119. COMPOSTI DI to polish to his satisfaction. in touch with humanist circles in Lisbon even as he enjoyed other roles as state treasurer to King Alfonso V Signatures: A-2G 2H 8 4 . 1460-after 1523) was born in 2 Q Judah Abrabanel (Leone Hebreo). In casa ical acumen. a Virgilian treatment of the life of Christ written at the request of Pope Leo X. such as Marco Girolamo Vida's Christiad (1535).XXXXI. endcaps. 5:127.UCLA. Errors in foliation: numbers 135-54 omitted.

he disappears from supporting evidence whatsoever. Abrabanel repeats many of the commonplaces of Renaissance Neoplatonism. Philone and Sophia expound at length upon the nature of love. and. Spanish. throughout Europe. wisdom. profound philosophical traditions but also pursued a The very goal of love as a cosmic force is to unite all of career in medicine.the major and minor prophets and on philosophical Ficino and Pico della Mirandola. There are now three dialogues in first effort. probably in the late 1490s — the editions and printings by 1607. source and raison d'etre of the universe. viceroy. UCLA. as the References: Adams. Brunet. Although in the past Pontus du Tyard. ideal union between the lover and the sublime beauty Judah was instructed by his learned father in these that comes from God and is embodied in the beloved. Jorge de Montemayor. by which he is generally known The book enjoyed immediate popularity and influence to the Christian world and historical scholarship. where Isaac continued his career as a tax present and expound upon Greek myths as well as farmer and financier under King Ferrante I. 273. 10. This central against Alfonso's heir. 20:900. modern less this popularity which spurred Paulus Manutius to scholarship has largely concluded that they were indeed publish a number of Aldine editions. The Dialoghi were first published at Rome by scholar. no. 2:109-11. Philone and Sophia. and humanist intellectual that he adopted the Antonio Blado d'Asola. where they prospered until the edict of ration of many different subjects as Abrabanel seeks to expulsion of Spanish Jewry in 1492. 123. as Jewish philosophy with Greek philosophy and both well as becoming personal physician to the Spanish with the work of their Arab commentators. Baruch Spinoza. He uses it to on to Naples. 4:165. himself as a Jew. Possibly the statement was added to which is announced as posthumous. much later. They then moved apply his theory to all kinds of problems. Joao II. abstract entities. boost sales or to add to or conserve the impression of The three dialogues arc a conversation between two the religious orthodoxy of the press. name of Leone Hebreo. His son biblical and rabbinical teachings and traditions. or Hebrew. In 1483. Christianity. but medicine and astrology at the University of Naples. it is the circle of mutual love relatively young age. in which he enjoyed success at a creation with God. The family followed into theme leads to an original and highly eclectic explo- exile in Spain. who are platonic lovers. and he traveled throughout Italy and somewhat later taught attempts to reconcile not only Plato with Aristotle. Love does not and ideas. 3. the 1541 being his composed in Italian. It was doubt- were written in Italian. It was during his fruitful career as physician. with Mariano Lenzi as editor. and the influence of precise dates of composition are unknown —Abrabanel Leone Hebreo can be detected in authors as diverse as composed the Dialoghi d'amore. an assertion for which there is no Abrabanel's death date is unknown. several times the historical record after 1523 and must have died in the body of the work Abrabanel clearly refers to sometime before the 1535 publication of his book. Renouard. Abrabanel apparently believed that love. A curiosity of the Aldine editions is the state- the treatise. Encyclopedia Judaica. however. his father was between the created and the Creator that binds and forced to flee Portugal after being accused of conspiracy sustains all the universe in a covenant. a fourth was intended. but whether it was ment on the title page that the author had converted to never composed or is lost remains a mystery. as well as devotional works propounding his view cannot mean possession or ownership. Indeed. was also the force Enciclopedia italiana. It had gone through twenty-five At some point. 3:984. but rather is an that the coming of the Messiah was imminent. detailing its operation in every sphere from the interaction of the elements up to and including * * * its manifestation in and effect upon God himself Strongly platonic in his arguments. familiar from the works of Marsilio 14 In Aedibus Aldi . BM STC Italian. A-60. capable of elevating humankind to the pinnacle of Grassc. Giordano there has been some debate on whether the dialogues Bruno.

Book III attempts a synthesis but takes a Physical description: [194] p. portrayed in the vein of Petrarchan poetry. and nel anno . rather. Oddly enough. its very inception. While in Rome. for the Gilt edges. This Signatures: a-m 8 n2 (N2 blank. with Petrarch's work as its model. surprise turn when all earthly love is roundly condemned in favor of a purely spiritual love. Bembo believed. needed to be refined and Binding description: Red embossed leather. In 1496. the only place in the Venetian Republic where there was a court. As a setting for his courtly dialogue. Gli Asolani 40 Pietro the school of Niccolo Leoniceno. it was presided over by Caterina Cornaro. the Colophon: Impressi in Venetia nelle Case d'Aldo Romano contrasting theme of the joys of love predominates. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. becoming involved particularly in a studied with Lascaris at Messina for two years. while Bembo was proper to imitate Cicero's style exclusively. Bembo disapproved of the eclec- Aldus. Thus in Book I. printed by Pope Leo X. the miseries of love.. tion and early turned his attention to both scholarly Castiglione and Bembo would have known each pursuits and the writing of poetry in the vernacular. who often sparse and Dante's Commedia for Aldus. that only the best and purest Latin style should be Gli Asolani was apparently conceived and begun imitated at all and that. such as this book. As for its single cords. 20 cm. drew stylistic principles from classical authors generally Bembo pursued a career in public life as he continued to regarded as inferior to the great exemplars of Latin poetic venture his own literary productions. already demonstrate Bembo's strong conviction that Italian. sort of human love. In Book II. as a poetic language. giano. Bembo continued his after a copy provided to Aldus by Bembo. He received a humanist classical educa. where he was studying philosophy at for "Ciceronianism" sparked a rancorous quarrel among Humanist Texts 15 . The book PIETRO B£MU U - describes a wedding feast at Asola. among the first books issued by Aldus where he was soon appointed to the apostolic secretariat was the Greek grammar of Constantine Lascaris. Gli Asolani may well have established Bembo as worked endbands. ized by Castiglione. De Aetna. The debate centers around the issue of whether love is a good or a bad thing. (4to). and tnrn-ins. with single front-beaded green/yellow subject. [1505] the self-described sufferings of the poets are condemned as falsehoods. Title gold. quarrel with Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola over Bembo's own first work. Bembo chose Asola. After 1512 he departed Urbino for Rome. sewn on reformed. prominent humanist. combined with the ultimate rejection of any Pietro Bembo (1470-1547). former CLIA50LANI DI MESSER queen of Cyprus (and also Bembo's cousin). was published by the theory of imitation. however. the preeminent philosopher of his generation. del mese di Marzo. who had literary career. during which a discussion ensues concerning love. creates a very different picture of poet. and in 1501-02 Bembo edited Petrarch's Rime ticism in style displayed by many humanists. Gold-tooled with ornaments on front and modern reader it recalls the portrait of Bembo and his back covers. the early courtly dialogue Gli Asolani. if Cicero was the best. This vogue living at Ferrara. spine. are set forth. other at the court of Urbino. signature n [errata] tipped discussion is interspersed throughout with poems which in). and prose style. besides enjoying the sophisticated pleasures of the court of the d'Este. Meanwhile. the irresolution of the argument. and churchman.MDV. where Bembo resided from Bembo was closely involved with the Aldine Press from 1506 to 1512. Bembo. philosophy as presented in Castiglione's // libro del corte- tooled onto spine. board edges. it was sometime between 1497 and 1499. Virgil and Cicero. was born into an aristocratic Bembo's views on these matters from those immortal- Venetian family.

Blind and gold-tooled with ornaments on front and copies were printed without it. 66). False bands on getting his dedicatory letter to the press. Grasse. The first edition of Gli Asolani has attracted attention 8:376. with double front-beaded blue/yellow/red endbands. cords. del mese d'Aprile. UCLA. complaints have been voiced about Bembo's own failure rian of the Venetian Republic. about produced new ones. for example. 1. B-578. Clough [1969]. 1:766. It appears that a more likely.. saw the time and effort In 1521. Intrigued by the absence of the dedication to the duchess in some copies. born 76 In Aedibus Aldi . nell'anno M. BM injury incurred while riding. similar language. the previous year. Its author (1478-1529). bequeathed to Venice by Cardinal Bessarion while important as it was for Bembo's career. daughter of Pope Alexander VI. his love. before the outbreak of the quarrel. and Gli Asolani. 126-27). Brunet. 152). DBI. [1528] evidence.D. Furthermore. which occurred in the autumn of Binding description: Dark blue goatskin. so that some few spine." indicated that Aldus was no longer doing anything enthusiastic defense of the value of Italian as a literary important (Lowry. in no small part because certain copies of it — but not 15. 132. 72.humanists which spread far beyond Italy and continued Some of Aldus's scholarly friends. Johann revised earlier works such as Gli Asolani (a second edition Kuno lamented at the end of 1505 that the appearance of was published by the Aldine Press in 1530). "a few odds and ends in the vernacular. Panzer. In 1530 he was appointed librarian and histo. spine. perhaps not real- well into the middle years of the sixteenth century. Bembo retired to Padua. Sowell. Alfonso d'Este. COLOPHON: In Venetia nelle case d'Aldo Romano. 77 libro del suppress the letter because of the outbreak of a quarrel in cortegiano 1505 between Lucrezia's husband. and Pope Julius II. 141-43. Clough medical treatment. Gli Asolani. In fact. (published posthumously in 1551. dedication were printed early in 1505. is sion to dedicate the work to her. and that the author back covers. Renouard theorized that Aldus had been led to A ] Baldassare Castiglione. & nation has been disputed by recent scholarship both on d'Andrea d'Asola suo Suocero. (fol. no. 32 cm. when in fact the reverse is true. // libro del cortegiano. 8:133-51. remains a work producing twelve books of the history of Venice much neglected by modern scholarship. Title gold- attempted to cover his lapse by backdating the letter to tooled onto spine. Renouard. Gilt edges. 80. and assisted in such to spend his time pursuing his early promise as a Greek projects as the proper housing of the magnificent library scholar (Wilson [1992]. 48. copies without. board edges and turn-ins. including Prose delta volgar lingua. and it is also possible arguably one of the most influential books of the that Aldus went ahead and printed the defective copies sixteenth century and certainly enjoyed an incomparable without waiting for Bembo's permission. see NO. where he began a expended on the publication of such works as Gli Asolani period of intense intellectual and literary activity. [ 1972]. sewn on single that year. It is quite possible that Bembo's delay was caused by his having to wait for Lucrezia's permis. all —contain a dedication to the famous and notorious Lucrezia Borgia. He as a waste of the printer's valuable resources. American STC Italian. duke of Ferrara. This rather romantic expla. and duchess of Fcrrara.). Gamba. Renouard. reputation in its own time. 1:333. chronological grounds and on the basis of the physical XXVIII. More recently. both those books with and without the Signatures: * 4 a-o 8 p 6 . In 1538 he was made a cardinal. asserted mistakenly that the copies with the dedication are more rare than the Physical description: [244] p. 306. izing his debt to Bembo. sister # * * of Cesare Borgia. 1:191. Scott. no. and in 1547 died in Rome of an References: Adams. if more mundane. for which he refused STC Italian. Castiglione's magnum opus. solution to the mystery may be that Bembo was late in Plain endpapers and pastcdowns.

ideal court lady is described. adorns all and induce a kind of spiritual awakening in wards the leisure to bring the work to the perfection he which the lover will eventually be given over to the desired. Castiglione remained dissatisfied with it and continued to work on the text until his death. no matter how extraor- there and in Milan. Francesco Maria della Rovere. and moreover to do all of umtcnuR* Humanist Texts 11 . but Castiglione goes far beyond that. such as prudence dominio fi porta imprimcrc. detailing not only a long list of physical Hafli nel priuiIcgio. however. he seems to have worked on it only contemplation of the divine. as he relates in the dedicatory letter to Don turn up in the last part of the final book. Similarly high Gonzaga family as a diplomat and courtier. will again moved. treated in the Neoplatonic vein. On the first day they discuss the different physical and moral virtues that the ideal courtier should possess. spends much time in simply demonstrating duke. Educated will make each action or quality. the ruling family at Mantua. which Gastiglione began writing some seven years on the relationship between men and women. this time IL LIBRO DEL CORTEGIANO the book was already circulating in manuscript and parts of it had already been copied. when Pietro Michel da Silva. Castiglione claims to have written the says.nc in niun'altra Citta del fuo accomplishments and moral qualities. The book purports to be the report of a debate among the courtiers of the duke of Urbino on the subject of what conditions and qualities make up the perfect courtier. Love. was related through his mother this with a grace and an ease of manner (sprezzatura) that to the Gonzaga.& nclla gratia ottcnuta dalla Illuftri'fllnu Signoria clic in qucfta. and worthy in every respect of such an education. This same year provides the time. Fears that his work might DLL CONTE BALDhSAR be pirated convinced Castiglione to entrust his manu- CASTIGLIONE. as a champion of a liberal education for 1506 Castiglione journeyed to London on behalf of the women. Bembo then at Urbino. intermittently until about 1524. he took service briefly with the dinary. and later while in the service of Guidobaldo's nephew and particularly on what is proper to do in the matter of heir. In Castiglione. Elisabetta Gonzaga. Indeed. From a Urbino the setting and inspiration. He must be of noble blood and skilled in the arts of war. The particular beauty of one woman. that Castiglione passed on precise instructions to the printers and that. ncalcrouc and temperance. discussion of women per se the talk turns to a discourse giano. seem absolutely effortless. In the following year his him By career took to Spain as papal nuncio. In 1504 he expectations are set forth on the third day when the moved on to the service of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro. will lead to a love of the universal beauty which first draft in a few days and never to have found after. Gastiglione was love. script to his friend Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Venice. although the 1528 Aldine is the first edition. who had been made a Knight of the Garter by that women indeed are intelligent and virtuous and King Henry VII. and his duchess. with the difference that duke of Urbino. Ramusio and Pietro Bembo supervised its printing and revised its final proofs for publication by the Aldine Press in April 1528. We know. but insisting on the need for the ideal imprcrtb uenderc qucrto libro del Cortcgiano per-x^ anni courtier to have humanist knowledge and the ability to lotto lc penc in ertb write both prose and verse.at Casatico near Mantua. by the memory of duke Guidobaldo's Bembo discourses upon love as the desire to enjoy true virtue and the delight he felt in the company of those beauty. for // libro del corte.

219.e. died twenty created by the Florentine Academy and others during years before the publication of this treatise. and appears as the author of several letters in a that the emperor Charles V kept three books at his work edited by Ortensio Landi called Lettere di molte bedside: the Bible. Signatures: A-M 4 N 6 . Bietenholz. In Vinegia. lord of Pesaro. Title gold. 22:53-68. C-924. XL IIII. M. 22. into every major European language. no. fcdella DluftriuW Su tooled onto spine. Delia vera tranquillita dell'animo COLOPHON: In casa de'figlinoli di Aldo. DBI. Furthermore. 1:279. [1] leaves. 2:65. however. Paolo III. & nuouamente conv poftadalla III uftriffima Signora la Signora Ifabella Sforza* A. gnoria Di Vinegia . it helped popularize both humanist ideals duchess of Milan. 8:507. no. It Landi. DELLA VERA UCLA. 105. Dello stato appeal to its contemporaries may be shown by the story femminile. Grasse. with brown rolled leather endbands. sewn on recessed M. 156: Brunet. cords. The depth of its She was also the author of another work. // libra del cortegiano enjoyed a raging success in its own became dukes of Milan. ANIMO. nel mese di Luglio. providing a model noble and literate women of northern Italy. Woodhonse. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. he alleges. 219. attributed was most likely the illegitimate daughter 138). Panzer.. although it of urbane repartee and sophisticated dialogue whose has been alleged that Landi wrote the letters himself descendants could be seen well into the eighteenth The book has also been mistakenly attributed to another century (in the salons of Paris. 1:1628. 34. We know that Isabella was time. Machiavelli's The Prince. (4to). False bands on spine. the son speaks of the signora Isabella Sforza as his friend and a of a lesser branch of the famous Sforza family who person of "the highest genius. In his preface to Delia vera tranquillita dell'animo he (1503-1563) of Giovanni Sforza. and valorose donne (1549). 9 Isabella Sforza. UCLA. Sowell." As editor. Italian. for example). per anni X « We know very little about the author of this essay. 1444. It disseminated Italian manners edly contained the correspondence of a number of and accomplishments across Europe. By the end of the century it had been translated married to a noble Florentine called Cipriano del Neri.D. married to Gian Galeazzo Sforza. Renouard. [1544] [date also on title page] PHYSIO*! DESCRIPTION: 52 [i. who called himself by the pseudonym "U seems that the Isabella Sforza to whom the work was Tranquillo. TRANCi^/lLL^A* DELL'. BM STC References: Adams. and it is the previous century. D. 20 cm. 7S In Aedibus Aldi . Binding DESCRIPTION: Brown goatskin. Blind-tooled with Con priuilegio del fommo Pontefice Papa ornaments on front and back covers and spine." was a champion of female learning (Jordan. concerning education and the Christian Neoplatonism duke of Milan). 3. Isabella Sforza (more properly Isabella d'Aragona. The duchess. highly unlikely that she was the author of this book. This innovative collection purport- Castiglione's Cortegiano.XLIIII. 53]. # * * Opera utiliflima.

41. he has talked Physical description: [80] leaves. achieved fame (and noto. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola.UCLA. Renouard. It seems that their accomplishments. no. Like Binding DESCRIPTION: Brown sprinkled calfskin. yiphignid m Aulide luripidis (King. to the point of saying tooling with ornaments on spine and board edges.R*gwfr humanists pushed for better education for women nenrici fef>timt. BM STC Italian. 3:164. Signatures: pi 8 (pi7 blank) a-i 8 . 624. packed with classical references and allusions. American STC Italian. he left M. 870. References: Adams.DVII. Brunct. gold- Poliziano. COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi mense Decembri however. Although many 1 1 v S D em odedelaudibus Brihtnni<e . # * * Erasmus (1469P-1536). Fedele corresponded with on front and back covers.285. Even today the writings of female humanists have remained the province of a mere handful of highly specialized scholars. Some few female humanists. 17 cm. 6:380. Hecuba & was born at Rotterdam around 1469. 67-69). Blind-tooling on turn-ins. who has been called the most significant intellectual in the Europe of his generation.judging her writings superior to his own. Red sprinkled Venetian Cassandra Fedele. trans.<tcregorwn liberorwm eius» (including the study of Latin and Greek) and sometimes even wrote "defenses" of women designed to promote a i v 5 d e m odedefenefttitisfncDmmcdif' opportunities for them to use their skills and intelli- gence. it remains largely single raised cords. were not generally taken very seriously. These women normally came from prominent families. blind-tooled with ornaments riety) in their own time. Latinam tralatae In 1487 he entered an Augustinian monastery at Steyn and in 1492 became a priest. such as the endbands. New Century Italian Renaissance Encyclopedia. who praised her highly. 129. rrageedirt m Utitwm trdlata hrafma Koteroddtno interpret? while admired by many of their male contemporaries. Grasse. and their contri- bution to the intellectual climate of their times remains seriously understudied. an illegitimate Iphigenia in Aulis Euripidis tragoediae in child. Delia vera tranquillita dell'animo is very much a devotional work. with single front-beaded green/red unknown. edges. S-1044. [1507] the monastery to become secretary to Hendrik of Humanist Texts 19 . Title that her accomplishments equaled those of his friend gold-tooled onto red leather on spine. her into publishing this little meditative treatise. but it could also be fully described as a humanist trea- tise. In the following year. they seldom if ever gave up notions concerning an innate male superiority. l. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. It is thus highly significant that the Aldine Press should publish this work and preserve Sforza's thought for posterity. sewn on many works by female humanists. (8vo). 5:331. with the permission of his superiors.Sowell. A 2 Desiderius Erasmus. and typically their careers as linguists and scholars were either cut short by marriage or continued within the walls of a convent HECvBA. By 1484 he had lost both his parents to the plague. Simple gold-tooling.

by Josse Bade) his translation of Euripides's libros Alberti Pii. for Aldus's name already carried language well enough to compose poetry in it by his a great cachet. "The labor was initiated into the rites of letters. Lord Mountjoy. a free a living by teaching. He attended the Erasmus had never been happy with Bade's version of University of Paris briefly in 1495-96. trav. Switzerland. and the It is quite certain that for all ages to come the name of manuscript was taken immediately from his desk to Aldo Manuzio will be on the lips of every person who is the press with no chance for revision. that including scholars like Janus Lascaris. Furthermore. a project which." Aldus writers. HO In Aedibus AUH . will inspire not Erasmus later recalled. flattering manner to Musurus. Germany. in 1507. Henry VII of England. because . partly because poverty forced him to turn to making and he allowed Aldus. When he finally felt expansion of the Adagia. Marcus he first wrote in a rather tentative. Sometime in the succeeded in both aims. as Erasmus confident of his abilities. particularly in Italy (Lowry. medical works and a friend of Erasmus from his days in there he met his lifelong friends John Colet and Paris. as Francesco establishing his European-wide reputation as a scholar Torresani reminded Erasmus. . particularly in the first decade of the more commentary for ever more proverbs.Bergen. Your memory in after. Torresani. By 1501. like Budc. the collaboration with Aldus did Thomas More. which he complained was full of errors. a singularly itinerant existence. who accepted his proposal. 207 1 . so that the Aldine Aldus Manntius with the proposal that Aldus should version of the Adagia. the other written on the subject Already well known in humanist circles through his of old age and dedicated to the Swiss physician Wilhelm blossoming correspondence. "Aldus eagerly received" (Apologia brevis ad 24 (in Paris. During some eight Hecuba. By this time he was already Erasmus. working feverishly on the production of Erasmus led. able to take advantage both of the libraries of Venice eling not only to England but to France. published in 1508. 220). and Battista Egnazio. he may together with two poems of Erasmus. 2:131 between this proverb and the dolphin-and-anchor [Ep. had other motives besides furthering his reputation. the editing and Greek until several years later. himself appears in the Adagia in the entry under day bring you undying renown — but which for the time "festina lente. It was from Bologna. . A greatly improved version of 1490s he had begun to learn Greek. {CWE.000. he himself was not satisfied with the state of his the second stage of this collaboration." when Erasmus explains the connection being profit others rather than yourself. one a panegyric of have been." with learned commentary. he had published remarks. 9-10). . Erasmus was on his way to indeed help Erasmus further his career. the first complete Greek tragedy to be translated months. Erasmus worked right in Aldus's shop. like your reputation at present. In 1508 Erasmus arrived in Venice to embark on ments. LB. In spite of such accomplish. trans. and Italy. up. an autodidact (Rummel." tune. although he also later recounts his hand in correcting any mistakes. 9:1136 F). himself a highly esteemed translator of Greek England at the invitation of his pupil. Whether or not he the translation of Euripides appeared in 1507. 8). But he early teens — and moreover a confirmed humanist. a collection of Greek and Latin proverbs name illustrious in Italy. "Aldus very often declared that merely honour but also affection and love. such that there was no time to scratch one's ears. . he was astonished that I wrote so much ex tempore and you devote yourself to reviving and disseminating good amid such a tumult of surrounding noise. to whom he dedicated with an edition of Cicero's De officiis and the publication the Aldine Bible (1518): "It was Aldus who made your ot his Adagia. in 1499 he traveled to Kopp. around 1506. Mynors) emblem (see discussion in NO. stood to benefit by having Aldus an accomplished Latinist — having indeed mastered the publish his translations. you strive at enormous tasks that will one. of course. Erasmus lodged at the house of Andrea into Latin verse. already well read in the classics. He was sixteenth century. and of the knowledge of Aldus and his circle. but soon gave it his translation. The collaboration disgust with university scholasticism. . published had a tutor in the language remains unclear. bishop of Cambrai. grew from republish his Euripides translations: the 841 proverbs of Bade's 1500 edition to well over 3.

395. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. UCLA. 1. 22 cm. 15. By the time of COLOPHON: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. but upon learning that they were himself. The expanded edition became a European have some thoughts of publishing a second expanded best-seller and put Erasmus firmly among the humanist version of his edition of the Greek New Testament with celebrities of the day (Lowry. (CWE. whose acquaintance he had made through (4to). * * * In his satiric dialogue Optilcntia sordida ("Stingy wealth"). we find a stinging portrait of Andrea Torresani prince of cheap. 1 :28-32. E-1045. 1:570. seems to have retained again turned to Froben (1519). Therefore it is not surprising that the Aldine decrepit old man which he thought we should use in Press subsequently published only minor works by time to come in addressing one another. This affection did not extend by any means to all the members of Aldus's family. Bietenholz. Panzer. no. and then in just such a snuffling voice. 8:386. et Andreae Asulani its composition. refusal to take their side. and friends. establishment. composed much later in 1531.XXI. 332-33. 6:129. Whether or not this pleasant memories of Aldus. Moreover. 54. 262 [i. Ciceronianus (1528) he made it clear that he thought of Ciceronianism as a kind of mental defect.D. and he was not impressed by the pagan attitudes leather onlays on front and back covers and spine. 151. Erasmus [1965]. Bound which dominated the peninsula. although he never returned to Venice after the already preparing their own edition of the Bible. imitating the broken accents of a Venice. they were evident affection as well as respect. Renouard. 260]. Erasmus the Aldine Press. he mocked the Ciceronianism gold tooling on board edges. Three and a half certainly taken as such by men such as Alberto Pio. he left us. a man of riches who as the nonetheless lets his guests 44 asse go hungry on sour wine and thin soup. when the conversation was running free. he reminisced about the accused Erasmus of insulting the memory of Aldus printer to a friend: Manutius and added disparaging remarks to the effect that Erasmus had learned his Greek from Aldus and had Aldus.' . Gilt edges. He did apparently for Erasmus. The production of the Adagia proved worth the labor Aldus died Erasmus was giving his business by prefer- involved. 3:86-88. in the quarrel with Luther had been Binding description: Brown goatskin. for it was a great success both for Aldus and ence to Johannes Froben of Basel. Italian. but rather weaker (representing References: Adams.M. clearly and unequivocally and immediately. Gold-tooled with ornaments and devout. [1522] were a thing of the past and he was in the thick of feuds with Italian scholars like Alberto Pio and Girolamo Physical description: [ 12]. . The personal animosity excited toward Erasmus in Italian humanist and clerical circles by his Signatures: 2a« 2b 4 a-u 8 (-u7-8. in his dialogue by Marius Michel. espoused by Erasmus was strongly Christian and False bands on spine. Halkin. 228). see NO. The humanism endbands. 2:1101. Humanist Texts 81 . 'And how goes Erasmus. Master Erasmus?' he would say. . Aleandro. sewn on single raised preceded by a long period of estrangement on his part cords. De skates. Even before Capitals and anchors gilded and rubricated throughout. Brunet.. Erasmus's links with the Aldine Press soceri mense Septembri . trans. American STC Italian. who years after the death of Aldus. Mynors) 2:523. Grasse. (For notes on one such work. whom he regarded with neglect and estrangement were deliberate. [2] leaves. with double front-beaded green/yellow/brown from Italian humanist concerns. no. Aldus Manutius. Simple of the Italians.) it then. 239. he completion of the project. u7-8 blank) A-N 8 . I'm all right. 79. 2:376-80. me) he would reply 'If you're all right. turn-ins and endcaps. BM STC Before he had reached that toothless age. used to been no more than an office boy during his stay in be rather amusing.e. Guillaumc Bude.

the garb of philosophy.1540) was born into a family philosophical arguments to convince his audience that of civil servants and began his career in 1483 when he the truly educated Christian must study not just the was sent to Orleans to study law. aims and principles. His reputation as a humanist of the greatest erudition was established. He was a secretary to King subject matter may appear from religious preoccupa- Charles VIII. We do not know if Bude met among other things a meditation on the use and abuse Aldus Manutius during that visit. of course. Wisdom must be gath- however. Like many northern European the Christian may recognize truth when he sees it. designed not merely to help the reader better able to assume that he did. to pursue a public career in the that all types of knowledge. but it seems reason. but it also contains in its lengthy epilogue (printed as Book V in the Aldine edition) a manifesto arguing for the necessity of humanism in a Christian education. during his sojourn in Paris from his illi di~ 1508 onward. De asse is a treatise on Roman coinage. Basil and. by the time of his visit to Venice. with the publication of De asse et partibus eius. secondly. <u4thore IO. produced Latin translations of Plutarch and St. Bude. Aleandro was another friend of Aldus and thus helped establish a firm link between the Aldine M. 2:121-30). up to this point. In the first place. Bude and understand money but to induce reflection on the injus- Aldus shared a number of friends. . a collection of Roman laws made by order of the emperor Justinian from the writings of Roman jurists. a project to which the new king was amenable. Press and Paris. see NO. including ecclesiastical abuses (La 1500 Bude had corresponded with Aldus concerning an Garandcrie. 24). The humanists. Although recognized by Bude's attempt by Aldus to find a manuscript of Pliny the contemporaries as a valuable restatement of humanist Younger (Lowry. m ttiam oh nojiram cum oh France. and he quickly became part rdripetyet rm^rtffionts ah eodem iyfo hudteo atfii gjft id'<{. It is Bude's view continued. Thus De asse itself. are useful in the Christian humanist pursuit of time during the reign of Louis XII. he had virtually no texts and certainly no foundation of such an education. in 1515. of wealth. De asse did attract criticism on the 82 In Aedibus Aldi . xxrr. D. Bude sets forth Guillaume Bade (1 468. used his position to promote humanism. Moreover. ln& Aleandro. He of eloquence. types and forms of knowledge. after his return to court upon the accession of Francis I in 1515. he continued to fill wisdom. 282. and although he retired from court for a tions. Bude devoted much gt Stcrettrio^t GaUtatrucopU humanism in time and energy to the promotion of rum Quxfhre. in 1508. cretxrij Rrgij hhri V. although appearing to be a diplomatic missions for the French crown. but he somehow managed ment of Latin and Greek. Bude had himself. cvrLLrELMrsvDAEr PAnrniNsrssB Bude therefore had. is one to Venice in 1501. and its next step is the mastery nevertheless to acquire a knowledge of Greek. a learned commentary on the Pandects. but all initially had little enthusiasm. no matter how remote their tradition of his family. however. he decided all at once to dedicate himself to ered from wherever it can be found. however. for example. crolierio of the international network of humanists of which JM^dumvft chripianiflirm Callorii Re Aldus was such an important part. During his student years. dt AjJc^O" parhh eius pcft dtidt the reputation of a scholar. He encouraged and supported Girolamo firuantxa. including very specialized study of one particular Roman coin. a subject for which he Bible and the writings of the church fathers. is the attain- access to a teacher of Greek. so that in the end humanist learning. as early as tices of the age.

Renouard. Francesco d'Asola carefully mentions in his dedication of the book to Grolier that Colophon: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. he has indeed worked from the corrected copy and that [not before 1519] the book is an improvement on the Parisian edition especially because it eschews marginalia in favor of Physical description: 56. and he exhorted Francesco to take the greatest care to see that his friend Bude's book was correctly printed. He at once ordered all French embassies to procure all the Greek texts they could find for the king's new library at Fontainebleau. Bude OVAE- spent much effort in trying to dissociate humanism from the Lutheran heresy. Grolier complained. The difficulty of conquering Bude's Bietenholz. 280-85. with exceptional nineteenth-century gilding and binding. who had a devotion to the beauty of books amounting almost to mania. no. Although Francesco makes no boast of the appearance of the Signatures: a-g 8 h 4 . single front-beaded red/yellow laced-in endbands. 17 cm. Latin is in no small measure responsible for the neglect 1:1374. and ornate style. et Andreae soceri. which Provenance: Francis Kettaneh. for which purpose Grolier sent a copy "diligently reviewed and corrected by the author" (Le Roux de Lincy. into which De asse has fallen in subsequent centuries. [4] leaves. Moreover. 1:565. a French diplomat in Venice and a passionate bibliophile. for Grolier would reimburse him for everything. sewn on recessed cords. B-3101. BM STC Italian. obscure. He produced several more C1VIS ROMAlO l'CRDV- books. 129. 259. The Paris edition. using one position to enhance the other. 1:309. was very imperfectly printed. (CWE. Erasmus tactfully wrote "might be thought to part company somewhat with the simplicity of nature" References: Adams. when the notorious affaire des placards rocked FENSIONES the French court with suspicions of Lutheranism. It was also in 1522 that Jean Grolier. 8:472.basis of its heavy. Bude in 1522 was appointed royal * * * librarian. On the strength of his growing reputation as France's foremost scholar. Grasse. no. UCLA. Brunei. further enhanced by Binding description: Vellum. 245. 3. (8vo). book. 94. it is evident from BYU's copy that this is a very fine example of Aldine printing. 4:110). Bude continued his rei defensiones duae twin career as humanist and public servant until his death in 1540. 35). wrote to Francesco d'Asola that he wished to publish Bude's De asse at his own expense. Books from the Aldine A C Christophe dc Longueil. insisted on perfec- tion in paper and typesetting and begged Francesco "to combine beauty with elegance" in the production. Grolier. Lowry. Panzer. Plain Humanist Texts 83 . ELLIONIS REI DE- After 1534. 1:212-17. Perduellionis Press dominated these purchases. all of a philological or philosophical character. 185. American STC Italian. without regard to expense. 112. He was intimately involved in the founding of the CHRISTOPHORT LOMGOLII College de France in 1529. explanatory notes at the end of the text.

and is addressed diately for Rome. Erasmus's own interest at Rome but created patriotic resentment in quarrel with Bude was not eased by such comparisons. I lis eloquence in his own defense Cicero exclusively. controversy. who suffers from a mental him Roman citizenship. Longueil traveled in northern Europe. He did not appear at this trial. celebrity developed not around such an apprenticeship Longueil became a symbol for the Ciceronian move- but around the perfection of his Latin. where he Saint-Pol-de-Leon. after further in the constant pursuit of perfect Ciceronian adventures with Louis XII on the Italian campaign and style. Cardinal Reginald of Burgundy. The dedica- was appointed to the Parlcment of Paris. that Longueil resumed scholarly Pole. one brown) and paper civis Romanus. Rather than tion to his defense is written by Battista Casali. accomplished Latinist as well as a very important polit- In Rome. took a such as Janus Lascaris and Marcus Musurus. the most pursuing a legal career. a man whose accom- he began to earn some celebrity as an orator with a plishments —such as they were —became a magnet for speech in praise of the king and the French nation. to the benefit of the latter. guished family. then apostolic secretary. however. himself an from Guillaume Bude. as did the pope himself. renowned orator of the day in Rome. although he left very little in the way of throne. Four years later Longueil actual writings by which we can judge his work. bishop of returning to France and to the low countries. | Aldus. for the Ciceronians. his death he continued to represent. the future Francis I. Years after was a Ciceronian who chose to spurn the stylistic eclecti. George M. instead they were published afterwards. Bound with Trogi Pompei Externae histo. Meanwhile. he devoted the few remaining three years later. Bembo. too. certain circles where Latin was regarded as the patrimony Furthermore. bearing a letter of recommendation to the powerful Cardinal Pompeo Colonna. supported in his studies by patrons such as Leo X a journey to England and Spain in the suite of the duke and. or C jcero's usage in syntax and vocabulary.. the pope himself and his cardinals. reestablished his contacts among northern humanists. and his request to have them read at the trial was not granted. He died prematurely in 1522. only of the Italians. After his father's death the narrowest interests. H4 InAedibusAldi . perhaps because of his celebrity in Rome. cism of humanists such as Poliziano and Erasmus in their ideal orator. Brown edges. pursuits. as the champion of anti-Ciceronianism. Blind-stamped hearing on the matter had to be held in the presence of medallion with coat-of-arms: I Ion. Like Pietro ment and as such has been aptly described as both its Bcmbo and others at the court of Pope Leo X. 1522]. he left almost imme. while. imate son of Antoine de Longueil.. he abandoned studies for a time in years of his life to refining and purifying his Latin still favor of the military life. endpapers and pastedowns. but his personal interest in Longueil. 2:118). label on spine. Acknowledged and cared for by his He did not return to Italy until well after he had won his father. Fortescue. Longueil hero and its victim (La Garanderie. A scholar of study at the College du Plessis. having decided prudently to stay away from Rome for a riae . Christophe de Longueil (1488-1522) was the illegit. Title gold-tooled composed these orations to sustain his claim to the title onto two leather labels (one black. himself the scion of a very distin. he was sent at the tender age of nine to Paris to case and been awarded Roman citizenship. however. He openly compared Erasmus and Bude. In received his doctorate in law and in the following year Rome he moved in the very highest circles. and who caused great passions in his which led to his being received by the heir to the contemporaries. for which Longueil Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine. Ciceronian purity not only aroused the most intense for example. after the pope's death in 1521. Longueil did study Greek with teachers ical figure. The character Nosoponus in his caused the city council of Rome to propose awarding 1528 dialogue Ciceronian/is. He read law at Bologna and Poitiers. Longueil became the center of a Erasmus was outspokenly critical of efforts to imitate heated controversy. He also became a lodestar for French favor of a "pure" Latin which never departed from humanists. It was not until 1506. in 1510 Longueil is a peculiar figure. This excited such hostility that a derangement diagnosed as excessive mania for imitation. The fact that a perhaps because of his marked chauvinism in favor of foreigner not only aspired to but actually attained the French.

287-88). depending for his livelihood on both Italian and Hungarian patrons in Italy such as Prince Gianludovico Saluzzo. on front foredge. Annei know almost nothing about his background. Indeed. until the point when he met an older Hungarian humanist. American STC Italian. Grasse. It is not surprising. sewn on single raised Aldine firm chose to reprint Longueil's self-defense. cords. yellow edges. Longueil. that the backed with white pigskin spine. mense Februario M. or Croatian origins. 1523) edition of Seneca published by Erasmus at Basel in Humanist Texts 85 . date on spine.D. published by the Aldine Press. with single front-beaded tan/natural endbands. 4:253. L. Fortunatus arrived in Venice in April 1522. Title gold-tooled onto Bietenholz. Anne de Foix. i. His edition of Seneca. Remnants of leather strap on back foredge.A- I. 22. Aldus was highly regarded and very influential in eastern European humanist circles. 3:1153. Dalmatian. ed. # * * Matthacus Fortunatus was born probably some time after 1480 in Hungary but may have been of either Slavonian. education. who had studied in Italy under Guarino Guarini of Verona and become a poet of renown. no. As late as 1535-36. At the time.. He apparently had known number of important Hungarians from his a student days and corresponded with the queen of Hungary. He moved on. Blind-tooled on turn-ins. was dedicated to this Colophon: Venetiis in aedibus Aldi et Andreae Asulani patron. Fortunatus based his work largely on the soceri. at Buda and accompanied him on a 1522 embassy to Italy. 46 Senecae naturalium quaestionutn libri VII or career. Calligraphed Renouard.XXII [1522. to study Greek and Latin at Padua. however. Cesmicki). brown leather label and pasted onto spine. Brodericus had tried. humanism in Hungary L.e. to persuade Aldus to publish an edition of the poems of Janus Pannonius. L-1445. given the enormous excitement about this Binding description: Brown sheepskin over wooden boards question in the intellectual circles of the time. he not only carried humanism Indtx return nchttu dignarum in adct optris dppcfitut. the defense of Longucil was still providing inspiration for Ciceronians such as Signatures: * 6 a-g 8 h 10 i-q 8 r 6 .was widely taken at the time to be a caricature of Physical description: [6]. 21 cm.' I I was flourishing. Blind-stamped with ornaments on front and back References: Adams. Metal catchplates probably was printed the following year. Etienne Dolet and Julius Caesar Scaliger. Brunet. A N SENECAE NATVR. 263. 2:342-45. r vir. Plain Their edition was dated by Renouard to 1518 but most endpapers and pastedowns. Istvan Broderics (known as Brodericus). covers. with him but became the center of a virtual cult because of his own highly respected abilities. 2:275. [6] leaves. a request that was apparently ignored (Lowry. (4to). in 1505. thanks in no small measure to the LIVM QVAESTIONVM reputation of the poet Janus Pannonius (Ivan libr. 130. We in fact Matthacus Fortunatus. When t-utthfi Yortwrutti in tof&tm libtot dnnohttioneu he returned to Hungary.

made Turks. reports learning that Fortunatus has died. UCLA. 6:351. where he taught (Novak. a prosperous trading commu- rior. 3:157. Grasse. in fact. 79. Panzer. 9-10. and it is Erasmus. 96. However. His work is now regarded as being the first effort nity. 1118. American STC Italian. His contacts. no. He became a Dominican monk as an adult. Et hora tradotta. 10. Fortunatus had disappeared know what age he might have been when these events from the scene. Fortunatus house in Lesina in 1522. We do not know if Pribojevic was present during Fortunatus cocditor of the volume. about 1528. nor do we By that time. who 1532. 8:472. with Italian humanism and with humanist education and then proceeded to the study of the Aldine Press were almost completely broken by theology. He states in his oration that he received a of his countrymen. [1595] gta rccitata da Iui nclla medefuna C I T T A x Physical description: [16]. sewn on double raised cords. but it is not known References: Adams. S-932. no. 233-34. Bietenholz. some time between then and himself disappears. VINCENZO PRIBEVO dalmatino da lesena. 5:279. Colophon: In Venetia. elsewhere. D E L L A ORlGINE ET SVCCESSI # # * D E G L SLAVI I A. generously praised this accomplishment and. Renouard.. came from the city of Lesina (or I Ivar) on the Adriatic island known as Pharos to the S6 In Aedibus Ahli . [MD]XCV. dalla lingua latin* neUltaliana DA BELLISARIO MALASPALLI DA Signatures: a* A-K 4 . Delia origine et O R A T I O N E. 26-27). 23 cm. although in 1511 control of this area had passed to the when his own work was reissued in 1529. this upheaval or whether he was in Italy.1515. Presso Aldo. CON PR1V1LEGIO. and indeed those career. Ring and pin clasps. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. [l] p. he was probably produced an edition that is philologically much supe. Erasmus dominion of Venice for some considerable time. Binding description: Undyed pigskin. with single front-beaded dark green endbands. Hvar. Title gold-tooled onto spine. or Pribacnius. BM STC Italian. 621. successi degli Slavi DI M. 2:45-46. however. under what where he is known to have spent time in Venice and circumstances we do not know. (4to). he corrected many mistakes and ancients and to its inhabitants as Hvar. also known by the Latinized names IN VENETIA. Vinko Pribojevic. Some time after 1524 he left Italy and occurred or what influence they might have had on his returned to Hungary. 182. 1:203-4. I0< xcv- of Vinccntius Pribevo. CID. Natural tackets at the head and tail. 5 P A L A T O. and all of the Dalmatian coast had been under the of its kind in I [ungarian classical studies. 7 Vinko Pribojevic. Brunet. and also PreffoAlda called Vinccntius de Lesina. of Dalmatian origin. He probably studied at an Italian university and became a professor of theology. he apparently migrated to the Italian peninsula. Pribenio. Mohacs (1526) and the subse- the disastrous battle of being first mentioned in connection with the Dominican quent Turkish conquest (Lowry 288).

Quetif. was translated into referred both to traditional explanations — the Slavs Italian by Belissario Malaspalli da Spalato more than were. was published in 1532 at UCLA. 6. 3. 705. the son of Noah —and. 17). it people. P-2086. Macedonian city of Stagira (Novak. remarkably enough. delivered originally in Latin. Pribojevic its beauty and. vol. particularly the kings References: Adams. pt. who hailed from the STC Italian. in proving their distinc. Although this work was apparently not followed strate and praise the greatness and glory of the Slavic by any other noteworthy oratorical accomplishments. apparently to render it accessible to Japheth. The oration. like the rest of Europeans. BM of Macedon and Aristotle himself. those who had no Latin. Sabbio.2. 5:441. Renouard. no. 4:869. 1 tion. Humanist Texts 87 . Grasse. Brunct. Jocher. suppl. descended from sixty years later. The oration which this book contains was apparently Venice by the firm of Giovanni Antonio de Nicolini da delivered in Venice in 1525. 2:85-86. 2:648. to the more humanistic assertion of the Slavic origin of famous classical figures. American STC Italian. especially the city of Hvar and its inhabitants. 539. Its intent was to demon. In made a deep impression on Venetian contemporaries for his account of the origins of the Slavs. 253. vol.

.

the Bible (no. As Eisenstein however. Switzerland and France. and have had some appeal to Paulus. Paulus continued the opera. 53). using the famous and widely During the years between his father's respected name of the Aldine Press under the manage- death and his coming of age. His strength failed. Paulus left Rome in 1570. the Torresani had Angliae) (nos. In became so occupied with publishing editions of cate- general. pursuits (Morison. seem to have kept the Aldine Press at tion of the press for some years. treatises emphasizing aspects continued to publish books. The Roman operation began by issuing tions of the press had been much the works of Cardinal Pole (De concilio and Reformatio neglected by his uncles. works published under During these years at Rome difficulties between Paulus generally suffered from slow sales. and typographic excellence. 48 and 49). the opera. Paul. The funding for the organization and concerning the establishment of another printing office establishment of the printing office was supplied from which would only publish classical works and expur- the papal treasury. church writings. 160-61). Paulus in addition to one-half of the net profits of the press. along with undermining the authority of the church in Germany. took place the Vatican. Determined to (NO. "Aldus Manutius' son. According to the negotiations. was to act as editor and supervisor. * # # In the wake of the increasing influence of the publi- cations of the German heretics. Paulus did restore the reputation of the Aldine chisms and breviaries that he was not able to make Press through the high quality of his scholarship and progress on his own publications. True. Paulus separated These publications. WORKS FOR AND AT ROME n 1533 Paulus Manutius took up the inroads into Italy itself (Putnam [1967]. church fathers and other works deemed appropriate by elected in 1572 as successor to Pius V. gated editions of works partially condemned in the Index. 51). were now making Works for and at Rome 89 . the prospect of printing in Rome must with the management and control of the press. Paulus longed to return to his own scholarly interests. At Rome. The family tradition of scholarly printing. and other management of the press. Protestant publications. profited from serving Counter-Reformation popes as assiduously as Aldus had earlier served humanist patrons" (398). giving special attention Rome quite busy. However. restore the glory of the Aldine Press. The contract lasted twelve years. church countered quickly. but their publications did of the Counter-Reformation movement. Paulus later complained that the press to Latin classics and especially editions of Cicero. Paulus received a yearly stipend of five hundred ducats Already recognized for his scholarly authority. observed. Paulus printed the writings of the early and negotiations between Paulus and Pope Gregory XIII. and he died before the plan ever took shape. 55). In view of Paulus and the church steadily accumulated at the waning commercial prosperity and the constant wars in printing office. the pope recognized the value of the printing press. 50) and the works of Saint Cyprian (NO. 52). in spite of scholarly commentaries on Cicero (see NO. together with editions of the at length from his uncles in 1540 and assumed full Tridentine index (no. Church officials continued to interfere northern Italy. 2: 306). In 1561 Paulus accepted Pope Pius IV's invitation to The inquisition inaugurated by Pius IV was a constant move his printing operation to Rome and become the irritant and Pius V seemed little interested in intellectual technical adviser for the church's publication efforts. ment of Paulus. Then followed not exhibit the learned perfection which had always the Decrees of the Council of Trent (Canones et Decreta) distinguished the works of Aldus. especially his subsequent publications.

The church leaders. (4to). sewn on single raised encing religious affairs? What was needed was not rich cords. with the European Catholic revival. The first two books the council. "He was as learned as he was noble. but humble and repentant servants deter- Reformatio Angliae (NO. Pole served the church in many high-level appointments. Christendom. Pole returned to England. Bound with Reginald Pole. M. 22 cm. pleasures. the right persons to be influ- Binding description: Limp vellum. Pole makes some strong statements on secular interfer- Signatures: A-S 4 . He spent the remainder of his days working for reform of the church in England and a united ROMAE. with single back-beaded natural endbands. mined to confess the wrongs and abuses of the church and to make amends (leaf 69). where he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury. Reginald Pole. Pole remained abroad much of the time. In De concilio. having studied under the scholars Thomas Linacre and William Latimer. Thomas More said of Pole. His plans were to reconnect the Counter- Reformation with the Tudor monarchy and to link it Apud Paulum Manutium Aldi F. more of a political than a religious event. 49). and as virtuous as he was learned. he summoned Pole to Rome and made him a cardinal. it was seen by many as PHYSICAL description: [8]. De concilio was written on the occasion of the convening of the Council of Trent. [1562] been delayed for eight years. D. in which he lambasted the church for its issued from the Aldine Press in Rome were Cardinal avarice. the Reformation and the corresponding Counter- Reformation. In his De concilio and at the (February 1562). Paulus immediately set up the press and sive piety. De concilia archbishop of Canterbury are of great historical and 48 political interest to students of contemporary England. 64 leaves. The council had No colophon. When Mary ascended the throne. mainly for political reasons. When Pope Paul III prepared a bull of excommunication and deposition against Henry. After leaving Venice and moving his operation to expecting a conventional opening speech full of inoffen- Rome in 1561. he asks. Were civil leaders and political figures. As a cardinal. and "spiritual wickedness in high Reginald Pole's De concilia and Reformatio Angliae places" (Schenk. REGINALDI POLI Among his friends and acquaintances were some of the greatest minds and most influential persons of the time. 1 11-13). most notably as papal legate to England and as one of three official legates to open the Council of Trent. CARDINALIS. ence in the actions of the council. DE CONCILIO Reginald Pole was a cousin to Henry VIII. Pole thus quickly distinguished 90 In Aedibus Aldi . As a young LIBER man he received an excellent education. These two books by the cardinal and subsequent council. Title and powerful men puffed up with pride and worldly calligraphed onto spine. LXII. When it finally did meet in 1545. were shocked with Pole's opening remarks at outlined a publication schedule." Frequently at odds with Henry VIII over the king's divorce and depar- ture from the church at Rome. abuse of office.

In the BYU copy of De concilio. There must be a severe penalty for simony. L V I. 503. and Works for and at Rome 91 . that all pastors must Physical description: 27. 48). who had labored so much while in exile for the Catholic reform movement. Like his father. the Roman church was again the official church Grasse. The Reformatio Angliae outlines Pole's plans and stems from a ZLG Reginald Pole. Heretical books must not be printed. followed the same tradition of exact scholarship for his first ventures in Rome as his father had done before him in Venice (cf. Renouard. LXII. as described by Curt Biihler.700 copies of De concilia in 1562. BM STC Italian. 116 ff). 142 ff). "I * * * am not come to destroy. not to condemn. as well as by setting a good example. throne. Priests. In that year these works. continued his efforts when References: Adams. Paulus made hand corrections to his printed texts. As Biihler concludes. POLI CARDINALIS. P-1744. American STC Italian. Brunct. [1] leaves. II est presque to return the church in England to its state before toujours reuni au suivant."). separately or together. 3 ("C'est le premier in England." he pledged (Antony. SEDIS APOSTOLICAE LEGAT1. he worked towards a genuine renewal (Schenk. strong evidence that Paulus exercised the same care and Apud Paulum Manutium Aldi F. Fenlon. [1562] the church and the remedies to be applied (ibid. Due to high demand he reprinted a second edition that same year of both De concilia and Reformatio Angliae. he returned to his native country. fourteen post-impression corrections. were also reprinted in Venice by Giordano Ziletti. Henry's divorce. With Mary on the Bietenholz. along with a preface by Manutius. instead. It announces. Pole. De concilia and Reformatio Angliae (no. or read. Priests must counteract false doctrines by preaching true Binding description: Bound with Reginald Pole. 529. to reconcile. in the spirit of the reform UCLA. 4:393. 185. De concilio doctrines and the principles of faith to their congrega- (no. Biihler [1952]. for example. REFORMATIO ANGLIAE This edition of De concilia also contains Pole's "De baptismo Constantini Magni imperatoris" (leaves EX DECRETIS REGINALDI 59-64). both while printing was in progress and after the sheets had gone through the press.. did not simply want volume imprime a Rome par Paul Manuce. D. It contains twelve decrees which summarize the ills of No colophon. Aldus. 5:393. (4to). but quickly sold out (Biihler [1952]). Paulus originally printed 1. graphically similar and were designed to be sold either ANNO M. hand alterations and stop-press emenda- tions are present. M. 197-99). 22 cm. 2:619.himself as one advocating reform (cf. now archbishop. sold. these emendations in De concilio are ROMAE. 49) are typo. Reformatio Angliae national synod he convoked after his return to England. but to build. Pole. 209-14). tions. 174-75). et tous deux sont rares. no. Signatures: A-G 4 . reside among their flocks or be sternly punished for absence. movement which he had helped nurture at Rome. D. 3:103-5.

sewn on single raised cords. instead. ROM Paulus promised to write and publish a complete history AE. TKIDtSIim There was a keen interest throughout the Catholic iVB PAVLO llli IVLIO HI.bishops in particular. Paulus states in the preface of the Canones et decreta the scope of his commission to "distinctly and clearly explain" all deliberations and controversies which may have arisen at the council. The Council of Trent is one of the most important events in the history of the Roman Catholic church. (fol. Aldi F. they present a selection of the most vital doctrines chosen to counter Protestantism. the whole doctrinal system of the Roman Catholic M. be chosen (Schenk. iii). The actual plan to publish the decrees did not come together until. after several lengthy delays in the council. tl CENERALIS CONCILM ough reform of the inner life of Christians (ibid. brown/tan worked and laced-in endbands.. "the council's dogmatic decrees 92 In Aedibus Aldi . P-1752. 143-44). with single front-beaded greater care: colleges were to be founded. an enterprise which detracted increasingly from his own scholarly pursuits. 530. Aldi F. [13] p. LXII1I. BM STC Italian. PONT1F1C1BVS MAX. [1564] | repeated on title page] church. It is # * # significant "not only because of its restatement of Catholic doctrine and its initiation of a genuine reform. other of his plans. Plain endpapers as from a seed-bed ("seminarium") future priests could and marbled pastedowns. he was never M D. Apud Paulum Minimum. UCLA. the need to publish and disperse the proceedings and decrees of the council was clear. . now in northern Italy. PIO 111!. able to compile this ambitious project which. They must remain unmarried and chaste. from which. The official publication of the decrees fell to Paulus Manutius at Rome. world in the proceedings and conclusions of the council. (such as costly clothing or ornate furniture) and live modestly. Vellum corners. References: Adams. tT DfcCKblA the heresies of the Protestants and bringing about a thor- SACKOiANCIl OECVMENICI.). The Canones et decreta make no attempt at embracing Colophon: Romac. Canones within and without the church" (Schroeder. from 1545 It to 1563 —with several breaks in between —with the twofold task of defining the doctrines of the church in reply to (JANUNtb. Pope Pius IV took it up in 1564. apud Paulum Manutium. 1 Unfortunately. of the Council of Trent. 4:788. 31 cm.. 504. LXIIII. like many CJum priuilcgio Pii 1 1 1 1 Pont. Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine. was 50 et decreta convened at Trent. Blue edges. was undoubtedly swallowed up by the demands and pressures of managing the press in Rome. Rcnouard. iii-iv). Brunet. must avoid all outward pomp Signatures: A-V 6 X 6 . Mux. 185. but also because of its extraordinary influence both Council of Trent. According to Schroeder.I). Pius created a special commission of cardinals for the preparation of the decrees for the press. Binding description: Vellum spine with brown pastepaper Candidates for the priesthood must be selected with sides. no 4. Title gold-tooled onto red leather label on spine. PHYSK ai DESCRIPTION: ccxxxix. As early as 1548.

as well as other patristic and theological works. D. Although Signatures: A-D 8 .. 1:5). Remnants of a paper label. forty-two in all. References: Renouard. UCLA. M. its linings visible on front flyleaf. no. 16 cm. . With Paulus's departure from Rome in 1570. the press was disbanded (ibid.. and catechisms of the Council of Trent. Pij 1 1 1 1. restrictive. the council appointed a commission to draft a new index. 4 ("extremement rare. Works for and at Rome 93 .. lists formed the basis of all subsequent indexes. the new Tridentine index was taken up Binding description: Limp vellum. sewn on single raised by Pope Pius IV and published in 1564 by Paulus leather thongs. This establishment was one of the official Vatican presses directed by Paulus Manutius. LXII1I- merite place parmi les livres les plus precieux. natural laced-in Manutius in Rome. 1565 and 1569. [1564] and was deeply divided.D. The Pauline C " Index librorum prohibitorum [Tridentine index. Max. BYU's second 1564 copy is a variant of the second Aldine edition. those of 1564. . means employed by the church to correct and remove tVM REQVLIb CONFECTIS the prevailing moral evils and abuses. The index Pont. while its Title calligraphed onto spine. Renouard notes that the Canones et decreta enjoyed unusual popularity and sold out quickly. decrees. In January of 1562 the Council of Trent took up the issue of the Index No colophon.N." (ibid. It was funded by a tax on the wine trade and was evidently controlled by the Senate (Morison. 1:3). are gems. Paulus Manutius. 529. per Patres a TndentinaSynodo delectos. Vellum spine authoritative guide the church had yet published. comprobatu* to the second edition is tipped in. first folio edition as described by Renouard. The BYU copy is the extremely rare first state of the auctoritateSan&ifs. This index "constituted the most endbands. 165). The first official censorship assumed directly through * * # papal authority came in 1559 with the publication of the Index auctorum et librorum prohibitorum under the direction of Pope Paul IV (Putnam [1967]. yet sufficently complete to leave to the INDEX LIBRORVM nothing wanting. compilers" (ibid. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. 190. rules were accepted as the guide for future censors and Bound with Canones et decreta. Remnants of foredge ties. BYU has three other Aldine editions of Canones et decreta. as it is also known. [In them] the reader will find the PROHIBITORVM. with single back-beaded. After the opening speeches. (8vo). masterpieces of theology reduced briefest possible form. It is considerably smaller in size and was published at the Tipographia del Popolo Romano. the council closed before the task of the commission was completed. et ViiNfcTIib. giving rise to multiple printings and editions. who oversaw its opera- tions from 1561 to 1570 and used it to print the canons."). 1565. The Pauline index had been seen by many as too controversial and excessively Physical description: 32 leaves. was the first in a long succes- index] sion of papal indexes.).).

translation of the Paraphrasis in evangelium Matthaei (Grendler [ 1 977 ] . see also Grendler [1977]. Blue silk allow certain nonrcligious works of some heretics. editions of the intense persecution and division within the church. The index specifically mentions the expurgated edition of Adagia * * * printed by Paulus Manutius as acceptable. For example. which bishops and tions. 34 cm. (4to). IV. Under Rule II. In contrast to the first nine rules. 1564. 24. Cologne. Old Testament edited by heretics and still free of Cyprian was beheaded and became the first African heresy were acceptable. . Physical description: [28]. mitigated the severity of the Pauline Binding description: Red goatskin. and Venice. under the tion censorship and control of book distribution. 115-127. with a few significant excep. All of Cyprian's works were Testament prepared by a "class I" heretic was strictly written in connection with his episcopal office. found in the preface to the 1564 index. spine. Gold-tooled with ornaments indices. [1563] nearly sixty printings of the Bible and Paul IVs universal condemnation of any scripture in the vernacular. Similarly." All Pauline index. 1-94. His trea- prohibited. Colored endpapers and pastedowns. 147-48). . The BYU copy has the papal arms on the title page Moriae encomium. Likewise. 146). Rules III.n. Jacques C9 Cyprian. no. matter" was good could be permitted in expurgated form (Rule VIII). One of the outcomes of the Tridentine commis- sion was the formulation of basic rules for Signatures: a 4 b (> c4 A-2M 6 2N-2T 4 (2T4 blank). and VI concerned Saint Cyprian (ca. 1:332-334. Brunet. 3:435. or other material authored by heretics could on front and back covers. Renouard. reproduced the author and title entries of the inquisitors often found vague and difficult to interpret. For example. A. The Tridentine index. censorship. board edges. The Tridentine index also dropped the prohibition of No colophon. de interdicto esu carnium. but they are noted for their literary 94 InAedibusAldi . Cyprian's writings are not only impor- well as any book condemned by the pope or council tant sources for the history of early church life and of before 1515 (Rule I). page marker. Title gold-tooled onto spine. and turn-ins. and the Tomitano the same year in Bologna. index. Institutio christiani matrimonii. ecclesiastical law. the Tridentine index took much more moderate views toward the expurgated writings of Savonarola. Paulus Manutius. Erasmus was reduced to a "class II" (Schroeder. someone suspected of heresy (nota haeresis bishops and inquisitors. as public addresses. Giovanni Battista Gelli. Pauline index. Works either obscene or dealing with tises and many of his letters were intended primarily as magic and the occult were to remain on the index. Gilt Books free of error but containing concordances. Grendler [1977]. index did insist on the expurgation of all his other reli.. Lingua. These rules. [52] p. a bishop or inquisitor could with single front-beaded brown/green endbands. but any edition of the New bishop to die a martyr. In a time of editions of the Bible. Bound with Eucherius. Under the who inherited books) to submit inventory lists Tridentine index. False bands on spine. 196. offender and had only six titles banned: the Colloquia. sewn on recessed cords. Rome. gious and some of his secular works. instead of the Aldine device. edges. Nevertheless. Most of the changes incorporated Rule X outlined "detailed instructions for prepublica- tended toward moderation. the Tridentine References: Adams. Other copies were printed Epistola . books that contained some error but "whose chief Commentarii in Genesim. 273-78. and others. The rule called for bookstores suspecti) whose entire corpus was banned (auctores to be inspected and for booksellers (as well as anyone quorum libri et scripta omnia prohibentur) . 424. be permitted after expurgation (Rule V). Erasmus had been classified as a "class I" new publications had to be approved and authorized by offender. Putnam [ 1967]. Opera Lefevre d'Etaples. 200-258) was one of the most qualified permissions and prohibitions regarding illustrious figures in early church history.

Aldi F. An able staff tract written with lenient disposition concerning the of correctors had been assigned to Paulus for the rebaptism of heretics and the readmission into the undertaking of the papal press. and even some additions made" (as quoted in Benson. The parallels between controversial passages and offers his justifications for the challenges the church faced in Cyprian's day and the interpolations in the text: "It is not improper if Works for and at Rome 95 . Under these circumstances.. One of the debated passages (p. shortly letter" (ibid. De catholicae ecclesiae imitate. However. 203). with an arsenal of quotations from Cyprian.merit as well. Was their Ad uericatcm uecuftifsimorum cxcmplarium fumma fide place to be under the pope but not dependent. 210). armed EPISCOPI CARTHAGINIENSIS. "deeming it no light crime to conceal the truth or to alter the smallest It was no accident that Paulus Manutius. antca nunmiam cdito. Regarding this passage. Pont. one of the most competent editors of the the Reformation was in full swing. and all are pastors and one flock is shown. powers by divine right or by papal authority. CAECILII CYPRIANI In 1563 at the Council of Trent bishops. . they fully dependent upon the pope for authority and power? At the very moment when the controversies Alia eidem Cypriano adferipta. Latini would not allow his name to be connected with the edition. Cum priuilegio Pn 1111. Benson concludes. were ET GLORIOSISSIMI MARTYRIS. and printers who were at its mercy" (Benson. heresies abounded. and primacy is given to Peter. cials from tampering with his text for polemical set about to publish the works of Cyprian. that one church of Christ and one chair may be pointed out. By Cyprian text was committed to Latino Latini. Cum INDICE rcrum ac ucrborum mcmorabilium maxima diligentia colle&o . The editing of the church of those who had fallen away from the faith. Powerless to prevent Vatican offi- after arriving in Rome as the church's official printer. raged. 202). Famous among his writings is the Lapsi. the church was racked with division. editing portions of the text had somehow been altered: "some passages were retained contrary to the evidence of the manuscripts. 139) refers to the calling of Peter by the Lord to be the rock of the church. In one of his private letters. a those in Paulus's day were unmistakable. period felt compelled to resign from his work. Nevertheless. written on the danger of intrigue and great controversy soon surrounded the schisms which faced the early church. advantage. and a forgery deliberately for three centuries past forged by papal authority in the teeth of evidence upon editors Apud PaulumManurium. . Benson. or were cmcndacajaddico eciam quinco epiftolarinu Iibro . 210). the Aldine text was a loaded deck in favor of the papists. At the time. In this tract 1563 Aldine Cyprian text. Max. The interpolated text interjects that "he estab- lished one chair . the Aldine Cyprian fortuitously appeared. Cyprian proclaims the famous doctrine of one church Latini complains that after all his laborious and careful founded upon the apostle Peter. to be fed by all the apostles with one-hearted accord" 2 (trans. one of far the best known of Cyprian's writings is the treatise the most capable editors of his day. and the Council A curious comment appears in a note after the index of Trent was hotly embroiled in the debate over the at the end of the text where Paulus touches upon the primacy of the pope in Rome. "The indictment we prefer is that every word of [the interpolated text] is a forgery. arguing back and forth whether they gained their O P E R A.

Metal clasps and bosses. After the fcDlTIONIS succession of three short-lived popes. The Sixtine-Clementine edition of the Latin Bible. Plain endpapers and pastedowns.). Clement VIII ascended the throne and ordered the withdrawal of all copies of the Sixtine edition (ibid. Benson. specially resented the SACRA Moreover. few realized how and where the original text had been altered. the Clementine edition. centuries the standard edition of the Bible for the Roman Catholic church. C-3161. with single front-beaded blue/white laced-in endbands. unsuspecting reader. After the Council of Trent had declared the Vulgate Bible the official Bible of the church. has been for d'excellents manuscrits"). 23 p. As Darlow and Moule point out. BM STC Italian. 200-211. in his writings had most at heart. Renouard. Initials stamped onto decorative Thorold. Grasse. it came as little V V LGATAE surprise that just a few days after the death of Sixtus (August 27. [1592] applied to the writings of the ancient fathers in order to preserve always the unity of the church which Cyprian Physical description: [12]. was published at Rome by Aldus the Younger. 2:316. 1590) the cardinals quickly issued a decree forbidding the further sale of this Bible. 2:459 ("Edition belle et rare"). Sixtus had placed some of Cardinal Bcllarmino's works on the Index librorum prohibitorum. Gilded PROVENANCE: Bookplate from the library at Syston Park.pious and catholic interpretations and true senses be No colophon. The Clementine Bible represented an attempt to M • JJ • X (J 1 1 incorporate the scholarly work of several papal commis- sions into the text of the earlier editions. metal plates on front and back covers. efforts were made to C 2 Vulgate Bible publish an authoritative edition. UCLA. 1131. 3 ("Cette edition est faite sur also known as the Clementine Bible. 207: Brunet. 36 cm. Since Signatures: * f> A-5A6 5B 8 a-b 6 . 188. Benson. this must have sounded mysterious to the Binding description: Vellum. References: Adams.). Brown silk ties. offending the Jesuits. Pope Sixtus V had labored long and carefully to produce his Sixtine Bible in 1590. edges. Within months the R O M A£ next official Vulgate version. ironically. Therefore. this version "aroused antagonism among both clergy and laity who BIBLIA were used to unrevised texts and order that their missals. Otherwise no end to the heresies and schisms" 3 (trans. breviaries. Metal plate in center of formed by Sir John Thorold and his son John Hayford front and back covers. 4 Having been rushed through to take 96 In Aedibus Aldi . It was first published in 1592 # * # at Rome by Aldus Manutius the Younger. no. Simple blind tooling on spine. sewn on single raised cords. It departed from the Sixtine text in many places but. (fol." and other materials be corrected to agree with the Sixtine edition (6184). 518. who tx Typographia APOSTOLICA VaTICANA headed the papal press. 212).. was full of errors itself.

.Second title page. Leaf *2r.

Greenslade. It was origi- Clement. the editors edition with the addition of the Prayer of Manasses and placed the name of Sixtus on the title page instead of 3 and 4 Esdras in an appendix at the end. cial inquisitors and bishops were to see that it was The title page to the 1592 edition is printed in red faithfully followed and to give their license or impri. no. Catholic church for centuries. To avoid these heavy penalties. References: BM STC Italian. The Protestant untimely death. quently planned to correct them in a subsequent Penalties similar to those recited in Sixtus's bull were edition but was prevented from doing so by his prescribed for any who should disobey. and the receiving of the edition.the place ot the recalled Sixtine edition. the any other text to be used under any circumstances Clementine Bible differs notably from the Sixtine whatsoever. . and the provin. It is estimated that the Clementine text rival editions and specifically ridiculed the doctrine of differs from the Sixtine edition in more than five thou. collated with a Vatican copy" (Darlow and Moule. Darlow and Moule. in a papal bull prefacing his the temptation by the serpent. papal infallibility on the basis of these competing and sand places. There is an added engraved title page with matur on that condition only" (Greenslade. notes and variant readings. the Clementine Bible was issued Aldine Press in just four months. up until 1604. vignettes depicting such biblical events as the Creation. . It only was to be taken as copy-text. Morison. 696. This was problematic since The stern prohibitions of Clement's bull secured the the preface to the Sixtine edition declared that only it Clementine version as the official Bible for the Roman was "true. 6184). been added. Sixtus. Max. 1 ("tres rare"). issued by Plantin in 1583. In addition to the absence of dared to change his text in any way and had forbidden marginal references.). official Vulgate text revised. Furthermore. 248. edition to the world under the name of Sixtus (Biblia Sacra vulgata editionis Sixti Qtiinti Pont. 6184. the name of Clement has Grasse. Renouard. 450). and thus were able to present a totally new nally issued in 500 copies. Accordingly. Steinberg. 208-9. it rolled off the Like its predecessor. legitimate. 163-65. Sixtus appeared alone on the title page texte authentique de la Vulgate"). 68-9. Clement VIII had taken controversialists made great play of the history of these up this task. and it follows closely the Louvain Bible contradictory bulls and the vastly differing texts (ibid. Since then. UCLA. authentic and unquestionable. iussu recog. and black. Cardinal Bellarmino with a new papal bull "which forbade the printing of any (who had been a professor at Louvain) claims in the edition outside the Vatican for ten years. Brunet. 1:878 ("devenue le nita atque edita). had declared severe penalties against any who Ten Commandments. occasionally it is listed by itself. Not until 1907 was the . 93. 234. after which time preface that Sixtus had noticed many errors in his no edition might be published unless it had been first Bible shortly after it was published and had conse. 1:395. 9H In Aedibus Aldi .

1578 In M. they must also be acknowledged house of Aldus as one of the greatest for their own writings which made original and singular and most prolific firms in the history of contributions to the history of scholarship. Tulli Ciceronis in Aldus Manutius the Younger.S.AJ. While this vast erudition was widely respected in his own day. early printing. but also from the profound effect recognizable among other things for its quality of schol. 24).« A Paulus Manutius Aldus Manutius the Elder in Aldus Manutius the Younger. Orationes Pauli Manutii commentarius. His arship and its excellence in typography. The three generations of Manutius The fame of Aldus Manutius comes not only from printers contributed to the wide reputation of the press. of his scholarship upon the learning of the world. his work as a printer. Tnlli Ciceronis Orationes Pauli Manutii commentarius. family of scholar-printers is largely responsible for the especially his abilities with the Greek language. The Manutii as Authors 99 . enthusiasm. which survival of many ancient texts and "greatly facilitated the won the enthusiastic acknowledgment of renowned A». THE MANUTII AS AUTHORS n any of the countless histories of diffusion of the values. and scholarship of printing written in the last century one Italian Renaissance humanism to the rest of Europe" will find abundant reference to the (Grendler [1984]. 1578 In M. Leaf *lv. Leaf *lr.

and thus his early publications were text books. 22 cm. 204 leaves. 60) with the probable intent of influencing local those which he did write were close to his heart. Giovanni lecturer. C A Aldus Manutius. Throughout his life Paulus combined the occupations of diligent student with that of esteemed printer. D. Paulus left his business to his son. phrases which was a precursor to the modern thesaurus.1J1 JNJirOS. his grandfather was dispersed and the business closed. his acclaimed letter writing abilities. butions to the standardization of Latin spelling with his Orthographiae ratio (no. Institutiones grammaticae tional quality of his publications. His underlying principle and inspiration in becoming a printer and publisher was to "turn the world into his classroom" (Grendler [1984]. and pastedowns. always saw himself as a teacher charged to instruct others in good letters and morals. Aldus produced his own instructional grammar (no. and he was left to the care of Andrea After little more than a century of labor in the cause Torresani. Aldus the Younger managed the operations of Gregoropoulos. he also worked with him. he AliUVS MAiMVTlVS tA\ L. Paulus applied himself diligently this great house of printers came to an end when the and at the age of twenty-one had already established younger Aldus died in Rome. compiled a biography of the late Cosimo de' Medici Although Aldus wrote only a few treatises himself. 59). none of them rose to the standard of Ciceronian correctness Aldus the Younger aspired to by the Renaissance humanists. and Thomas Linacre. which is reflected in the excep.scholars from all over Europe including Desiderius Between several stints as professor and distinguished Erasmus. Paulus Manutius was only two years old when his father died. This was the sort of book for which. the Younger. False bands on spine. From the moderate success BINDING DESCRIPTION: Brown sheepskin. in Renouard. with cloth brown/white endbands. Giovanni Battista Egnazio. (NO.Lii JblLlVS AL. Signatures: a-y 8 z4 2a-2d 8 . He felt he had a divine mission to help his fellowman. It was written to provide simple and correct instruction for young students learning Latin. 260. At a very early age Aldus the Younger et Andreae Soceri. 58). his maternal grandfather and the business of scholarship and belles lettres. 14). first published in 1493 by Andrea Torresani. 55-57) reflect his prominence as a Ciceronian scholar. [1523] enjoyed fame as the precocious author of the Eleganze delta lingua toscana e latina (NO. the creative enterprise of associate of his father. and his interest in * * * Roman antiquities. During the time the press was at Bologna. 54). Those of his works described here (NOS. Aldus officials to issue him a printing permit. Gold. (4to). The vast library which for himself a solid reputation for scholarship and had descended to Aldus the Younger from his father and learning. Just a few years later he made lasting contri. we may surmise. searched in vain in his own student days. though the Middle Ages had produced many grammars. all of whom had the press. Aldus Manutius Colophon (leaves 172 and 204): Venetiis in aedibus Aldi. M. sewn on recessed of these early works Aldus the Younger continued to cords. Plain endpapers enjoy honor and reputation throughout his life. XXIII.and blind- 100 In Aedibus Aldi . a collection of Physical description: [8]. As a natural extension of his desire to teach others. mensc lulio.

Apparently. even the limited success of Aldus's grammar was more In preparing his own grammar. and hate such studies" (trans. success. Children will become desperate. "I had to teach young children and I was not of these four early publications. These were work was revised and prepared for its first publication not. . 228). In the epilogue to the 1493 edition. The use durum futim fe offerunt. a third Alexander de Villedieu's Doctrinale (originally written utterly inept and indigestible. One of his teachers had been an ineffec- taskmaster who forced his students to memorize LTBRI QVATVORi tive Alexander de Villedieu's Doctrinale of twenty-six thou- . . an improvement. One was quite short and concise. . he admonishes teachers. The predominant grammar of the day was still another exceedingly diffuse and ostentatious. since the ancient grammars usually contained excessive detail. in the preface to Institutiones grammaticae. 63). none of them satisfied ca. After establishing his own with currently available grammars. such a drudgery-filled task was too much for even the future grammarian himself: Aldus explains that having to memorize the work of Alexander as a child had caused even him to suffer greatly ("plurimum dolco"). . Title The fifteenth-century humanist-grammarians had gold-tooled onto front cover. Out of dissatisfaction in 1493 by Andrea Torresani. the The Institutions grammaticae were written during the humanists sought to eliminate many cumbersome 1480s when Aldus the Elder was teaching at Carpi. Included in this section is a short fragment on the Greek alphabet and Qhs q«o<B Iibro contincntat hanc uoluemi rudimentary interlinear Greek and Latin texts. not your own composition in prose and verse or those in the grammar book. Grendler [1984]. 228). 1508 and 1514) before he died. there judgement had yet written a grammar suitable for is much evidence to indicate that it enjoyed much not instructing children.. 1 In spite explains. At the end of the Institutiones grammaticae is a miscella- neous section of grammatical items. Aldus must have had this unpleasant expe- rience in mind when. They will unlearn in a few days what took great effort to learn. . run away from school. The particulars in favor of simplified versions. Aldus was led to printing press. a editions during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. as evidenced by no fewer than 279 me. taken the ancients as their model. Bateman. I have sought what I most felt the need of.&afc9t"Ro«f6dtmi opofculom deoftoorx* sand lines in rhymed hexameter (Rostenberg and Stern tiofiis putfom coaftru&'oae* [1977]. 14). . treatment of complex subjects. however. and introduced several passages of mnemonic verse (ibid. . Lowry has suggested that (trans. Aldus times (in 1501. tooled with ornaments on front and back covers. eliminated the in-depth of the work (Lowry. The memo- rization of these verses would be much different from Ator pit MAwviTi iNsrirvrro* the experience Aldus himself had had as a young man NYU GRAMMATICAKYM learning Latin. Aldus published the grammar three write his own. grammar to teach children quickly and effectively" enjoyed immense popularity. However. . which. No one in my grammar was reissued fifteen times before 1568. "Do not force chil- dren to memorize anything except the best authors. Aldus reduced the a result of the author's prestige than any intrinsic merit amount of explanatory material. . of such texts to help students learn Greek was common The Manutii as Authors 101 . and even though the able to do it as effectively as I wished. 26). 1199).

from title pages. and since Paulus's Greek was not of the caliber of grammar. He had fallen out of favor on several the chief of which are his corrected editions of and accounts with the Church and had consequently been commentaries on Cicero's letters and orations. Title gold-tooled An interesting curiosity in the BYU copy is that the onto two leather labels. the production of which never came about. 51). While both a scholar and a printer. 447. is the same preface used in the duction. 1508 and 1514 editions. Marx. although the earlier 1501 and 1514 editions did. In this age of humanism. UCLA. one brown on spine.. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes Paulli Manutii Commentarius DILTCIDA BREYITAlD COl'IOSISSIMVS. originally published in London in 1513. one purple. see Dutchman). (fol.YSj TVta ELECANS IM PRiMIS.e. X V M C C Paulus Manutius. and even his change to a Paulus Manutius was a passionate Ciceronian. 34) and the spec. sewn Institutions grammaticae. Cicero was 102 InAedibusAldi . other use of Hebrew type was a line of Hebrew in the 1498 edition of Poliziano's Opera (NO. The 1523 edition does not contain this intro. 64-67. on single raised cords with cloth red/gold endbands. name of Erasmus on the title page as well as at the head of leaf 180 (i. Aside from them. 195.pedagogical practice. The title page and introduction are printed in red and laneous section also mentions an introduction to the black ink. 1523 edition.. no. imen for a proposed polyglot Bible in Hebrew. Putnam [1967]. and Latin. MI. Binding description: Brown calfskin over pulpboard. 340. * * * Dt OCTO ORATIONIS 1'UTIYM CONSIKVCriONt JL. and "class II" author left his work suspect. Herennium lib. 67.N5U AYTHOKE Physical description: 3 v. Gold-tooled with ornaments on front and back covers and turn-ins. The preface to the linguam). Greek. By the time Paulus assumed control of the press The contribution Erasmus made at the end the book is a most available Greek texts had been published at least short preface and epitome of William Lily's Latin once. Robertson. 7. Paulus is by Church censorship omitted the name of Erasmus best remembered for his contributions to scholarship. 98. 34 cm. Leaf cclr. Batavus quidam homo (a certain with Cicero (Rhetorkorum ad C. In fact.IBfcJUI. The BYU copy has contempo- The use of I Iebrew type by Aldus in his primers may rary sketchings on the verso of leaf 43 and the recto of have been the first in Venice. Grasse. a cursory view of the works issued name in the BYU copy was the vigilant act of someone from the Aldine Press during the tenure of Paulus will fearful of being exposed for possessing a work associated reveal an inordinate number of works by or commen- with an "indexed" author. 1:334. As a "class I" author own letters written in a Ciceronian style.ODA. and his placed on the index (see NO. taries on Cicero. The table of contents to this miscel. Rcnouard. No colophon [1578-79] t K A b MU KUltK. Undoubtedly. In M. 4:374. 59. In his father's. dated 1507.). his only leaf 189. 190) is crossed out in contemporary ink. Spaces with guide letters have been left for Hebrew language (Introductio perbrevis ad hebraicam capitals in the second two books. References: Brunet. his works had been forbidden. he devoted himself primarily to the Latin the 1520s many printers within the territories controlled classics. the striking out of Erasmus's BYU copy). 3:1382. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. Eisenstein. Some printers when he took charge of the press in 1533 it was no acci- dodged the controversy by publishing works of Erasmus dent that the first work he printed was a work associated under an alias.

He died in the spring of 1574.. graphic approval of Paulus. Putnam [1967]. with the remaining two volumes coming off the press in 1579. The Manutii as Authors 103 . Paulus had neyed to Venice also intended that his son. During this trip. with its comprehensive and analytical commentaries.). long before the publication of the work that meant so much to him. he wrote back to AD. was felt that he helped men to think as well as to speak. Paulus was compelled to grammar and rhetoric. he gave specific instructions for the printing of the Commentaries but had to leave Paulh Manutij Commencanus. When he later received the first sheets of the work. Cicero and Quintilian. together with Paulus's other editions of Title page to vol. "concerning the sale of my Cicero. Cicero was for many the letters." he writes in his ties. the Younger. He worked steadily through the language and literature of antiquity. Paulus had speci- philosophy in nontechnical terms. communication and written composition. who had labored so long to restore the good name of the Aldine Press. In 1572. 1. ment in the preliminary results of the heir to the press. X 1 1 I Aldus the Younger expressing his bitter disappoint- I'UNT . long remained the accepted authority on Cicero. "I feel very hopeful. and it was he who could best summarize classical Plantin. U FT . with a proper selection of type and on decent paper" (ibid. and to print these signatures again. Paulus jour- to visit his son Aldus and his Aldus new ORATION ES bride. GREGORIVM . commentaries. print the work. Liberalium difciplinarum Maecenatem. and hopeful source of eloquence and the inspiration and guide for also that it will not be reprinted fin pirated editions] those who sought to return to the classical world. Still. The standards which would become the most important of his of rhetoric and oratory were founded on two authori. Cicero. Latin rhetoric and winter months on his commentaries on the orations of oratory became the dominant model for both oral Cicero.extremely popular. as teachers of Because of failing health.. 2 It during my lifetime" (trans. In negotiating with Plantin. this scholarly edition.MAX. Venice before printing had begun. and you knew I had this undertaking so much at heart! . you could hardly have printed it c v M r&i viLKuin in a more tasteless and slovenly style . Aldus the Younger did not print the first volume until 1578. Although Plantin either printed or reprinted several works of the Aldine Press. The Italian humanists. 3 M-TVLLII CICERUNIS However. fied the form and style of the Antwerp edition and had come to terms regarding his share of the profits from the sales. were consumed with the leave Rome in 1570. "If you had had in your hands some utterly contemptible scribble. . 444). I have instructed Basa to burn all the sheets that have been printed. Paulus had arranged for this work to be published in his works were accessible to readers who knew no Antwerp by the famed Belgian printer Christopher Greek. Paulus was never able to see the final publication of the Commentaries. oo D LXX11X volumes would have met the quality standards and typo- Apud Alduui. apparently the I N Commentaries project was never accomplished. One can only guess whether these VENETHS. . Paulus had great aspirations for this work.

Kennedy. Grasse. 3:1383. no. Academy. as Renouard points out. * # * LIBRI II1I. 1580. REFERENCES: American STC Italian. 169-229. 225. Signatures: A-Y8 2y 4 Z 8 2A-2G 8 . and commentators. each most notable humanists of the century (including with separate title page and publication date. the Epistolae is a collection of letters and dedi- catory prefaces written by Paulus Manutius to many of the notable figures of his time. which has the illustrious 1560 edition. Sonnino. with the intent to the enduring popularity and success of the work. BYU also has this Aside from the first edition of 1558 and this subsequent reprinted set (see 1583 copy). 4:375. 195-219.D. C fa Paulus Manutius. [1560] Physical description: [8]. D. Epistolae Colophon: Venetiis. 168. was not merely rhetorical or merely literary. and some of the about Cicero. 1573. The literary productions of Paulus are a remark- the Elder appears on each title page and a woodcut able combination of pure and elegant diction leavened portrait of Paulus appears on the verso of the title page with vast erudition which. 2-14. that they be kept together as a set. Errors in foliation: Leaf 134 misnumbered 14. Eiufdem qua? prxfationes appellantur. Paulus combined the eloquence and style of Ciceronian Latin with contem. Brunet. in 1583 Aldus the Younger reissued these frequent reprinting of the Epistolae stands as a testimony same works. each with a new title page. 1590. [3] leaves. LX. 2:330. the work was reprinted by the Aldine provenance and bookplate of James Loeb. The to Renouard. based on classical writing which was highly instrumental in the emerging models. with single front-beaded green worked and laced-in endbands. Among the most popular kinds of They did not intend empty pomposity. Marbled endpapers and pastedowns. 4. renaissance of letters. 15 cm. of volume one of the Commentaries. Their writing. According Erasmus and Juan Luis Vives) wrote them. This portrait of eminently distinguished Paulus from the multitude of Paulus does not appear in the 1583 edition. Renaissance humanists were preoccupied with the porary issues and people to provide a model of letter pursuit of eloquence. and the Loeb Classical Library. Green silk page marker. M. Binding description: Vellum. 226. 1571. All three volumes of the BYU copy are bound textbooks in the sixteenth century were instruction together and constitute part of a larger set of works by or manuals in the art of letter writing. other scholars. EPISTOhARVM PAVLI MANVTII. Originally published in 1558 by the Venetian VENETIIS. Title gold-tooled onto red leather label on spine. Yellow edges. M. no. sewn on single raised cords. LX. founder of Press alone in 1561. 1569. 3. (8vo). editors. [4]. The entire set contains ten volumes. extravagant arti- 104 In Aedibus Aldi . Renouard. A woodcut portrait of Aldus 1595.

sewn the church's official printer. 639-59. and influential regarding their role as protectors of the republic. 413. following the Ciceronian authorities or to squabbles between Paulus and those tradition. at the strong encouragement of friends and the end. some of the later editions suppress the was to move men toward virtue and worthwhile goals" names of certain individuals. at the age of twenty-one. scholar. Liber de legibus which would transcend all historical precedent. elegance. He saw himself as a mediator ("moderator rei publicae") between the glory of Physical description: [4]. Paulus Manutius was no exception in 3:380-81. UCLA. In accepting the pope's invitation to come to Rome as Binding DESCRIPTION: Undyed pigskin over pasteboard. provided his contemporaries with the first in a series of reveals the ambitions and visions of a scholar and writer four works dedicated to the study of Roman antiquities. a solid reputation for textual editing and learning when The Manutii as Authors 1 05 . The true orator. Bound with Carlo Sigonio. As a humanist. True eloquence "could arise only out of a the same with a few variations of minor importance. lxxx. careerists in government or literary and religious figures. As harmonious union between wisdom and style. Bietenholz. Paulus had established civic renewal of Rome. written to key wide backgrounds: poets. [1557] political as well as religious reform. 1556). or subordination of substance to form and The various Aldine editions of Epistolae are basically ornament. Mouchel. In several of his pref. Plain endpapers and paste- printed word he would appeal to the "oculis et in downs. Brunet. Using the tools of rhetoric. Paulus also collected and published several sive experience. and printers. state"). 497-514.ficiality." Renouard. no. he looked forward to a respublica Christiana. the world about him constructively. 2:330. Blind tooling with auribus clarissimae atque eruditissimae civitatis" ("to the ornaments on front and back covers. together with his other academic writings. exten. 456). REFERENCES: American STC Italian. 12. 19:1146 ("Hierdurch nun brachte er cated his prefaces to aristocrats and Italian nobility who [Paulus Manutius] seine Schreib-Art zu solcher were sympathetic to the belles lettres. Paulus encourages and instructs the noble Cicero seine selbst hielte. [2] leaves. Rome and the civil and religious aristocrats of contempo- rary Italy. Fasti consulares. friends. Zedler. 180. lecturers. 3:1383. Paulus envisioned a universal city governed by sages ("sapientissimi viri") C y Paulus Manutius. 487. 498). Red sprinkled edges. (fol). mentioned. and in so doing Epistolae. although these letters."). Title calligraphed eyes and ears of the brilliant and most learned city. Typically. With Cicero. with single front-beaded service to the vision of a new Rome. Paulus printed his De legibus. The potential grandeur of the Christian state Paulus Manutius. and style. Tre libri di eruditi"). To this end he dedicated his talents as a printer. striving to combine eloquence and wisdom to influence 4:375. Paulus was consecrating his on double raised cords. BM STC Italian. onto spine. 32 cm. built on the glorious foundation provided by the ancients — Cicero in particular — consumed Paulus to In 1557. they directed their efforts toward teaching men and spurring them to noble action. Signatures: A4 (A4 blank) B-X4 Y2 . 1556. its aim Renouard notes. a dual civil and religious ideal. and good character ("boni viri et editions of his letters in Italian (see BYU copy. Renouard. daB man seine Briefe fast so hoch als des aces and letters. Grasse. moins elegant que les lettres latines. Green ties. Gray. usually due to orders from (Gray. was one who combined wide learning. and Latin prose writer. these uomini universali were men of lettere volgari. The wide range of writings collected in the colleagues. Vollkommenheit. are church. teachers. Heavily influenced by classical and Ciceronian * * * concepts. He frequently dedi. immersed in an ideal and dedicated to the spiritual and Earlier. He real- ized that for this to come about there would need to be No colophon. Through the green/red/yellow endbands. or — as in the case of not as elegant as the Latin letters ("d'un style peut-etre Paulus — printers.

inannos XX. the last leaf. On the verso of the publication ofDe legibus in 1557. Ring and pin clasps. 4 it seems highly unlikely that such a young child could be capable of producing a treatise on Italian diction and style. Eleganze della lingua toscana c latina. these works cover a vast range of subjects and form a critically References: American STC Italian. The first edition of Eleganze (1556) was published when Aldus the Younger was not yet nine years of age. a collection of phrases and abstracts in Italian and Latin. Herennium lib. the first printing has only five printed lines strated that. Burgundy/white tackets at the head and tail. Following De legibus. Renouard notes priuilegio Pauli II II Pont. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. comitiis and Dc civitate romana in 1585. Paulus demon. and De Frederick Kraus. Renouard. acclaimed contribution to the study of Roman antiqui. M. he took over operations of his father's press and The BYU copy of De legibus is the "five-line" first published the Rhetoricorum ad C. more conceivable that the book was made for his Cum instruction by his father. Together. 1604. Binding description: Brown goatskin. LVI'I. MI. D. Written in Paulus's elegant Latin. It delta lingua toscana e latina has an index at the end. With between the two states of this edition. no. (8vo). ties. he was equally capable of primary and inde- pendent scholarship. 16 Pauli Manutii Signatures: f 8 A-N s 2 E-F« P-Y« (Y8 blank). and to whom one must speak in short clauses. 3:381. As evidence. a treatise dealing with * * * Roman law. 3:1384. Although many believe that he was talented and bright as a youth. 447. sewn on double Index rcrum mcmorabilium raised cords. 4:375. LIBER DE LEGIBVS. that Paulus describes the young Aldus in a letter not as ScnatusVencti. Eleganze his own political ideology and views on the ideal state. these works are UCLA. Paulus discourses on such topics as the princeps and absolute justice. PhilippiHifpanix. Leipzig. with single front-beaded burgundy/white endbands. 18. Hcnrici Regis Gallix. . 2:329. Brunet. et cui 106 InAedibusAldi . representative of his clear prose while revealing his prodigious learning. Caroliv Imp. an infant prodigy but as "[possessing a] weak body. Max. No colophon. the press Provenance: Contemporary ownership signature of George published his Dc senatu in 1581 (see BYU copy). Grasse. It is VENETIIS. marks the beginning of the modern thesaurus. ROMANARVM leaves. a issue of the first edition. aside from his celebrated skills as a printer while the second issue has thirty-three. and editor. [1558] ANTICLVITATVM Physical description: [191] cm. Title blind- tooled onto spine. Simple blind tooling on front and back covers. as Renouard distinguishes work then attributed to Cicero (see BYU copy). 172. thereby disclosing some of r Q Aldus Manutius the Younger. In De legibus. practically syllable by syllable" ("imbccillum corpore. Bietenholz.

he squandered his money on frivolous a literary and scholarly reputation for the youngster and pursuits rather than investing in manuscripts or new thereby return honor and glory to the family name. Simple gold tooling on spine. e l'altra lingua * * * C Q Aldus Manutius the Younger. and he held various posi- of Cicero's letters. . Title gold- IN VENETIA. Precocious though the younger Aldus may have In spite of early fame and the promise of a great and been. age of fifty. lack of it — the prestige of the Aldine Press rapidly This early portfolio is very impressive: Eleganze (age declined. one spellings from ancient inscriptions and manuscripts. to see that his son aspire to greatness as a scholar and apparently brought more embarrassment than honor to printer. and 1570 editions of the work. utilifsime al comporre nelTuna UCLA. he epistole famigliari (age twelve). LYIIL tooled onto red leather label on spine. types. Paulus no doubt the family name (Zedler. two editions published that year. 412. Signatures: A-G 8 . the Aldine Press The Eleganze was an came through several editions. 19:1144). 6 Aldus the Younger never accom. serious doubts arise whether he as a fourteen- celebrated future. Aldus the Younger's name is associated with the family business. He died at the the Orthographiae ratio (NO. The to an end. year-old was solely responsible for the 1561 first edition plished much in comparison to his famous father and of the Orthographiae ratio. 4:376: Renouard. E-100. the The Manutii as Authors 107 . as his grandfather had. [1561] Physical description: 55. (8vo). Binding description: Marbled paper sewn on recessed cords. D. Adams. 173. Grasse. Aldus the Younger did print eight). Nevertheless. Sciclte da Aldo Manutio. Orthographiae ratio No colophon. References: American STC Italian. Plain endpapers and Con priuilegio pastedowns. In a series of letters written by Paulus. His heart was never in Thus. Based on vast collections of grandfather. and with him the glory and enterprises of ELEGANZE. 59) (age fourteen). 3 and tions and chairs at different universities. 2:326. on account of his moral impropri- believes that Paulus was proud of his firstborn and eager eties ("liederliches Leben") and financial troubles. as his name might suggest. no. Living a lavish wanted to do all that he could to help establish early on lifestyle. 6. instant success and BYU 1558 copy is one of went INSIEMECON LA COPIA. BM STC Italian. BYU also has the 1559 DELLA LINGVATO. 17 cm. 450. the "new and infinitely more correct" translation several noteworthy works. M. [1] leaves. dictandum sit incisim. with rolled leather endbands. et pene syllabatim"). and under his management — or several works published while he was still in his youth. Rcnouard detects that Aldus. S CAN A E LA TIN A. .

UCLA. The second edition was published in 1566 and reprinted in 1591 (see BYU copies). COLLECT A. Aldus also published in 1575 (see BYU copy) an abridged edition of this work under the title Epitome orthographiae. However much responsibility Aldus shared handy reference in the Orthographiae ratio. coins.). 412. sometimes only a few and reproductions of Roman transcriptions. he did appropriate the The first edition of this small work was met with subject matter and make significant and lasting contri. 182. the work is well done and proved to be a very scholars. in the preface rightly describes the first edition as a "little book" (libcllo). The sioned the need for a more expanded edition. Often early of Latin words. 10S InAedibusAldi . them. through the printing press had made the need for despite the unlimited confidence that Aldus puts in uniform spellings all the more urgent. Students. References: Adams. 493. 3-187. Vita di The need for such a work in the sixteenth century Cosimo de' Medici was readily apparent. [1586] or proelium. (fol. The second edition further contains a separate treatise of about two hundred pages entitled De veterum notarum explanatione dealing with Latin abbreviations and a section on the Roman calendar. Brunet. at slightly over one hundred pages. AJJ ALDO MANVT1U. editors. of the first. went to Rome to be with his father. 2:327. in which he dropped the abbreviations and made general improvements. and manuscripts. which reprints verbatim the preface l'AVLI F. preparation for a greatly expanded second edition. and printers alike found a quick and useful tool. no. There he visited libraries and collected and researched early Roman ORTHOGRAPHIAE inscriptions. American STC Italian. writers and printers were Physical DESCRIPTION: |1()|. Although sentences apart.Orthographiae sets forth a system for the uniform spelling seldom consistent in spelling the language. and this occa- butions to the standardization of Latin spelling. M-452. MD LXI AQ Aldus Manutius the Younger. 4:376. qukquid or quidquid? Even though Latin was universally understood. Renouard. in the early editions of this work. Should one use nunquam or numquam. Grasse. The second edition. The abridged edition was probably the most useful and successful of the different editions. * # # VENETIIS. 6. lost any such distinction when it jumped to eight hundred pages. unprecedented success and popularity. especially among editors and printers. [4] p. 34 cm. 3:1384. Aldus all in RATIO. BM STC Italian. medallions. Renouard work of Aldus the Younger on Latin orthography is tells us that a year after the initial publication Aldus probably his greatest contribution to scholarship. The proliferation of the written word the accuracy of several of the inscriptions is doubtful. praelium No colophon. The work contains Latin words arranged writers and printers varied the spelling of the same word alphabetically and interspersed with ancient citations within the same document.: map.

.

Francesco de' Medici. Decorated Initial Portraying Cosimo de' Medici Cosimo I. Signatures: f 4 (f4 blank) A-2A 4 (2A4 blank). the destructions of war and the sewn on recessed cords. as Renouard points out. ruinous to the state. he had to petition local authorities. was capable of great cruelty. I lis rule was intelligent. that Aldus was offered the chair of belles-lettres at the University of Pisa and other enticements which proved hard to refuse. to talent and prudence. skillful. soon after ascending ornamented with a wreath and cherubs. This ot Machiavelli's Prince. Sorbelli believes that the Vita was actually printed by someone else at Bologna. was a statesman of eminent ability who ruled Florence as an absolute prince. In the end. avec lesquelles sont decrites les Aldine Press during the Bologna period. Title stamped in black onto spine. 471). 18:36-37). and despotic. Aldus exercised consider- able discretion and literary judgment ("/a pulitezza. Binding DESCRIPTION: Vellum spine with green cloth sides. He is often characterized as a ruthless The Vita has an engraved title page within a border tyrant with stern resolve. In fact. Earlier. While recounting the life and Top edge gilt. In fact. perhaps Benacci. Leaf f2r. la The Vita di Cosimo de' Medici is the major work of the eleganza. e la proprieta. when actions du grand-due Cosme. deeds of Cosimo in the Vita." Renouard. he was regarded by many as the incarnation coat of arms is below the title on the title page. The Medici to power. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. Leaf B2v. with single front-beaded heavy tax burdens imposed on Tuscany proved red/white/blue endbands. Vita di Cosimo de' Medici. Whether the book ever achieved its intended effect is not clear. Grand Duke of Tuscany (1519-1574) from Vita di Cosimo de' Medici. being Aldus the Younger wanted to transfer the operations of careful not to offend the wrong people or to stir up the press to Bologna. unpleasant memories in others. while Aldus waited for the official approval to move his press. The Vita may have been designed with the specific intent to influence favorably those who were to make the decision. "inasmuch as he joined daring work has two woodcut headpieces and initials with 110 Iii Aedibus Aldi . apparently the work sufficiently impressed the reigning duke and son of Cosimo. and yet could practise mercy in due season" (EB. But. Aldus had written or planned several other historical works which were intended to be part of his grand design to provide local histories of Italy.

manuscript and printed ex libris of Walter Wilson engraved map of Tuscany signed by Giacomo Franco. Renouard. BYU copy lacks these). the capital "P. The headpieces consist of two dukes and a genealogy of Cosimo tipped in at the back. 238. scenic backgrounds." Some copies of the Vita have two full. Within each headpiece is a A manuscript note in the front of the BYU copy claims cartouche. 291-309. Sowell. Gamba da Bassano. of the Italian Renaissance"). 666. The engraved title page and 276. ("handsomely printed . 97. engraved bookplate of the Earl of initial "E. the biography breathes the spirit The text has manuscript marginal notes throughout. Brunet. . female figures with trumpets. Mortimer. 1:937. The Manutii as Authors 111 . . Sorbelli. American STC Italian." At the head of the text on page 6 is a small Oxford. Vita di Cosimo de' Medici. Renouard reports that he that of the second shows the river god Arno with a view has seen only two such copies. that of the first depicts a pile of crowns while that it is a large paper copy. Grasse. 1896"). 4:376. page engraved portraits of Cosimo and Francesco (the 3:1386. There is a portrait of Cosimo de' Medici in the woodcut capital "C" on page 12. Camb. no. 2:328. 1503. with contemporary necrological notes of the grand Brunet. supp. Bramanti. UCLA. 412. BMC STC Italian. Cf. 330. Rostenberg. and a portrait of Pope Pius V in References: Adams. LcafA3v. 43 portraits are attributed to Agostino Carracci. of Florence in the background. 5. Mortimer notes that the second cartouche with its view of Florence seems to Provenance: Red stamp of the Colonna family library have been the model for the background to the woodcut (Libraria Colonna). Greg ("Trim Coll. Parenti. M-457.

.

As revolutionary as Galileo's discovery of a greatest events since antiquity (cited in Hirsch 394— 95). provincial Representing this period are a few treatises published concepts of history and geography gave way to a wider by the Aldine Press reflective of the excitement of comprehension of civilization as a whole. Pliny the Elder devoted four books of his Natural History New understanding was gained of the earth itself. ancient and contemporary similarly displaced the center of gravity in politics and alike. the intellec. Gradually the focal point shifted Odyssey and the legend of the Argonauts. where newly discovered geography. 23:90). the Greek geographer living in thus effectively the entrance upon a quite incalculably Rome. 1536. the Frobens in the Renaissance revival of learning. For example. the Greeks from the eastern to the western powers of Europe. animals. Beginning j^£^ expansion beyond the continent. Basel. ming from the discovery of new lands combined with tual boundaries of such fields as botany. with the ancient Greeks and the geographers of the Nowhere were the new discoveries more dramatic and ancient world and continuing down to works of his own exciting than in the realm of oceanic exploration and day. Cortez's conquest eries. and therapeutic medicine changed overnight. Ptolemy is most noted for single group out of many in the diverse units of two works. Aldus the Elder in particular took an interest in the colonization of the Western Hemisphere. of the then known world (ibid. "The Renaissance. sought to learn of the world around them (Penrose. on which mankind at large has geography (Peri geographias. was predecessors. BYU Aldine copies of humanity upon the planet. annals of recorded knowledge. 1540 and 1559) to well as in the natural sciences. and Pizarro's conquest of Peru marked a invention of printing were linked in the minds of new era for the human race and inaugurated the Aldus's contemporaries. the rediscovery of ancient geographic texts in the early geology. BYU 1516 Aldine copy) since enacted one great drama" (EB. Because of heightened interest stem- previous expertise obsolete. chemistry. The Manutii in Italy. The publishing treatises relevant to the New World discov- voyages of Columbus to America. substituting the ocean for the discoveries of new lands and peoples. * heliocentric galaxy. and other natural products made mythical fictions. an acceleration of knowledge on an unparalleled scale. and Pliny.). as evidenced by the central importance. with its Hercules' knew it — a far larger world than that known by his Pillars beyond which lay Cimmerian darkness. opening paths for expansion and forcing philosophers Among the greatest of the ancient geographers were and statesmen to regard the European nations as a Ptolemy. NEW WORLD BOOKS he lifetime of the Aldine Press The great presses of the day were at the center of the coincided not only with the apex of intellectual revival. wrote an encyclopedic political and descriptive wider state of life. Likewise. discovery which was in the air. these early writers exercised considerable bringing about a vast revision and expansion in the influence in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It constituted a glori- The excitement generated by the early voyages led to fied gazetteer full of plain facts and useful information. and the Estiennes in Paris all committed to print but also with the first great European what this age of discovery had uncovered. Strabo. 2). in which he mixes truthful information with plants. Among the ancients. BYU Aldine copies of 1535. a New World Books 113 . Renaissance. Mediterranean and dethroning Italy from her seat of Even as early as Homeric times. cf. appealed to a receptive public intrigued with the commerce. far from 1516 and 1558) and his Geography. Ptolemy's ambition being the re-birth of antiquity with its civilization was to give accurate representation of the world as he confined to the Mediterranean. his Astronomy (cf. as (cf. The discovery of the New World and the of Mexico. the New World discoveries Printed works of geography. Strabo. The Paduan philosopher modern age more decisively than any other series of Buonamico wrote in 1539 that these were the two events.

61). poets and general public grandeur (Hammond and Scullard. Plato's alike saw in the early explorers — adventurous souls writings portray the highest intellectual life and no dedicated to discovery and new knowledge. the editorial excellence and aesthetic beauty. 427-347 B. discoveries of the day — new vistas on the intellectual representing an enormous undertaking for both men. 502. 65) is a charming work full of descriptions and Plato (ca. 66) both make reference to the growing fame of prose. No other author reveals as Plato does dementi (no. the problems and preoccupations. vein he is capable of gorgeous pageantry and stately Contemporary scholars. Christopher Columbus. and the task of excitement and interests of the sixteenth century in the preparing it for publication was exceptionally laborious. the beauty. 31 cm. [1] writings —charged the atmosphere of sixteenth century leaves). Aldi. Gold-tooled with ornaments on turn-ins and the exhibit highlights a few works which make partic. and thirteen letters whose genuine- Mexico and North America. together with maps of and the Apology. Gilt red decorated geographical pointers. Its publications reflect the the work with Marcus Musurus. ular reference to either the newly discovered America or one green) on spine. Plato. "continually doubt epitomized for Aldus all that was noble. His narra- Columbus. times. on single raised cords. It is said that this poem so delighted Pope Leo X that on that account alone he appointed 114 In AcJihus Aldi . Similarly. in 1 ([32]. Of is best known as one of the world's greatest philoso- particular interest is the description of Pizarro's phers. [ 1513] spirit of discovery of new peoples and new cultures — spirit kindred to Herodotus (NO. The 1513 Aldine edition of Plato. the mensc. board edges. Simple gold tooling on front and back covers and Among authors contemporary with the Aldine Press. They worked from a vast collection of Greek manu- scripts procured by Lascaris during a trip to the East with the help of Lorenzo de' Medici (the father of Pope * * * Leo X) from the monastery at Mount Athos. and the flexibility of Greek (NO. Europe. edges. 62) in his journeys and Physical description: 2 v. In another L'anthropologia (no. Benedetto Bordone's Isolario (no. graceful. famous student of Socrates. (fol. XIII. the first complete serving as a barometer in monitoring the happenings printed edition.). Aldus edited hopes and despairs of its age. His style possesses infinite variety. and great from among that which the ancient Historiae Venetae) — an extension of the spirit of the Greeks had to offer. Musurus wrote an elegiac poem on Plato (preliminary * leaves 13 and 4). 439. illustrated maps of recently discovered islands. His writings consist of twenty-five dialogues conquest in the New World.C. 839-42). Blue/white silk page marker. Paulus Manutius in De gli ness is disputed. 64). with single front beaded blue/white students and teachers alike valued its simple Greek and endbands. spine. Dionysius Periegetcs's curious Orbis terrae descriptio (no. Septembri M. 67) and Pietro Bembo in Historiae Venetae the power. while Galeazzo Flavio Capella writes of the tive is easy. As a tribute to the Medici for their support and sponsorship. 63) also enjoyed enormous popularity in Binding DESCRIPTION: Brown calfskin over pasteboard sewn Aldus's day as an elementary handbook on geography. Works Plato and is his creation of the myth of Atlantis had a great 61 impact upon many of those who during the Renaissance COLOPHON: Venctiis in aedib. beau- seeking after new experiences" (from Pietro Bembo's tiful. a good example the 1513 edition of Plato (no. infused with exploits of the Portuguese in the New World in flashes of humor and the noblest pathos.). The Aldine Press captured much of this spirit. Title gold-tooled onto two leather labels (one red. and charming. [2]. et Andrcac soceri launched ships in search of new lands.D. 2 horizon as well as on the physical globe. has been praised by scholars for its and concerns.

the credibility of the legend was seriously debated by such notables as Montaigne."). Plato introduced one of the most UCLA. Dibdin. Some ethnologists attempted to trace the ancestors of the ancient Italians.. 8:44. This island was often identified with America." 3 The excitement caused by the announcement of recent discoveries in OMNIA PLATONIJ OPERA. 630. Ocean — a fable which survived through the Middle dedicated to Leo X. 149-160 ("this publication of Plato [is] of inestimable value. The possibility of time! . 402. Grasse. 5:314. and even Palestine. Scandinavia. world beyond the Mediterranean and Black Sea was Kristeller. A masterpiece of typography and scholarship. Renouard. 170 ("One of the greatest publications of all which covered the rest of the globe. 25. 4 very limited. American STC Italian. ("importante edition. REFERENCES: Adams. et rune des plus importantes productions de presses aldines"). remarkable of all geographical fables: that of the lost continent of Atlantis. 62. Visions of enchanted isles with opulent riches and traditions of an earthly paradise caught the imagination of many and became the object of voyages of discovery (ibid. 179 ("[Musurus's "Hymn to Plato"] is considered by some scholars to be the finest piece of poetry written in In the time of Plato. the Guanchos and the Basques to the inhabitants of this fabled island."). 2). 97/2. practical knowledge of the the Greek language since antiquity. During the Renaissance numerous attempts were made to ratio- nalize the myth of Atlantis. 13-14). Fable or not. Buffon and Voltaire. In them. In his dedicatory preface to Pope Leo X. but it was felt that the land was bounded by ocean. Bunbury. the New World must have kindled new interest in Plato's discussion of a lost continent. Italy with the sublime and tranquil pursuits of learning. Aldus eloquently compares and Ages and had a measure of influence on early contrasts the miseries of contemporary war-plagued Renaissance thought (Penrose. 2:132-33 ("exquis- itely beautiful"). no. P-1436. Even as late as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Panzer. during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries many enterprising adventurers fully believed in such legends as the Golden River of El Dorado and the lost continent of Atlantis. 524. BM STC Italian. 2:132). Rostenberg. The limits of the world were not known.Musurus an archbishop (Dibdin. In the preface. no.. somewhere in the Western # * * New World Books 1 15 . Brunet. 97/1. the land outside of known territories was advanced by work breathes the spirit of the Renaissance and remains one Plato in his two well-known dialogues Timaeus and of the most notable accomplishments of the Aldine Press!"). the Canaries. have discovered in recent years. 4:694 ("premiere edition de ce philosophe. Geankoplos [1962]. 2:606. devenue rare et precieuse"). Aldus makes reference to the inhabitants of the Americas as "those other peoples in the Western Ocean whom the Spanish AFAMTA TX TOT rAA'mNOI. Critias. Geankoplos [1976].

OIPEP EPIKA. as to its trustworthiness.). candidus & effusus"). Simple cism of the historian. but many still question his credibility as a histo- HEROD OTI CIBRINO VEM-QVIBVS MVSAR. (fol. Aldus. tell strange stories. Historiae this work has been questioned.VM rian. Estienne's Apologia pro Herodoto (1566). and explorers who wrote back to their native countries of faraway lands and strange customs. aOINTAI MOI ZAl. Their accounts were "extraordi- narily reminiscent of Herodotus both in style and in method. I Iowcver. candid. changing his usual epithet "the father of history" to "the father of lies. "vindicated Herodotus. Gold-tooled with Herodotus in his preface and sets the stage for his popu- ornaments on spine.. Herodotus in the original Greek. Ovftr'm. \rsnLi. label on spine. with single front-beaded red/white endbands.. missionaries. These accounts. as Momigliano points out. [The exploration] of foreign countries and the OH. PHYSICA] DESCRIPTION: [140] leaves. and iirifTi. attuned to the spirit of his times. historiographer Arnaldo Momigliano explains.). This was due mainly to foreign diplomats. Yellow edges. 1474 with Lorenzo Valla's Latin translation. not only for his "sweet. Aldus defends the study of gold tooling on front and back covers. Religious and scholarly controversies between the Italian humanists and their Byzantine colleagues had hampered the study of Herodotus in the West. 1503. DESCRIPTION: Brown calfskin. He notes that it is ranked among the very best simple. past and of foreign cultures. productions of the Aldine Press.C. The 1502 Aldine edition is the first printing of VtHHfttl*. flowing style and entertaining narrative. Aldus." especially reports from travelers and explorers concerning the discovery of America. compiled with great Ever since antiquity the History of the Greek historian care. as the noted classical INDITASVNINOMINA. 32 cm. both in ancient and 62 modern times. Several ancient writers accused Herodotus of intentional untruthfulness.. Herodotus. 116 In Aedibus Aldi . was able to see beyond the detractors of Herodotus and valued the Signatures: 2A2A-2P2R 222S 8 4 . Not until the sixteenth century." Modern critics generally acquit him of this HPOAOTOY AOTOI ENNEA. M. MINA- on him by ancient critics (137). but BlNIMNc. Title gold-tooled onto black leather larity in the sixteenth century. a liar. While acknowledging criti- Marbled endpapers and pastcdowns. Bound with Gemistns Plethon. but attitudes were changing quickly during the age of exploration. charge. Tolymrii. did MOTIflN ONO MVJARVM NO Herodotus recover from many of the indictments passed MATA. [1502] discovery of America revealed customs even more extra- ordinary than those described by Herodotus" (ibid. because they showed that one could travel abroad. 484-425 B. This edition of Herodotus is described by Dibdin as a very faithful and accurate edition. ancient historian. Herodotus's reputation continued to improve with Henri Mtlpomtnt. EHftTf*. sewn on single raised also for the merit of his contributions to the study of the cords. enquire into past events without necessarily being COLOPHON: Venetiis in domo Aldi mense Septcmbri. and executed with considerable typographical I [erodotUS (ca.) has been recognized for its elegance. The recovery began in KtW»< Clio. and flowing" language ("dulcis. T'fl'pf truto.

;

References: Adams, H-394; American STC Italian, 2:1 19; BM Binding description: Limp vellum, sewn on single cords.

STC Italian, 326; Brunct, 3:122 ("de toutc beautc"); Dibdin, Title calligraphed onto spine.

1:356; Grasse, 3:254 ("belle edition"); Momigliano, 135^41
Panzer, 8:354, no. 129; Renouard, 35, no. 8; UCLA, 50. Dionysius, a Greek author of the time of Hadrian, is

commonly known as Periegetes (the guide), to distinguish

# * * him among the numerous authors of the same name. His
name is derived from the subject of his poem, Orbis terrae

descriptio, here called De situ habitabilis orbis ("Descriptive
A 2 Dionysius Periegetes. Orbis terrae Account of the Habitable World"). Designed more as a

descriptio geographical handbook for a reader of the Greek poets
than as a systematic or scientific treatise on geography, De
situ habitabilis orbis undertakes a verse account of the
known world and its seas, countries, and islands.

DIONYSIVS LYBICVS POET* Dionysius was not a typical geographer who
D £ MTV HAB11ABILI5
ORBIS attempted to enlarge the boundaries of geographical
A SlMUNE LEMNIO FUETA LAVREAT' knowledge. The author wrote as a grammarian, or man
NVPER LATI"NVS FACTVS. of letters, and makes it clear that none of his geographic
knowledge came from personal observation. He does
not, he tells us, "dwell in dark ships, or follow the

profession of a merchant, or traverse the Erythraean Sea

to visit the Ganges, as many do, regardless of their lives

for the sake of accumulating boundless wealth." Instead,
Dionysius is guided only by the Muses, who enable
him, without exposing himself to the dangers of travel
to describe the distant seas and remote lands and inhabi-
tants (Bunbury, 480-82).
As Bunbury notes, the limited value of this versified

compendium is as a summary of what was known about
geography in antiquity and perhaps as a marginal guide
for beginners in geography. In spite of dubious poetic 4
or geographic significance, this little work somehow has
managed to survive through the centuries. During the
Renaissance, De situ habitabilis orbis even became quite
popular, though most now concede that it "enjoyed a

XLIII. reputation far above its merits" (ibid., 490). Such
popularity during the sixteenth century can be attrib-
-Hm gratia C tfr'mikgiv.
uted, no doubt, to the combined interest of humanists
for newly published ancient texts, along with the
growing interest in geography as reports of the
Colophon: Venetiis per Bartholomeum cognomento discovery of new lands circulated.
Imperatorem, Franciscum eius generum. Anno M. D. The 1543 Aldine edition of De situ habitabilis orbis was
XLIII. [1543] translated into Latin verse by Simon Lemnius (d. 1550),
Physical description: [40] leaves; 14 cm. (8vo). who in his dedicatory preface mentions both Amerigo
Vespucci and Columbus and the discovery of America. 5
Signatures: A-E 8 . The title page of this work has three globes depicting

New World Books 111

the night and day, and a view of the earth which
stars,
L ANTHROP OLO C I A Di
shows North and South America as well as Europe,
GALEAZZO CAPELLA
Africa, and Asia. South America is labeled "America." SECRETARIO DELL*
The woodcut used for this illustration is the same as ILL VSTRISSIMO
that used in Bartholomeo Zanetti's 1537 publication in SIGNOR DVCA
Venice of Sacro Bosco's Sphera volgare (leaf H3r). DI MIL A NO.
Franciscus, mentioned in the colophon, is Francesco
Torresani, the uncle of Paulus Manutius.

For another Aldinc edition of Dionysius, see NO. 19.

References: Alden, 1543/4; BM STC Italian, 217; Brunet,

2:731 ("Opuscule rare"); Grassc, 2:402; Renouard, 128, no.

7 ("tres rare volume"); Sabin, 2021 1.

# * #

r)ZL Galeazzo Flavio Capella. Uanthropologia

Colophon: In Venetia nelle case del 1 i heredi d'Aldo
Hdfft ml friuilego ty wild
, gtdiid otembt (UUd
Romano, & d'Andrea d'Asola, nell' anno M. D. XXXIII llluftriffima Signoridt ehe in quefta,ne in ntun*
del mesc di Genaro. [1533] dltrd atfn delfho donuniofi foffk hn=*
pimtrc, ne dltroue rmpreffo ucn*
cm. (8vo). dere quefb liUro dell'Anthro*
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: 74 [i.e., 75], [1] leaves; 17
folcgd f>tr dnni xx.fbtto
Errors in foliation: no. 56 repeated; 40 misnumbered 48.
Itfcne ht cjjo mn-
terwte*
Signatures: A-I 8 K4 .

M. D. XXXIII.
Binding description: Vellum with Yapp edges, sewn
recessed cords, with single front-beaded red/white
endbands. Blue endpapers and pastedowns. Gilt edges. The three books which constitute L'anthropologia deal

Gold-tooled with ornaments on spine. Title gold-tooled with the dignity of man, the virtues of women, and the
onto two leather labels (one red, one green) on spine. misery and vanity inherent in both. Book two was
published separately at Rome in 1525 under the title

Galeazzo Flavio Capella (1487-1537), Italian DcU'eccellenza e dignita civile donne. Capella makes refer-

statesman and historian, was designated imperial orator ence to the New World in book one while discussing
by the Emperor Maximilian (1459-1519) because of his the virtues of man. He notes: "I will not speak of the
excellent education, especially in literature and the Portuguese, who have recently had the daring to search
humanities. Originally surnamcd Capra, his name was for the other pole and to pass into the zone which the
later changed to Capella (meaning "chapel" in Italian) as ancient ones, not knowing, held to be uninhabited due
a tribute to his "divine" attributes such as knowledge to its closeness to the sun" (leaf l()r, trans. Janson).

and purity. In addition to many orations, Capella
published several historical works between 1530 and REFERENCES: Adams, C-578; Alden, 1533/7; American STC
1535. I lis career was cut short when he died from Italian, 1:346; BM STC Italian, 145; Brunet, 1:1558;
injuries sustained in a horse-riding accident. Grasse, 2:41; Janson, 54; Panzer, 8:530, no. 1671;

UH InAedibusAldi

Renouard, 110, no. 10; Rostenberg, 163 ("A work of
PRIHO
da (mtPa fame animuao J?*'
interest to depressed ladies and gentlemen of all fxqua flcfla attfl

centuries!"); UCLA, 231.

* # *

Benedetto Bordone. Isolario
65
Colophon: In Vincgia ad instantia, & spese del Nobile

huomo M. Fedenco Toresano. M.D.XLVII. [1547]

Physical description: [10], lxxiiii leaves: ill., maps (part

folded); 32 cm. (fol.).

Signatures: 2A 4 2B-2D 2 A-D 6 E 4 F 2 G-M f
>
N".
LagnoCutadt J cmiitu^,.

Binding description: Dark blue leather spine, with marbled

paper sides, sewn on single raised cords, with rolled leather

endbands. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. Blue sprinkled Isolario. Leaf B4r.

edges. Gold and blind-tooled with ornaments on spine.

Title gold-tooled onto spine.

tnwrtofoti
imp*

Isolario. Leaves 2Dlv and 2D2r.

New World Booh 119

Con If lor nomi anrichi SC modcrni.fiiinqual pa/ rallelo&climagiaciopo* RiV corcco.hiftorie. 720 In Aedibus Aldi .EVE DEL PAPA Etgratia SC prfuflegio dellallluftriflT/ ma Signoriadi Vcnetia co/ me :o quelli appare. EoTi. D. fii modidcl loro viuere.5tdi Nuouo riftampato. ISOLABJO DIBE NEDETTO BORDOUE Nelqual firagtonadttuttcPIfole del mondo. Con la gi'onta del Monte del Oro oouamentc ritrouato* CON XL BR. 5? M.6!io qual parte del marc ftanno . S3&S XLVII. fauole.

The woodcut blocks are those originally designed for that edition by Niccolo Zoppino. 120. in their respective fields. modern Mexico City) before its destruction by Cortez. 203. M. 48. Signatures: * 4 A-Z 4 a-z 4 2A-2E 4 . Bordone's privilege. transatlantic discoveries. The title page is in red and black. D. American STC Italian. B-2485. Aldus. no. Armstrong. on the other (^ (^ Pietro Bembo. Physical description: [4]. Church. Lowry [1983]).). published at Venice in 1528 by Nic. (fol. Bordone. 86. Standing side by side on the "threshold of the typo. was "the last of the great manuscript-illumina- tors" and a much-admired miniaturist and map engraver (cf. Rcnouard. 9. Due to the recent LIBRI Xll. BM STC Italian. References: Adams. Brunct. Janson. Sowell. Isolario (The Island Book. The printer's device is that of Federico Torresani (a tower). Harrisse. 275. the map books of Bordone's day had greatly expanded to include all the new infor- mation. Bordone uses an oval illustration to depict the world. 1:283. 82. a The work Italy CAHDINALIS HISTO- RIAE V E N ET AE describes the cultures. . Mortimer." or "Land of the laborer" — probably a reference to slavery. 6421." Aldus Manutius and Benedetto Bordone [1983]. The work was originally VtWblliS M. The Isolario is a good example of this. In his depiction of the "Mondo Novo" he describes North America as "Terra del laboratore. twelve of which relate to America." * * * was dependent upon the scribes of Venice and Padua for his copy and modeled both his types and his printed pages on their manuscripts. mentions the cutting of these wood. each representing a different era. Colophon: Venetiis. Alden. no. or Book of Islands) example of a printed map book. 9. a cartographic convention which he had earlier invented. within a floriated ornamental Cum priutlcgiis border with dolphins. New World Books 121 . to the revival of classical learning. Isolario also contains the earliest known printed account of Pizarro's conquest of Peru. 422. d'Aristotile. climates. 1547/2. [1] leaves : 31 cm. "the first of the scholar printers. Sabin. printed for him by Paulus Manutius. 173-97. D. LI. and myths of the known islands of the world. granted in 1526. Historiae Venetae UbriXII hand. [1551] blocks (leaf 2Alv). 1:1 1 12. including maps and illustrations of the Western Hemisphere. history. 141." the earliest known map of Japan printed in Europe. 335. genre popular in is an PETRI BEMBI during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. UCLA. (1450-1539) were dedicated. Of particular interest in this many work are the woodcut maps. Lowry graphic era. One map depicts "Temistitan" (Tenochtitlan. Another shows "Ciampagu. LI. apud Aldi filios.

Manutius. "continually seeks after new experiences" (ibid. (4to). Alden. LVIL the Aldine dolphin and anchor appear on the title Con priuilegio per anni X. who traversed many immense regions and much of the ocean" (leaf 82r. 80. J. according to U2 InAedibusAldi . 1:192. the printer's name and an Aldine device appear on the title page. The printing was shared by both printers. Senate. edges." Bembo concludes. an account of Spanish and Portuguese exploration in America is found in book six (leaves 89-99). Clements copy with C.). trans. B. 1551/7. In the other (BYU's). M. Noted as a cause of the declining economy of Venice. 22 cm. neither the printer's name nor IN VENETIA. Janson). the verso being blank. Rostenberg. Of partic- ular interest is Bembo's description of Columbus as "a man of sharp intellect. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. B. paper sides. [1557] page of this issue are privileges from Julius III. which had been commissioned by the Venetian Council of Ten. Gold-tooled with References: Adams. Provenance: The C. sewn on single raised cords. 152. B-597. 40. Charles V. Clements. American STC ornaments on spine. In one. Dark blue DE GLI ELEMENT I. 370. with single front- beaded yellow/green laced-in endbands. air. the dedicatory preface credits the work to Paulus Turks into Thracians in the course of his I listory"). BM STC Italian. Plain endpapers and pastedowns. a is a device used by Gualtero Scotto. Degli dementi slotted through cover at the spine edge. D. Although the title page to De gli dementi reveals no 20 ("in fine Hellenistic style (Bembo] transformed his author. Yellow sprinkled edges. Italian. Lloyd / H.Binding description: Vellum. Signatures: A-H 4 I 2 .J. page. 6 The BYU copy of Historiae Venetae is the 1551 first edition. elements — fire. Among the Latin works of Bembo contained in this book is a history of Venice from 1487 to 1513. There are two known issues of this work. E DI MOLTI LORO NOTABILI EFFETTI. Grasse. Cosimo de' Medici. 1:767. Binding description: Black leather spine with marbled Lloyd's coat of arms and bookplate of H. Remnant of a green page marker. UCLA. 17 ("belle edition"). water. instead. This small pamphlet discusses the four 4619. Brunet. Sabin. Coat of arms stamped covers. see NO. there Hermes and Athena device. "The human spirit. 1:333. printed by Paulus Manutius for Carlo Gualteruzzi di Fano. ^ "7 Paulus Manutius. earth —which. Renouard. and the Venetian Physical description: XXXIIII leaves. On the verso of the title No colophon. sewn on single vellum thongs. For biographical information about Bembo. Title gold-tooled onto in gold brown onto front and back leather label on spine. no.

discusses in quasi-scientific fashion the purported effects of these four elements on thehuman body and soul. M-470. Citing such venerable authorities as hampered by these same currents. no. constitute the month. He states that 44434 ("In this scarce tract Manuzio not only speaks of Columbus discovered these currents. however. 70. New World Books 123 . On leaf XXIII. is material universe. Alden. but also of the stream in the ocean owing to the possible to travel toward the New World in less than a 'motodiurno de cieli'"). and Democritus. Brunei. Janson. 4. Renouard. UCLA. Aristotle. 436. The References: Adams. Paulus describes Columbus and the Grasse. Sabin. 1557/27. American STC 1557 Aldine is the only known printing of this work. 170. Paulus Manutius navigator that the trip takes three to four months. 4:375. Sowell. ocean currents leading to the New World. which so slow the Plato. 2:330.several ancient and Renaissance thinkers. BM STC Italian. The return voyage to Spain. Galen. 3:1384. Italian. 37. 413. which made it Columbus.

.

"The Aldine anchor is perhaps the most celebrated of Notes 125 . ipsis exemplaribus longe correctius ac magis perfectum exire pagan and renascent. 57-58). He once wrote. For example. See Parronichi. ex aedibus nostris" (preface to Aristotle's Physics. With both hands occupied. preparation of material. in the preface to Aristotle's Logic. which also includes a general description of the look at the library's holdings. Keeper of Incunabula at the British nummo aureo" (preface to 1513 edition of Plato). quae desiderate even to blow my nose" (as quoted in Orcutt. each of which is Rostenberg and Stern [1977a]. ut. Theodore de Vinne notes. he opposite ends of the inclinable period with equal and con. 14. his inscriptions were in fact now bringing their books out of their cellars and offering considered genuine and authentic by most of his contempo." 10. In the preface to the 1495 and all subsequent editions. en latinis / Dat nunc grammata en my stomach owing to the multiplicity and pressure of scalpta daedaleis / Francisci manibus Bononiensis" (trans. "Qui graiis dedit Aldus. For example. as does the existence of a lady of annos ne horam quidem solidae habuisse quietis. Accounts of the development of the Brigham Young Cicero." (trans. Gothic. 155). ita saepe imutant. reminds his readers that he had "some of the ablest critics . human endeavour and desire" (as quoted in Barolini. the author's identity agitur iam septimus) possem iureiurando affirmare me tot remains controversial. "My only consolation is the assurance that my labors 6. the 13. & eorum praecipue quae leguntur apud as well as in his own grammar. "My days and nights are devoted to the works of Chairemon in order to make them" (Iversen. so that even the 'book-buriers' are and difficult to understand. George Painter. Despite the acrostic device. . si possem. ut of intent: "I have decided to spend all my life in the service facilius sit. ac Unguis. Hypnerotomachia is radiantly and graciously Italian." Treviso called Polia. copies of some titles. pressmen who are clamorous for work. and surrounded by Biihler[ 1950]. I desire nothing 9. them for sale. nor of multiple catalog. For a more detailed [1994]. which wherever it has been spent. God is my witness. show still more. Its Latin name was "characteres cursivi seu cancellarii. there is scarcely time 8. and Perrins. quicquid meo labore formis excuditur. and stand at the two poles of Palmer. and that the fame and use of my books the Hypnerotomachia. qui verba variis figuris. 15. Museum. as quoted in pieces of the art of printing. 207). "In eo enim fere omnia reposita sunt. suscepi hanc duram provinciam (annus enim 4. INTRODUCTION (pages 1-23) 1. This count is of titles only and docs not take into Editions in the Harold B." of my fellow-men. . and more recently in Sowell sometimes considered a distinct entity. arum graecarum. These are the two supreme master. (>). see the "Checklist of Aldine library's special collections. Regarding Colonna's use of Egyptian hieroglyphics in arc helpful to all. was published in ten volumes. 7. 68). 138. absolutamq[ue] cognitionem litter- 3. my past life shows. The Gutenberg Bible is sombrely to assist in the correction. trasting pre-eminence. and even a critical scholar like Erasmus was con. and as I hope my future life will indicates that his books did not find cheerful purchasers" (17). Lee Library" at the end of this account holdings of multi-volume works. wrote "Gutenberg's 42-line Bible of 1455 and the 12." and sternly German. business. classic. Christian and medieval. Iversen notes: "strange as it might seem increase from day to day. as lousness in his [Aldus's] prefaces before the year 1500. 11. "Postq. Lemke) raries. of which the library holds complete copies of both University Library's Aldine Collection will be found in issues." vinced Colonna had had access to the copies of the vast 2. "Dicere queo. mutarem singula errata 5. "There is a flavor of queru- more than to do something for them. I can scarcely take food or strength. "Sic doleo. NOTES PREFACE (page ix) 1. Aldus states his declaration poetas. the 1582-83 edition ot 2. quis possit ad perfectam. Aldus often acknowledged the competency of his edi- Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of 1499 confront one another from tors.

damus assidue. the entire picture be distinguished with various colors so that esting and controversial contribution of this edition was the it might be easier to recognize.000 copies of Catullus. [1992]. . We wish to acknowledge the help of Robert and Ljiljana Maccabee with Serbo-Croatian sources needed to write this article. is going to print of the application is printed in Barker [1992].) nearly identical methods. emended by my own zeal and 4.") (In fact. Zacharias Kallierges also set up a Greek press in Venice and incredibly hard work . the last line of the poem. given the importance of the text. Renouard claims that this was done to fill up what oth. and the fact that the it. "Die Bedeutung dieses Werkes kann nicht hoch erwise would have been blank leaves. "Notet sibi igitur unusquisque singulas quasque totius Renaissance Book. . Nam et dedimus multa cunctando et wiched into the text. HUMANIST TEXTS (pages 65-87) 1. mercator.all printer's marks. "Nobilis. . the editio princeps of ly characteristic of the distinguished scholar who first adopted any part of the New Testament in Greek. narie quisquis es. ut esset cognitu facilior. as Manuscript M." in which he calls the Aldine Sophocles "a modest achievement 1 1." 18. Discussion of this application for privilege is found in original state. It is singularly graceful in design. 10. uariis from a textual point of view" and notes that "the edition remained coloribus distinguendam iussimus. Proctor [1900]. . plebeie. fifteenth. produced by the American Friends of the libri semipaginas arithmeticis numeris. with Cebetes Thebanus's Tabula sand- phinum et ancoram. However. unlikely. 24-25). and Lowe. The Latin preface is reproduced in its entirety in the manuscripts. Regarding the importance of this production. 126 In Aedibus Aldi . emendation and the addition and restoration of verses to their 3. Reproduced in Rome Reborn. This has a rather important effect on the play at Renouard." ("We have directed that important for some time" (Wilson [1992]. Although this film describes the pro. impressor. 14. This seems rather genug veranschlagt werden" (10). The text Girolamo Avanzi . the Etymologicum magnum.462. . Aldus: "[The text] will be particularly pleasing to you 2. there are 408 pages. 100. 2) has a 16.. ".. and Case. that point. GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS (pages 25-63) \. Nigel Wilson softens this somewhat in a 1992 publication. E.g. "Totam autem picturam. In this I have been particularly helped by Barker [1992]. 105. 138). Kallierges was very careful in the Pierpont Morgan Library. and is affixed to a series of works which contributed more careful printer Aldus never left blank leaves in the middle of than those of any single printer or family of printers to the his gatherings.") Aldine editor's attribution of line 572 of Antigone to Antigone 12. literator. 65 ff. merce- 5. see Merril. 97). me semper habere comites. he printed ori /^ovov because it will seem quite different from before on account of ro xaa ovaraflov (cf. For a cau- his company with knowledge and approval of Aldus (Barker tionary view of this conclusion. del. 8. for on pjbvov to kclKov ayaQbv. The most inter. Barker believes that Kallierges probably set up originated in Italy. the gatherings.and six." received privileges in 1498 for his type and the work he printed in 9. ut oportere aiunt. eminent.247). himself the individual pages of the whole book in numbers. against the unanimous testimony of 13." ("Each should note for cedures at the press of Christopher Plantin. This description is based on the film The Making of a 7. 55." Avanzi: "Aldus . numero quadringentae & quattuor. teenth-century printers and typographers all over Europe used which add up to 404.. Sicherl writes. Martin 1 7. 15. and Proctor [1900]. The 1512 Erotemata of Lascaris (no. rather than her sister Ismene. Horace. quae sunt ad summum Plantin-Moretus Museum. It is possible that a few leaves of the manuscript survive it. 70 ff. 6. 3. .to early sixth-century uncial manuscript which may have Gabriel's lawsuit. Ars poetica 476. See Lowe and Rand. and scholarly opinion is divided on the issue. having possibly learned from fifth. similar arrangement. a late not to infringe on Aldus's privilege. Possibly a reference to the story of Apollo and Coronis. 91 ff. The 1504 Gregory of Nazianzus was not the progress of learning and literature in Europe" (Christie only time Aldus printed a secondary text in the inner leaves of [1 ( >02 ).

We sprinkle our meadows pronunciation. . servandam semper Ecclesiae unitatem. For a better understanding of some of the complex busi- the others. unam cathedram constituit . lentum. ut una Ecclesia Christi et cathedra una monstretur: & at the door of the printers and others (vet typographorum et alio- pastores sunt omnes. with neither pause nor rest therein. 5.4. if I lie." ("Truly. 24. see Kingdom were allowed to live until he had settled with certainty how 4." (Le Famitiari. Scaliger thought otherwise. cujus ad gloriam haec fuit in scribendo optabilius. philosophy. sed multorum annorum.72. mathematics. et grex unus ostenditur. & primatus Petro 4. catholicae adhibeantur interpretationes. 477]). our labor is not the work of one quoted in Eisenstein. 461). Alioqui haereseum &: schismatum omnia diriguntur. mora nee requies. et quasi in infiniti luoghi corrette da Aldo Aldus single-handed produced grammars on more than five Manutio. trans. for my friend "tradottc di nuovo. and medicine. 165). patrem one makes a conjunction of a word which belongs in the baili. however 6. qua B. "Nee est alienum si priscorum patrum scriptis piae & the previous edition" (Morison. in the same field. deeming that he would be happy if he firms. ad con- MANUTII AS AUTHORS (pages 99-111) 1. He has overlooked no work of the kind. Orders to hasten the compositors and proofreaders cre- omnibus unanimi consensione pascatur . then some sixty years old. and a in Seigcl. he aped his father" ("Aldus filius." 2. Aldus wrote: "Non enim unius dici hie "printing. "Universam Tridentini Concilii trium Pontificum dis. The title of this work announces that these letters were mars as there are grammarians — nay. . atque interim nee appearance and state of the whole world" (Aphorism 129. his work is very none of the Greeks or Latins succeeded in doing definitively. The famous Marc-Antoine Muret expressed high hopes barbarously and tediously written. his labor of many years will be lost. He criticized Aldus as "a the eight parts of speech are to be distinguished. some one else snatching the glory. ". 254. "May I have the ill-will of the whole grammat. as quoted Greek. NEW WORLD BOOKS (pages 113-123) 1. and pitiably in fear that. . but of many years. He light-heartedly describes them as a quarrelsome you my gratitude. Latin. a thing which poverty-stricken talent. as quoted in Renouard. quae dedit valde sunt vulgaria . commonplace. slow in operation." occasions. 43). you are our guide. Francis Bacon in Novum organum states that 2." ated a crowd of misprints not less in number . Hudson). 3). Cypriano nil tinctam temporibus historiam. summed up the debt of his times to Petrarch Cicero: "O other grammarians of his day who took themselves too seri. juvantc Deo. than those of 3.. how. gunpowder. with briorem futurum" (quoted in Renouard. with me are all those who deck themselves bunch overly sensitive about grammatical endings and correct with the flowers of Latin speech. with water from your fountains. and for the youngster in a letter written after visiting the Manutius criticized each. family. . codem." nullus finis. Thanks to this. and the compass . In the Praise oj Folly. Similarly.. Erasmus pokes fun at Aldus and the 2. he has expounded each. ingenium. Do you prefer to call this madness or folly?" (Erasmus [1941 ). . wick of the adverbs. when some. laying aside all 3. day. "spero eum aliquando et patre et avo majorem et cele- ever ineptly. imitabatur" [Scaligerana. it is you ical world. . I used to know a certain polymath versed in who sustain and enlighten us. . . more. propediem expecta. he vexed and tortured himself with grammar for ness relationships among notable sixteenth-century printing more than twenty years. qui & apostolis rum). miserum It becomes a matter to be put to the test of battle. have changed the labor est noster. WORKS FOR AND AT ROME (pages 89-98) 1. "The responsibility for its notorious deficiencies was laid datur. great father ofRoman eloquence! I am not alone in offering ously. Of this edition. jealous of everybody who may be toiling. master of them all.4. & veri sensus. there are as many gram. .") Notes 127 . .

" spirit" (Hunbury. . . . 482). Aldus Manutius. . "ut est humanus animus nouarum rerum appete[n]s. from the Muses." (leaf A8 4. ab aliis populis. quos in oceano occidentali Hispani 5. 1499 Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of Francesco Colonna. "It must be confessed that if he derived his inspiration recto). . he was not indebted to them for much poetic 6." Vesputius vix longa puppe Columbus reperit . "Americae nupcr clarescit nomine fama . 3. ". . Leaf a6v. quam vix superioribus annis invenere. 128 In Aedibus Aldi .

Die Vulgata Sixtina von 1590 und Hire Einfiihrungsbulle. Barker [1992]. (Cited as BM. Philostratus: Biography and Belles Lettres in of the Scriptores Astronomici Veteres.. British Museum. Alberti. 1963. Braden. J. ed. New Rinascimento rivista dell'Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul York: Fordham University Press. Contemporaries of Erasmus: A (Videorecording. Catalogue of Books Printed on the Continent Essay. G. Series. A. Bollingen The Social History of Books. Rome: Gela Reprints. 1959-66. S. Prefaces to the First Editions of the Greek and Press.) Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation.) Alden. Antony. Vt]. Hindman." Cambridge University Press. The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo.: Aker. N." In Printing and the Written Word: Boas. Paolo Manuzio e la Stamperia del Popolo New Haven. University Research Library. . Bliss. in Venice after 1469. (Cited as name of the author (s) with page number(s). S. 1987. Aldus Manutius: Mercantile Empire of the Intellect. Karmiole. Los Angeles: Dept. Short-Title Armstrong. Minister: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung. (Cited by first Illinois Classical Studies 1 (1976): 226-61. . Thucydidis Historiae. Works Printed in Europe Relating to the Americas. Aldus and His Dream Book: An Illustrated Adams. Lemke. .D. W. N. 3. New York: Italica Press. 1927. G. circa 1450-1520. C. M. trans.) Bibliography V29 . 1501-1600. See British Museum. London: British Library. 1960. Press. 1950. Benson. . Roman Classics and of the Scriptures. Y. The Classics and English Renaissance Poetry.: Yale University Press. American STC Italian. 1992. Neue Kunde von Alien Bibeln." Script & Type in the Fifteenth Century. 1967. 1909. 1958. Books of Hours. "Aldus Manutius' Fragmenta Grammatica. H.) 32 (1992): 291-309. [1927]. The Angelical Cardinal Reginald Pole. 1893. C. G. 1992. Aldus Manutius and the Development of Greek Filippo Cavriani e Aldo Manuzio il Giovani. Ger. Fra Giovanni Giocondo Veronese. R. "Per la genesi di due biografie di Cosimo I Barker. Los Angeles. Syracuse: Syracuse University London: Macmillan. Ithaca. Barker [1989]. London: Croom Helm. His Work. R. London: Macdonald and Evans. in Cambridge Libraries.fulius Firmicus Maternus and the Aldine Edition Anderson. Rome: Typis Publicae Krumbach. P. Trans. J. General Catalogue . S. C. Cyprian: His Life. London: Bateman.) Brenzoni. 1989. B. Histoire de la Vulgate pendant les premiers siecles du American Friends of the Plantin-Moretus Museum. the entry. 1986. London: Bohn.: Cornell University Botfield. E. "The Impact of Printing on Miniaturists Catalogue . Ed. Making of a Renaissance Book [Lunenburg. New York: Franklin. W. G. 1980. New York: Pantheon Books. 1861. Catalog .) Barolini. 1978. Barberi. of Europe. H. General Catalogue of UCLA Department of Special Collections Printed Books to 1955. BM STC Italian. (Cited as Lemke. Olschki. . P. of Museum. 1493-1776. F. J. 1972. See British Museum. The MoyenAge. (Cited as Baumgarten [1911]. Bramanti. 1981. Romano (1561-1570). BIBLIOGRAPHY Unless otherwise noted in parentheses at the end of SpccialCollections. J. BM. Los Angeles: the Tliird Century A. 1911. European Americana: A Chronological Guide to . 1985. His Times. 1991. L. Short-Title Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 2d ed. (Cited as Baumgarten Officinae Polygraphicae. New York: BCAR Publications. London: Trustees of the British Occasional Papers. 174-202. M. . 1985.) Baumgarten. J. 23. 1897. letter of author's name. and catalog number. V.) Berger. ed. Firenze: . (Cited as Rinascimento (2d ser. Bietenholz.. Backhouse. Conn. references in the text are noted by the last University of California. See Marshall. B.) Aldus Manutius and His Thesaurus cornucopiae of 1496.

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Epistolarum libri 1560 no. insieme con la copia della lingua Toscana e Latina 1559 no. 6 (v. Works 1560 no. 12 1562 Thomas Aquinas. 11 Julius Caesar. 3 Reginald Pole. Works 1559 no. 1-2) Lodovico Parisetti. 3 Aldus Manutius I. 6 Paulus Manutius. 4 Cicero. Eleganze. Antiquitatum Romanorum liber 1559 no. In librutn b. Rhetorical Works 1559 no. 12 Paulus Manutius. 8 Terence. Reformatio Anglia 1562 no. De Thucydidis Historia 1560 no. 11 Paulus Manudus. 4 Cicero. De consilio sapientis 1560 no. Philosophical Works 1560 no. Works 1560 no. De virginitate 1562 no. 2q Aldus Manutius II. 5 Checklist 153 . lob expositio 1562 no. 22 1560 Pace Scala. Orationes septem 1560 no. De concilio 1562 no. 16 1561 Girolamo Gabuccini. 21 Paulus Manutius. Orthographiae ratio 1561 no. 13 Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 1-2) Carlo Sigonio. Institutiones Graecae grammatices 1560 no. In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum 1561 no. 5 Aldus Manutius II. De comitiali morbo 1561 no. 2 Reginald Pole. Natnralis historia 1559 no. 4 John Chrysostom. 5 (v. Grammaticae institutiones graecae 1561 no. 15 Sallust. 1 Urbano Bolzanio. Pliny the Elder. Lettere volgari 1560 no. De divini in hominem benevolentia 1559 no.

In Genesim et in Libres regum 1563 no. 9. 19a (2 copies) 1563 Tbeodoret. 16 Catullus. Tulii Ciceronis ad M. 9q Aldus Manutius I. 2) 154 InAedibusAldi . 8 Marco Antonio Natta. Catholicae maiestatis return status a consiliis 1563 no. Works. Rhetorical Works 1564 no.lcero. Epistolaefamiliares. 13 Cicero. Italian 1563 no. 1562 no. l-2q Tbeodoret. 9q Matteo Corti. 1-2) (2 copies of v. De uirginitate 1562 no. 3q Marco Antonio Flaminio. Works Propertius. Canones et decreta (2d state) 1564 no. 1-3) Paulus Manutius. 2 Council of Trent. 9b (v. Latin 1563 no. 4b Marco Antonio Natta. Latin 1563 no. In Canticum canticorum. In Ezechielem prophetam. 6 Cicero. 14 (v. Explanatio in Ciceronis orationes 1563 no. 3q Francisco Vargas Mejia. Iuiiiutn Brutus et ad Q. Ciceronem fratrem 1562 no. 4 Council of Trent. Antonii Mureti Tibullus. 7 Marianus Rcatinus Victorius. Latin 1562 no. 19. 12 Ptolemy. Grammatkae institutions graecae 1564 no. In librum Psalmorum brevis explanatio 1564 no. De prandii ac caenae modo 1562 no. Canones et decreta (1st state) 1564 no. Works 1563 no. Orationes 1562 no. 1 Ambrose. Works 1562 no. 19 1564 Eucherius. l-2q Cyprian. Liber de analemmate. Et in eum commentarius M. 9 Quintus Asconius Pedianus. In epistolas M. 1564 no. Works 1562 no. Vita Reginaldi Poli 1563 no. 7 ( . De Sacramento confessionis 1562 no. 1 Lodovico Beccadelli. De Deo 1562 no.

Cum commentario Achillis Statii Lusitani 1566 no. Works. 19q Julius Caesar. 19. 6 Pietro Paolo Bissari. Ah urbe condita 1566 no. Orthographiae ratio 1566 no. Works 1566 no. Epistolae ad Atticum. 1-3) Council of Trent. 10 Lettere volgari di diversi nobilissimi huomini 1567 no. 18 1566 Council of Milan. Congiura de' baroni del regno di Napoli 1565 no. 7 Tibullus. 2b 1565 Council of Trent. Works 1567 no. 16 (v. ad Brutum. 9 Checklist 155 . 2 Council of Trent. Canones et decreta 1569 no. 5q Aldus Manutius II. 1-2 Council of Trent. Canones et decreta (2d ed. 20 1567 Council of Trent. 4 Annibal Caro. 1-2 Council of Trent. Rime 1569 no. Orationcs responsa literae ac mandata 1567 no. Italian 1569 no. 1-2) Livy. ad Quinttim fratrem 1567 no. Catechism. 2b Miguel Thomas Taxaquet. 15 Camillo Porzio. 8 1569 Council of Trent. 1-3) Sallust. In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum 1568 no. Index librorum prohibitorum 1565 no. 15 Horace. Orationes responsa literae ac mandata 1569 no. Catechism 1566 no. 12 Catullus. 12 (v. Constitutioms et decreta 1566 no. Varia opuscula 1565 no. Disputationes quaedam ecclesiasticae 1565 no. Lettere volgari di diversi nobilissimi huomini 1564 no.) 1565 no. (v. 13 1568 Paulus Manutius. Works 1566 no. Works 1567 no. 2 Cicero.

Rime 1572 no. 17 Terence. De sacrosancto missae venerabili sacramento 1571 no. Works 1571 no. Euangelium secundum Matthaeuni 1571 no. 12 Cicero. Gregory of Nazianzus. Ah urbe condita 1572 no. Degentibus etfamiliis Romanorum 1571 no. 3 Velleius Paterculus. llq Lucas Paetus. Eleganze. Epitheta M. Ennarationes in . 1-3) Vincentius Quintianus Patina. Historiarum Ravennatum libri 1572 no. 13 Horace. Works (Latin) 1570 no. T. Italian 1569 no. 2 (v. Catechism 1575 no. 14 (v. 1-2) (2 copies) 1570 Nicolas Clenard. Works 1570 no. 10 Julius Caesar. Institutions linguae Graecae 1570 no. . 1 Aldus Manutius I. 19 Jacopo Sannazaro. 8 Livy. 10 Paulus Manutius. 5 156 In Acdibus Aldi . 12 1572 Paulus Manutius. . Historiae Romanae 1571 no. Ciceronis collecta 1570 no. Works 1570 no. 3 Cicero. 2 Aldus Manutius II. 12 1575 Council of Trent. lOq Girolamo Rossi. 1 (v. Authorities sacrae scripturae et sanctorum patrum 1571 no. Rhetorical Works 1569 no. Atitiquitatum Romanorum liber 1569 no. De mensuribus et ponderibus Romanis 1573 no. insieme con la copia delta lingua Toscana e Latina 1570 no. 1-2) Petrus Canisius. Orations. In epistolas Ciceronis ad Atticum 1572 no. Grammaticae institutions graecae 1575 no. Philosophical Works 1570 no. 7 Annibal Caro. 11 Pedro Juan Nunez. 11 Richard Strein von Schwartzenau. 20 1571 Paulus Palacios de Salazar.

4q. 1-2) Virgil. 2 1579 Lawrence Justinian. De optimi pastoris munere 1578 no. 2 Juan Huarte. Pragmaticae edicta regiaeque sanctiones 1580 no. 2 Censorinus. Epistolaruni libri 1580 no. 17 1576 Andrea Bacci. 7q Torquato Tasso. lq Paulus Manutius. Catechism. Works 1575 no. Adagia 1575 no. Thesaurus Ciceronianus 1576 no. 1-10) (2 copies) 1580 Naples (Kingdom). Aldus Manutius II. Works 1576 no. De natura daemonum 1581 no. 13 Paulus Manutius. 6 Checklist 157 . Orationes XXIII 1575 no. 14q Julius Caesar. Antiquitatum Romanorum liber 1581 no. 5 Aldus Manutius II. 11 Terence. Italian 1582 no. 8 1581 Giovanni Lorenzo di Anania. Examen de ingenios para las sciencias. Epitome orihographiae 1575 no. sive. 11 Aldus Manutius II. 3 Aldus Manutius II. Works 1583 no. 10 Paulus Manutius. Italian 1582 no. De mundi contemptu. 2 1578 Gabriele Fiamma. 3 Mario Nizolio. 4a q (v. De quaesitis per epistolam 1576 no. Tulii Ciceronis De qfficiis libros tres 1581 no. De die natali 1581 no. Locutioni dell'epistole di Cicerone 1582 no. 1 1579-83 Cicero. Apophthegtnata 1577 no. In M. Nizolius. 9q (v.1583 no. Italian 1579 no. Rime e prose 1581 no. Del Tevere 1576 no. 6 Marc Antoinc Muret. Works 1575 no. 13 1577 Desiderius Erasmus. 12 1582 Council ofTrent.

Demonomania 1589 no. Examen de ingenios para las sciencias. 6 Aldus Manutius II. 5q 1587 Aldus Manutius II. Oracoli politici cioe sentenze 1590 no. In M. Delia vkissitudine o mutabile varieta delle cose 1585 no. 7 (v. Venetiae 1583 no. Attioni di Castruccio Castracane 1590 no. Oratio de Francisci Medices . De magistratibus et republica Venetorum 1589 no. 4 1589 Giovanni Lorenzo di Anania. 1) 1583 Aldus Manutius II. 15 1590 Angelo Rocca. Osservationi intorno alle bellezze della lingua Latina 1590 no. 8 Gasparo Contarini. 4q v. 5 1588 Sallust. 4 Torquato Tasso. T. 2 Aldus Manutius II. 2q Aldus Manutius II. Works 1588 no. Delia nuova discipline! & vera arte militare 1585 no. 1-2) 1585 Louis Leroy. Dclle rime e prose 1583 no. Defascino 1589 no. Vita di Cosimo de' Medici 1586 no. 6 Torquato Tasso. 7 Leonardo Vairo. 1 Lclio Brancaccio. 3 Julius Caesar. Italian 1586 no. De tiatura daemonum 1589 no. Ciceronis De philosophic! 1583 no. Dcllc rime 1582 no. laudibus 1587 no. Aggiunta alle rime et prose 1585 no. Locutioni di Terentio 1585 no. 1 158 InAedibusAldi . 7 Torquato Tasso. 10 1591 Nikola Vitov Gucetic. 6 Jean Bodin. Torquato Tasso. 6 Germain Audebcrt. 1-2) Aldus Manutius II. 3 (v. 7 (v. 9 1586 Juan Huarte. Works 1588 no. 5 Nicolo Manassi. Aminto 1590 no. . . Libri di stampa d'Aldo che si trouano al presente 1583 no. Dcllo stato delle republkhe secondo la mente di Aristotele 1591 no.

De magistratibus et republka Venetorum. 12q 1594 Marcus Welser. De origine successibusque Slavorwn. Italian 1591 no. 6 Gasparo Contarini. Conversio et passio SS. I diece circoli dell'iniperio bl6 1559 Holy Roman Empire. 2 Giulio Raviglio Rosso. 2 Aldus Manutius II. martyntm 1591 no. Bulla aurea. Historia delle cose occorse net regno d'Inghilterra bl558 no. De miseria Humana bl558 no. Rerum Augustanar. Italian bl7 Orationes clarorum virorum b23 Checklist 159 . Italian 1595 no. 4 1595 Vinko Pribojevic. 3 Jean Bodin. Libri di stampa d'Aldo die si trouano alpresente 1591 no. 8 Pietro Cavretto. Charles Esticnne. 9 1592 Bible. Demonomania 1592 no. 12 Syrianus. 3 Marcus Welser. lq Louis Leroy. In Aristotelis libros nietaphysices bl558 no. Fragtnenta tabulae antiquae 1591 no. 5 Marcus Welser. 5 Aldus Manutius II. Ab urbe condita 1592 no. Delia vicissitudine o mutabile varieta delle cose 1592 no. Biblia sacra vulgatae editionis 1592 no. Orthographiae ratio 1591 no. Oratione del cardinal Polo bl5 pt. Latin. 3 Books printed under the aegis of the Accademia Veneziana 1558 Reginald Pole. 4 Livy. libri octo 1594 no. 13 Valerio Faenzi. Italian 1591 no. Vindelicar. Praediutn rusticum.

Books printed or published independently by Andrea Torresani 1501 Petrarch. Psalms. De exemplis illustrium virorum Agate 094.18 L177 1565 (v. 1 1579 Hippolytus. De elementis et eorum missionibus gl548 no. 1 160 In Aedibus AUJi . Latin.T.2 T63 1554 1556 Epistolae clarorum virorum Agate 094.2 Ai53 1548 1 548 Ci. Works (Latin) cl501 no. 1-2) 1527 Stafano dci Nicolini da Sabbio. 1 Books publishedfor the Aldine Press at Paris by Bernard Turrisan 1554 Giovanni Battista Egnazio. O. 1 1548 Pierre d' Ailly. 1 1591 Barnabe Brisson. Introduttorio nuovo intitolato corona preciosa d!527 no. Works el565. Meditationes in septem Psalmos poenitentiales Agate 223. Psalmi Davidici nl547 no. 875. Histoire de I'origine de toutes les religions g!578 no. 1-4) (2 copies) Books published ostensibly for the Aldine Press at Paris by Robert Colowbel 1578 Paolo Morgia. 2q (v. De regio Persarum 955 B77 1591 Books printed at Paris in imitation of the Aldine Press by Nicolas LeRiche 1547 Bible. Vray discours du regne de VAnte-Christ g!579 no.isparo Contarini.2 T632 1556 1557 Francisco Vergara. De Graecae lingua grammatica el557 1565 Cicero.

37 1514 Silius Italicus.9 P549a 1506 1508 Suetonius. 19 (v. 45 Checklist 161 . 20 1506 PMostratus. Works. 1-2) 1505 Xenophon. Works fl514 no. 27 151 Xenophon. Latin fl 505 no. De vita Caesarum fl508 no. Commentary on Aristotle and Theophrastus fl 505 no. Works.4 Op7 1514 1514 Giovanni Gioviano Pontano. Latin fl51 1 no. Punica 873. Dewto^/w/om'i 888. 1 Unauthorized imitations of the Aldine Press produced at Lyon 1505 Theodoros Gazes.

Cum commentario Achillis Statii Lusitani. Pietro. Latin & Greek. 1581. Medicinac libri. 1497. Baldassare: Libro del cortegiano. Celsus. 1549. 1520. 1585 Anania. 1554 Audebert. Institutiones Graecae grammatices. Bude. 1550 Caesar. Benedetto. 1588. 1554. De bellis civiiilms. Lodovico. 1517 Catullus: Works. 1498 Capece. Antonii Mureti. 1533. 1556 Cataneo. 1500 Augurello. 1559. Greek. 1553 Athenagoras. Annibal. Works.T. Decamerone. Lodovico. Giovanni. 1558 Appian of Alexandria. 1562 1557. Latin. Epistole devotissime. Urbano. Metamorphoses. Guillaume. 1563 Abrabanel. Bordone. 137-61. Works. 1552 1551 Aeschines: In Ctesiphontem. Hymns. Ambrose. 1521 Romani pontificis. Explanatio in Ciceronis Castiglione. Legatus. 1554. INDEX TO THE CHECKLIST OF ALDINE EDITIONS OWNED BY BYU Numbers refer to the dates in the checklist. Historiae Venetae. 1546. Italian. 1552. Galeazzo Flavio. In calumniatorenr Platonis libri quatuor. Bembo. 1547. 6(r. 1546 militare. Julius: Works. 1592 Alunno. Jean. Opus de auctoritatc ct potcstate Apuleius. Analytica priora Aristotelis. In Boccaccio. 1519. 1547 1546. 1558 Canisius. orationes. De asse. 1522 1518 Alexander of Aphrodisias: Commenatria in Topica Bissari. Apollonius Dyscolus. Alcionio. Aesop's Fables. Orlando furioso. / quattro primi libri di architettura. 1563 1541. 1495. 1576 tarius M. Works. In Ctesiphontem. Andrea. Works. O. Dictionarium. Medices.Works. 1 546 Aristotle. 1551 Campeggi. Stanze pastorali. 1503. Petrus. Works. 1521. Della nuova disciplina & vera arte Porphyrii. 1515. De exsilio. Book of Hours. Rime. Ricchezze della lingua volgare. 1515. 1505 Catholic Church. Varia opuscula. 1592 Aesop. 1513 1545. 1497 Capella. Aulus Cornelius. Pietro. 1528. In Praedkatnentis Aristotelis. De virginitate. 1542 Beccadelli. Vcnetiae. Exquisitae in Porpliirium commentationes. 1572 Asconius Pedianus. Demonomania. Italian. 1549. Giovanni Lorenzo di. De natura daemonum. Bessarion. Works. Daniel. p. Isolario. 1502. Sacrae Scripturae veteris novaeque omnia. 1522 1589 Anthologia graeca. 1518 Caro. Authoritates sacrae scripturae et sanctorum Ariosto. De construction orationis. Quintus. 1522. 1547 Apollonius Rhodius. Germain. Biblia sacra vulgatae cditionis. Callimachus. Works. 1560 Ammonius Hermiae: In Aristotelis De interpretation. Works. 1503. 1545. Tommaso. 1 545 patrum. 1497 Ausonius. 1562. 1541. 1505. 1545. 1571. 1555 Archimedes. 1522 Sophisticos Aristotelis elenchos. Pietro. 1518 Bible. 1513. 1571 Aristophanes. 1513. 1533 Artemidorus. De resurrectione. 1505 Bible. Dialoghi di amore. Francesco. Vita Reginaldi Poli. 1520 Bodin. 1543 Bolzanio. 1553. 1557 1516 Aeschylus. 1566. 1589. Lelio. Argonautka. Italian. Pietro Paolo. In quinque voces Brancaccio. Ambrogio. Gli Asolani. Greek. Latin. Judah. 1538. 1521 Calcpino. Del Tevere. 1565 Aristotelis. 1547. //. Anthropologia. 1528 162 In Acdibus Aldi . 1569. 1583 Catherine of Siena. Giovanni Aurclio. Scipione. 1503. De principiis rerum. Et in eum commen- Bacci. 1558 Barbaro. 1495 1575. Oneirocritica. Italian.

1582. 1564 fratrem. Charles. Pro Milone. 1550. 1523 Ferrari. Lodovico: Didone. Italian. 1495. Dictionarium Graecum. 1570. Epistolae ad Euripides: Hecuba. Institutiones linguae Graecae. 1533. Gasparo: De magistratibus et republica explanatio. Italian. Gabriele. Italian. 1546 Dolce. Giovanni. 1561 Council of Milan.Fabritia. 1513. Regole grammaticali delta Italian. 1554. 1536 1519. Nicolas. 1558 Works. Dictionarium. De corona. 1521. 1551 Corti. George. Philippicae. De Thucydidis Historia. Orations. 1569. 1566. Desiderius: Apophthegmata. 1512. 1549 Herodian: De numeris. 1545. 1541. In librum Psalmorum brevis Contarini. Praedium rusticum. 1553 1554. discorsi. 1564 (1st state). Italian. Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. 1518 Marco Aureiio. 1504. Historiae. Gellius. Orationes. Works. 1523 Cyprian. Latin. 1541 Dante. 1581 Estiennc. Aulus. gesti. 1546. 1555. 1563 Giorgio. Demosthenes: Adversus Leptinem. ad Quintum Eucherius. 1542 Colonna. 1515 Gregory of Nazianzus: Carmina. Orations. 1544. Index librorum prohibitorum. Epistolae familiares. 1549 Grifoli. 1549 Etymologicum magnum. 1503 Curtius Rufus. Catechism. Natale. De prandii ac caenae modo. In Genesim et in Libres regum. 1562. 1564. Orationes. 1 523 Hesychius. 1523. Eustratius. 1514 Checklist 163 . 1503 Epistolae familiares. Girolamo: De bello Sicambrico. 1569 1549. 1560 mente di Aristotele. 1550. Philippicae. 1513. Iphigenia in Aulis. 1495. De optirni pastoris munere. 1569. Theodoros: Commentary on Aristotle and Council of Trent: Canones et decreta. 1547 Giovio. Ad Paulum Manutium emendationcs in Clenard. 1569 Gemistus Plcthon. Constitutions et decreta. Philosophical Works. Vita. Girolamo. 1507. De magistratibus et republica Venetorum. In Hexaemeron. Orationes. 1502. De octo Hesiod. 1556. 1525 Italian. 1555. Rhetorical XII. Ewtemata. 1520 George of Trebizond. 1557. 1563. mensibus Atticis. Works. 1549 Cicero: Epistolae ad Atticum. Paolo. Marino. Atticum. 1499. 1556 1503. 1566 Gazes. 1554. Italian. 1497.Censorinus. 1567. 1591 Dionysius Periegetes. 1545 Conti. Italian. Francesco. 1569.. Works. 1499 Herodotus. 1504. Works. 1564 Venetorum. Antonio de. 1549. 1591 Chrysoloras. 1 528 Galatas. 1519. De materia medica. Commentarii delle cose de Turchi. Girolamo. Orationes 1552. In epistolas Pauli ad Romanos et ad Interpretatio in Odysseam. 1551 Gucetic . Works. Ad omnes iuris civilis interpretes. Quintus. 1577. 1564. De iis quae post pugnam ad Crastoni. Introductivae grammatices. Italian. Historiae. 1541. De die natali. Divina commedia. Rhetoricorum libri V. Orationes variae. 1515 Orationes responsa literae ac mandata. 1 502 Erasmus. De (2d state). Epitome Princip. Manuel. ad Brutum. Giovanni Francesco. Nikola Vitov. 1564 Theophrastus. 1543 Guevara. Epistolae clarorum uirorum. 1560. 1524 Epistolarum graecarum collectio. 1502. Nodes Atticae. 1578 1545 Flaminio. Jacopo. Dello stato delle republiche secondo la Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Venet. 1551. Gregory of Nyssa. Ferdinandus. 1557. costutni. Latin & Greek. 1546. 1548. Marco Antonio. Catechism. Latin & Greek. 1521. 1557 Didymus Chalcenterus: Interpretatio in Iliadem. 1516. 1570 Philippicas Ciceronis. lettere di Dioscorides Pedanius. 1524 Mantineam gesta sunt. 1565. 1579-83 1546 Claudian. 1554. Historia Alexandri Magni. 1536. Ahducnsis. of Alexandria. Giocasta. 1514. Fiamma. De venatione. Latin. Bernardo. 1547 . Falletti. 1542 Dio Chrysostom. 1562 Gabuccini. 1567. 1575. 1554. De situ orbis. Grimani. 1589. Matteo. Latin & Greek. Italian. 1545. Fortunio. De comitiali morbo. 1495 rationis partium constructions. 1591 volgar lingua. 1513. De corona. In Ethica Nicomachia. 1559.

In somniutn Scipionis. 1515 1576 Lucian: Works. 1561. Horatii Flacci De arte Nunez. 1521 Musaeus. T. Isocrates. 1581. virginitate. 1557 Oppian. 1554. 1543. John of Damascus. 1582. 1553. Christophorus. Discorso. Latin. 1516 Nores. De Herone et Leandro. 1502. Orationes XXIII. Hieroglyphica. Liburnio. 1570 1523. Epistolae ex Ponto. 1546. Pretiosa margarita. Lucan. 1504. 1520. insieme con la 1582. 1545 Justinus. De rerum natura. 1509. Ciceronem fratrem. 1562. Viaggi fatti da Vinetia. . 1564. Marcus Junianus. 1554 Lycophron. Horatii Flacci De arte Lucretius. 1570. 1559. 1524 Manutius. Epitome orthographiae. 1516. 1518-33. 1497. Works. 1502 164 In Aedibus Aldi . Oracoli politici cioe sentenze. 1591. Ibis. 1516. De mysteriis. Works. Vulgari 1555. Thomas. Lorenzo de'. 1575. 1566. 1518 1550. T. Judah Massolo. 1515. Epigrammata. 1519. Erotemata. 1546 1572. Oratio de Francisci Medices . 1585. 1566. Ciceronis collecta. Homiliae. Naples (Kingdom).EpithetaM. 1580. Latin. 1559. 1 546 Origen. 1517 Linacre. Tulii Ciceronis De Iamblichus. Huarte. Lascaris. 1560. 22. Italian. 1557 Livy. 1575 elegantie. Thesaurus Ciceronianus. 1515. Adversus sanctorum imaginum oppugna. Giulio. Medici antiqui omnes. 1535 elementi. Libro dell'arte Oribasius. lunium Lactantius. Libri di stampa dAldo cite si trouano al presente. 1566. Giasone de. 1575. 1557. 1560 Lawrence Justinian. 1547. Niccolo: Historie. Ciceronis De philosophia. Sonetti morali. Pragmaticae edicta regiaeque sanctiones. 1579 Martial. 1554 Lettere volgari di diversi nobilissimi huomini. La vita di Cleopatra. see Abrabanel. 1553 Luisini. 1513 Odoni. Perduellionis rei defcnsiones Natta. 1591. Examen de ingenios para las sciencias. Lacinio. In epis- tolas Ciceronis ad Atticum. Horace. Works. 1562 . 1575 Horapollo. 1540. 1559. 1590 Metamorphoses. Hebreo. 1527. In libruin Q. 1512. 1567 Muret. Marco Antonio: De Deo. Works. 1587. Ab urbe condita. Tulii Ciceronis ad M. 1545. Aldus II: Attioni di Castruccio Castracane. 1517 Leone. Mario. 1551. 1546. 1592 1580 Longolius. In M. 1592 Medici. Latin. Latin. 1564. 1519? Nizolio. 1551 orationem Ciceronis pro P. Degli Juvenal. 1581. 1554 della guerra. Juan. 1528 Ovid: Fasti. In epistolam Q. Louis. 1501. 1547 1585. Delia vicissitudine o mntabile varieta delle cose. 1570 poetica. Orthographiae ratio. Pedro )\an. 1517 Machiavclli. Manassi. De Locutioni di Terentio. Giano. 1501.Works. 1561. Grannnaticae institntiones graecae. Vita di Cosimo de' Medici. 1 554 Manutius. Lettere volgari. Nicolo. In Landi. Halieutica. Italian. 1569. Nicolo: Occorrenze humane. Paulus: Adagia. Poesie volgari. De quaesitis per epistolam. 1561. 1501. Pliarsalia. De mnndi contemptu. Pomponius. In M. Nizolius. Divinae institntiones. De emendata structura. Epistolarutn libri. 1590. Sextio. Locutioni dell'epistole di Cicerone. 1503. Latin. 1586 copia della lingua Toscana e Latina. In epistolas M. 1583. Works. Synopsis. 1564 dime. Aldus I. Orations. 1517. sive. 1557 Leroy. Ri naldo. 1568. 1 534 1583. 1558. Manutius. Constantine. 1586 tores orationes tres. 1557 1556. 1557. 1576. 1557. John Chrysostom: De procidentia. Trogi Pompei extemae historiae. Antonius. Tristia. Antiquitatum 1522 Romanorum liber. 1562.Homer. 1503 Macrobius. Eleganze. 1515 poetica. Marc Antoine: Orationes tres de studiis literarum. Alexandra. Pietro. 1557. 1555. Francesco. 1535 Brutus et ad Q. Italian. laudibus. 1572. Mela. 1505 Manutius. 1548. 1516 officiis libros tres. Works. 1556.

1545 Patina. Niccolo. Recens Lutheranum assertionum Pliny the Younger. Congiura de' baroni del regno di Napoli. 1544. De origine successibusque Slavorum. Jacopo: Arcadia. 1518 oppugnatio. Prose Works. 1499. 1523 1518-19 Simplicius of Cilicia: In octo Aristotelis physicae libros. 1572 Philostratus. Girolamo. Francesco Filippi. 1546. Paulus. 1534. 1528. De mensuribus etponderibus Romanis. 1560 Poetic Works. Works. 1554 Theopoeiae. 1502 Priscian. Stanze. 1567. 1556. 1543. Plautus. 1533. 1560. Giacomo. Bartolomeo.Desacriftcioetmagia. Lucas. 1588 Plato. 1497 Palacios de Salazar. Works. 1516. 1519 Italian. 1 543 Plutarch. 1522 1527. Petrus Aurclius. 1545 1546 Rocca. Silius Italicus. 1550. 1558. Punica. 1504. 1514. John. 1515. 1498 Sforza. 1521. 1497. Vocabularium. 1522. In epistolas Ciceronis familiares. 1549 Paetus. Vinko. Lives. 1533. Angelo. de lege agraria. De tenuis humoris febrem faciente ante Priscianese. Works. Sonnetti e canzoni. Latin. 1562 Iesu Christi Euangelium secundum Matthaeum. 1573 Proc\us. Francesco. Fasti Polybius: Historia. Francesco. Epistolae. 1521. 1529 Checklist 165 . 1509. Reformatio Anglia. Works. In Physicen Parisetti. 1534. Liber 1552. 1557. De imitatione. 1521 consulares. 1595 Stephanus of Byzantium. Dialoghi. Works Pliny the Elder: Index in C Plinii Nat. 1516. Carlo: Emendationum libri duo. 1502. 1554 Artem poeticam. Cornucopiae. 1559 de analemmate. Tragedies. Argumentorum observationes in purgationem. 1499 Poetae Christiani veteres. i/z M. Lectionum antiquarum Persius. 1519 Poetae tres egregii. 1517. 1527 Steuco. 1514. 1555 Pedemonte. 1521. 1519 Scala. De vita Apollonii. 1501 Scriptores historiae Augustae. Girolamo.Alcibiades. De divini in hominem benevolentia. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes Pontano: Giovanni Gioviano. Amorum libri II. De sacrosancto tnissae Quintilian. 1514. 1501 libri. Works (Latin). De urbibus. 1513. 1517 Poliziano: Angelo. 1513 Sannazaro. In posteriora resolutoria Aristotelis. 1538. 1526. Latin. Sperone. De discorsi. Latina. Historiarum Ravennatum libri. 1553 Pausanias. Lodovico: Ad varium Tolomaeum fratrem Aristotelis. Giovita. 1 546 Rhetoresgraecae. 1559 Sanutus. Latin. 1509. 1558 Partenio. (Latin). 1562 Seneca: Naturales quaestiones. 1518. Works. 1557. Works. Isabella. 1502. Ennarationes in sacrosanctum Propertius. In quatuor Aristotelis libros de coelo. 1533 Pole. 1 534 Scriptores rei rusticae (Libri de re rustica). 1501. Works. 1535. 1562. hist. Recognitio Vctcris Testamcnti. De partu virginis. 1521 venerabili sacramento. 1505? Patrizi. Della vera tranquillita dell'animo. 1590 1534 Rossi. Reginald: De concilio. Ecphrasis in Horatii Flacci Rapicio. Camillo. 1534 Speroni. 1558. Works. 1508. 1571 Psellus. Latin. 1535. Works (Italian). Latin. 1545. 1541. 1513. 1533. 1516 Petrarch: Cose volgari. Julius. 1513 Perotti. Pro lingua Latina oratio. Ptolemy: Inerrantium stellarum significationes. De numero oratorio. Orationes septcm. 1558 omnes Ciceronis epistolas. 1570 Naturalis historia. 1501 Pindar. 1517. Posthomerica. 1562. 1 Pacini. 1527 Rhodiginus. 1516 Ragazzoni. Michael: De daemonibus. Latin. 1550 Pribojevic. Latin. Institutiones oratoriae. 1560 Plutarch. De consilio sapientis. Osservationi intorno alle bellezze della lingua Philoponus. Moralia. 1540. Lodovicus Caelius. 1526 1565 Sophocles. Pace. Ricci. 1 57 Quintus Smyrnaeus. Bernardino. 1509 Scriptores astronomici veteres. Agostino. Planisphaerium. 1555. Statius. 1502 Sigonio. Works. 1502 Priapea. Porzio. libros. 1544 Pollux. Institutionesgrammaticae. Vinccntius Quintianus. 1536. 1513 Sallust. 1505.

1576 Theocritus. Miguel Thomas. 1515. 1514. Defascino. Suda lexicon. Disptitatiotws quaedam ecctesi. In librum b. Enea: Imagini delle donne Auguste. Sebastian. Works. Benvenuto. 1496 Xenophon. 1553. 1594 Theophrastus. martyrum. 1560. 1558. Tertullian. Velleius Paterculus. Idylls. 1516 Thomas Aquinas. 1591. Idylls. Giorgio. Apotogeticus. 1501. Terence: Works. De expetendis et fugiendis rebus. 1515. 1583. Works. Italian. Delle rime. Argonautica. Historiae. Theognis. Factorum et dictorum memorabilinm libri Syncsius Platonicus. 1562. 1495. De sacramento confessionis. Omnium Caesarum verissimae imagines. Latin. 1541. 1502. In Welser. lob expositio. 1523 Suidas. Torquato: Aggiunta alle rime et prose. 1514 Valerius Maximus. 1558. Lorenzo. Richard. Tito Vespasiano. Works. 1571 Strozzi. De situ orbis. 1525 TRIVMPHVS PKIMVS Aldus Manutius. Ezechielem prophetam. 1570. 1513 Vairo. 1519?. Rime e prose. De mercatura. 1589 Suetonius. Pater et filius. 1585. Leonardo. 1558. Works. De gentibus etfamtiiis Tibullus. 1555 Theodoret: In Canticutn canticorum. libri octo. 1546 Victorius. Elegantiae. Latin. Works.Strabo. 552 1 Thesaurus cornucopiae. 1563 Fragmenta tabulae antiquae. 1527. 1534 Valla. Aminto. 1495 Vindelicar. 1535 1562 Themistius. 1565 Vico. Marianus Reatinus. Delle rime e prose. 166 In Acdibus Aldi . Latin. 1502. Elegies. Latin. 1591. 1534 Virgil. 1521 Valerius Flaccus. Leaf k5v-6r. 1582. 1501 Tacitus. Tractatus de nullitatibus processum. De plantis et de causis plantarum. 1562 Stracca. De somniis. Rerum Augustanar. 1571 asticae. Latin. De vita Caesarum. 1499 I Iypnerotomachia Potiphili of Francesco Colonna. 1516. Catholicae maiestatis rerum status a 1581 consiliis. Historiae Romanac. 1 563 Taxaquct. 1497 IX. 1575. 1534 Valla. Marcus: Corwersio et passio SS. 1502 Strein von Schwartzenau. 1567 Romanorum. 1554 1590. 1563. Vantius. Francisco. 1 553 Thucydides. Vargas Mejia. 1536 Tasso. 1 554 Works. Gaius.

50 Caesar. Andrea. 60-61 operations in Rome. Torresani. 89. 31. 41-42 Aldine Press Hypnerotomachk Poliphili. 25 under the Torresani. 25. Giovanni Gioviano. 89-92 Bessarion. 25. 116-17 Aleandro. 4 Pontano. 125 Manutius. 113 Council of Trent. 2. 61-63 expropriation of earlier editions. 43-45.21-23. 119-21 Pribojevic. 39-10 Catullus. 89. 18 See also Checklist of Aldine Editions in the Harold B. 17-21 Capella. 25. 126 Manutius. 52-53 Aeschylus. 69-71 Bordone. 47 Home Beatissimae Virginis. 113 Aesop. 102 Strabo. 50-51. 47-48 Pliny the Elder.25 Gazes. 6. 3. 50 Euripides. 11. Girolamo. 57-60 interest in New World discoveries. ix. publications of Pindar. 25. 115. 42-43 Aristotle. 102 Bolzanio. 65 Plato. 25. 85 Castiglione. 59-60 Libri de re rustica. 81.25 Poetae christian i veteres. 53 Sannazaro. Benedetto. 3. 137-66 Herodotus. 102-06. Gregory of Nazianzus. 114.17 characteristics of publications. 70 Cicero. Francesco. 47-48. 118-19 Seneca. Aldus I. Julius. 50 Statius. Angelo. Persius. 93-94 cost of publications. 1 14. Saint. 25 Abrabancl. 6-9. 6. 106-11 reprint practices. 65. Torresani. 2. 9-12 Sophocles. 71-73 Callimachus. Reginald. Vinko. 4 Tliesaurus cornucopiae. 94-96 Thucydides. 114. 121-22 Pole. 25. 81 Propertius. 16-17. 25 Dionysius Periegetes. 76-78 Sforza. 4. Torresani. 4—6. 1. 65. 3. 15. 89 Lycophron. see also Manutius. 1 17-18 Tibullus. Jacopo. 79 Virgil. 65. 43-45. Paulus. 2. Galeazzo Flavio. 83 Lactantius. 37-38 Aldine Press. 25. Aldus II. 73-74 Horace. 89. 89. 65-67 Poliziano. 73 Homer. 36-37 Plutarch. 114 inaccuracies after death of Aldus I. 110 Lucretius. 55-57. 2. Paulus. Judah. 1. 2. 89. 4-5 Vulgate Bible. Torresani Press Philostratus. INDEX Abrabancl. Baldassare. Theodoros. 122-23 reputation of. 61-63 Crastoni. 17-18 Lee Library. Manutius.82 Index 167 . 1 14. Aldus I. Urbano. 35-36 Aesop. 25 distribution of. 43-45 Scriptores astronomici veteres. 11-12. 3. Ovid. 75-76. 4. Aldus II. Constantine. Guillaume. 1 13 Longueil. 57 Abrabancl. 99 Index librorutn prohibitorum. 21 Juvenal. 45-47 6. 58 Aristophanes. 25. 43-45 output of. 41 Horapollo. 78-79 Catherine of Siena. 89 Musaeus. 92-93 Tertullian. 76 Manutius. 25 Federico. 43. 114. 1. 15-17 Bembo. 6. 68. Isaac ben Judah. 99 Martial. 4. 100-02 printer's device. 25. 48-49 Manutius. 59-60. Judah. 25. 114-115 Aeschylus. Isabella. 65 Lascaris. 41-42 Pliny the Younger. 3. 67-69. 9^98 Gospel ofJohn. Pietro. 12-14 Cyprian. Christophe de. 83-85 operations in Bologna. 86-87 Bude.

12. 126 Alfonso V (King of Portugal). Antonio. 74 Caesar. 9 Bembo. 13 Bordone. 100. 70 Clari. 38 Borgia. George-Louis Leclerc. 58 manuscript library of. 113. 113-14.Josse. 84 Censorship. 30 Atlantis. 111 Bacon. Cesare. Caterina. 118 Carracci. Matteo. 71 Charles VIII (King of France). 123 Asola. Daniele. 65 Clement VIII (Pope). 36-37. 127 gives silver medal to Aldus I. 127 Casali. 76 Apollonius of Tyana. 94—95 168 In Aedibns Aldi .22.54 cm Platonism. Simon de.56 Anchor and dolphin printer's device. 42 Cortez. 69 Castiglione. Galeazzo Flavio. 2. 84. 13 Counterfeiters. 53 Anne de Foix (Queen of Hungary). 8. 76 Byzantine design in headpieces and initials. 2. Francesco d'. Johannes. 81. Urbano. 66 Biblioteca Marciana. 84 Chalcondyles. Francesco. 66 Cornaro. Guillaume. 96. 68 College de France. 76 Aratus. 84 Charles V (Holy Roman emperor). Roberto. 12 Cicero. Alessandro. 78. 60. 75. 66 Columella. Umberto. 67. Marcus Portius. 20 Broderics. 121 Bevilaqua. 54. 84 Bade. 35 Autenorus. 1. 90 Bolzanio. 75. Francis. Bernardo. 51 Alzano. 49. 2. 69 interleaving of different texts. 95-96 Boccaccio. 85 Argyropoulos. 98 student of Lascaris. 115 Aristotle. 69 Ciceronianism of. Istvan. 2 Benedetti. 68 Bruno. 50 and Longueil. 122 dominates culture in northern Italy. 121 Buffon. 8 Book formatting Cyprian. 37 published by Aldine Press. 16 Ciceronianism. 12. 96-98 supervises publication of Castiglione. 66-67. Battista. Saint. 90. 75-76 Charles of Navarre. 85 Books of Hours. 6 Astrology. Christopher. 18. see Aldine Press: signing of signatures. 13. Girolamo. 55. Julius. 73 numbering of leaves or pages. 125 and Gazes. Leonardo.49. 93-94 apostolic secretary. Giovanni. 1 10 Colincs. 1 1-12. ix. 9 octavo. 96. 121 Apollonius Dyscolus. 84 and Lascaris. 98 Catherine of Siena. 77 Coletjohn. 12 Cato. 126 Capella. 44 Avanzi. 87. 68 career of. 50. 6 Crasso. Greek. 102. 20 Calligraphy.34. 66-67 Council of Trent. Baldassare. Platon. 115 Callimachus. 2 Beccadelli. 57 Bembo. 75. 12 Bolzano. William. 103. 43. 83 Bessarion Colonna. 76 Copyright. 104-05 on Pontano. 58 Asola. Lucrezia. Carolus. 45 printer's device stenciling. 80 Caslon. 20 Council of Ferrara and Florence. 53. Pompeo. Antonio Blado d'. 6 Columbus. Simonc. 82-84 Aristotile. 80 Benacci. Pietro Catullus. 80. 75 owner of Horapollo manuscript. Giordano.25.Alexander VI (Pope). Demetrius. 82 father's manuscript library. 122-123 career of. Bartolommeo da. 65 Counter-Reformation. 92-93. 23 Alfonso I (King of Naples). Agostino.49. 117. 4 Colonna. 69. 36 Bude. Benedetto. 75-78 Bellarmino. 74 Aristophanes. 6 Clementine Bible. Hernando. 83 Caldo. 12. 5 Borgia. Niccolo d'.

Matthaeus. see typefaces Humanists.68. 41-42 Ficino. 84 Fortunatus. 89 on Aldus I's Greek. see Book formatting Humanists. 82. 94 Gelli. Robert. 69 Giocondo. 62. 13 Hieroglyphics. Abraham. 67-68 Horatian.18. 58 Egnazio. 66. 108 Franciscus of Bologna. 65 Gabriel of Brasichella. 113 Dolet. 84 Grandjon. 84 Inscriptions. Elisabetta. 116 Favorinus. 66 Herodianus. 111 Iteriano. 77 Erasmus. 52 Ferrante I (King of Naples). Giorgio. 102 Estienne Press. 4-5 printer's device Giovanni Battista. ix. 100 Giunti Press. 12. 29. 2 career of. 90-91 Eugenius IV (Pope). Johannes. 6. 104-05 Gonzaga family.Jean. 74 Index 169 . 18 on Aldus I as grammarian. 1 Fonts. 80. Jean. 13 Florentine Academy. Greek. 17. 2 Henry VIII (King of England). Johannes. 113 Jcnson. 28 Froben. 46. 12. Carlo. 125 Fedele. Marsilio. 36. 46 Froben Press. 123 Dionysius Periegetes. 59 Eloquence. 34 Democritus. 123 Gabrielli. Egyptian. 104 Hebreo. Desiderius Gonzaga.81 Joao II (King of Portugal). French. 71 Horace. 51. 66 Ducas. 67. Marco. 28 Dolphin and anchor printer's device. see Aldine Press: Gazes. 76 Hebrew language. Judah Este. 102 Gregoropoulos. 65. Angelo. Giacomo. 116 Henry VII (King of England). 48 Gemistus Plethon. Greek. 80 work with the Aldine Press. 4 and Longueil. 81 Grolier. 43 pedagogical methods. Demetrius. 4-6 Gutenberg. 83 on Bude. 13. 94 demand for texts. 2. see Abrabanel. 104 Forgeries. 16-17. 125 writes model letters. 100 Griffo. 41-42. 18. 17. Demetrius. Claude. Robert. 85 Francis I (King of France). 113 Heidner. 80-81 Harold B. 65. see Counterfeiters Humanists. 6 Diacritics. Francesco Isabella d'Aragona. 74 Horapollo. Henri. 38 Dante Alighieri. Cassandra. 1 edits Plutarch. female. 6. 28 Galen. 100 on Aldine Pliny. 51 Gregory of Nazianzus. 85-86 Grammars. 44. Etienne. 79 Format. 122 on Gazes.Damilas. 79-81 Greek language and literature censored. 29 on Andrea Torresani. 48. 43 George of Trebizond. 117 Galileo. 71 Fraunce. Lee Library Aldine collection. 6. Johann. 101-02 name deleted from title page of BYU copy of Aldus's Greek system of diacritics. Varinus. 77 and Fortunatus. Giovanni. 31 Damis of Nineveh. Leone. Giovanni.46. 54. 28 grammar. 125 on the dolphin and anchor device. 31 Fust. see Griffo. 83 Gualteruzzi di Fano. Roman. 78 Humanism. 42. 77. 78 Franco. Alfonso d'. Theodoros. Georgius. Nicholas. Giovanni Battista. 113 Ferdinand I (King of Naples). 127 Gregory XIII (Pope). Dorat. 80 Estienne. ix Estienne. 5 Herodotus. 79 Homer. Francesco. 85 Garamond. 1.

68 font. 34-35. 60 decline of Aldine Press under. 52-53 Lenzi. 53-54 contributions to printing profession. 117 scripts. 49. Mariano. 90. 103 Maconi. 56 patron of Longueil. 122 away from Venice (1509-12). see Counterfeiters lecturer. 12. 44 goes to Rome. 84 partnership with Andrea Torresani. Constantine. 106 Malaspalli da Spalato. 25-26. Niccolo. 60-61 Kopp. 1. Aldus I John. 65 Lefevre d'Etaples. 39. 81. 78 develops Greek typefaces. 100 teaches at Carpi. 38 and the "New Academy. 51 son of Lorenzo de' Medici. Aldus II Louis XII (King of France). 107 manages press at Bologna. 54. James. 84—85 Manutius. 31-33. Antoine de. 22-23. 78. Athanasius. 126 compared with Bordone. dis- Aldus I corresponds with. 33-34 Lascaris. 1. 104 thermae of. 95 humanist education of. 13. 49. 74 interest in grammar. 13 pute with Gabriel of Brasichella. 51 Manutius. 42 complains of ill health month before death. 75 produces grammar.83 financial troubles of. 6. 107 Lucretius. 29 complains about constant interruptions. 104 profession as a teacher. 99 pedagogical methods. 58. 36. 90 educational theories of. 45 tutored as a child by Poliziano. Thomas. 80 complains of lack of time. 80. 29. 110 Machiavelli. 6 Hebrew printing. Cristoforo. Jacques. 121 Kerning (typography). Simon. Marcus. 94 imprisoned by mistake while searching for manu- Lemnius. 65. Zacharias. Ortensio. 34—35 appoints Musurus archbishop. 25. Gospel of. 102 Latini. second font. 115 offers to print Sannazaro's work. 56 Longueil.76 approached by Erasmus. 62-63 Latimer. 101 Latin language and literature funeral of. 46. 51 attempts to recover estates. William. 102 program to promote classical texts.54. first Landino. Belissario. 68 plans to print polyglot Bible. 66 Manutius. 31-32. 13 Leo X (Pope) obtains copyright privileges. 84 death of. announced. 82 Leoniceno. 87 scholarly contributions. Wilhelm. Paulus 170 In Aedibus Aldi . 80 Julius III (Pope). 13. 84 death of. 82. William.John VIII Palacologus (Byzantine emperor). 25." 39 Julius II (Pope). 36 Linacre. 76 concern for accuracy. 114-15 offers to print Pontano's work. 2-3 grants copyright privilege to Aldus I. 110 publishes father's Cicero commentary. 100 Lily. 108 Lyon couterfciters. Stefano. 107 Lycophron. 33. 12 on octavo format. Niccolo. 62-63 Lactantius. Lascaris. 1 Landi. 100 Manilius. 44—45 begins printing. 30. 44 Julius Obsequens. 57 Kircher. 71 employs Bembo as secretary 75 on counterfeiters. 100-01 Letter writing. 1 Greek scholarship of. 18 and the invention of printing. 84 see also Aldine Press Longueil. 101 Loeb. 107 Luther. 65. 125 Kuno. 63 demand for texts. 12. 31-34. Martin. 4. 45 Kallierges.Johann. 68 procures Pliny manuscript. 100. 1 Julia Domna. 100. Janus. 75 fourth font. 51. 100. art of. Christophe de. printers' treatment of. 20 see also Aldine Press Manuscripts. 61-62 contributions to typography and book design. third font. 70 books dedicated to. Latino. 47-48. 9 publishes first work at age nine.

89-90. 121 Medici. 49 directs Vatican presses. Francesco de'. 89. 87 Index 171 . 114 Printing. 77 Neakademia. 5 Musaeus. 102 Piccolomini. Lorenzo de'.22-23. 105 commentaries on Cicero. 66 Medici. 93-94 scholarly reputation of. 103. 60 Ramusio. 110. 78 Rhenanus.17. Jorge de. Andrea. 50 appointed archbishop. 43 see also Aldine Press Pio. 58 helps son establish scholarly reputation. 2 Pribojevic. Reginald. see Copyright Musurus. 25 and Erasmus. Francois. 65. 108 death of. 89. Bernardo. 114 teaches Longueil. 65. 33 Proctor. Giovanni de'. Marcus Proclus. Francesco. 1 18 Pizarro. 123 Medici. 85 moves press to Rome. 127 separates from uncles.81 Map books. first Greek printing of. Janus. Alberto. 6 New World discoveries. 113-23 Rovere. 80 Propertius. 113-14. Angclo. 92-93 Mary I (Queen of England). 46 Rabelais. Thomas. 89 Maternus. 66 Mocenigo. 72. 103 Ovid. 51 Montefeltro. Johannes. Marc-Antoine. 90. 127 Priscian. 103 translates Musaeus. 103. Dionysius. 105 Petrarch. 39 Ricci. Francesco. 79 unhappy with Aldus II's work. 90 Pontano. Protestant. 106 Pindar. 89 Philostratus. 68. 20 Pius XII (Pope). 74 Poliziano. 79. 51 Pliny the Elder. 90-92 Montemayor. Beatus. Cosimo de'. Robert. 92 Paul III (Pope). 1. 57. 84 More. Giovanni Antonio de. 84 Quintilian. see Book formatting: octavo concern for accuracy. 67-69. 66 leaves Rome. 36-37 Ptolemy. 107 Pannartz. Francisco. 68 Platonism. 93 health fails. Firmicus. 122 Plantin. 91 Orthography. 1 Muret. 4 New Academy. 18 Ricco. 42 Navagero. 1 15 Pliny the Younger. 68. 90 raised by Andrea Torresani. 20 Aldus I's greek type I based on hand of. 114. 113 Montaigne. 80. 86-87 Mount Athos monastery. 8 Niger. 77 Pole. 44. 98. 71 Regio. Latin. 1 and second edition of Hypnerotomachia. 113 edits Plato. 110-11 Plato. Pietro. 1 takes over the press. 38 specializes in Latin classics. 100. 84. see New Academy Reformation. 69-71 Morison. Cipriano del. 69. 102 Octavo format. 90-91 Pius V (Pope). 126 Medici. 2. 68 New Testament. Vinko. 46 Privilege. 20 Ciceronian style of. 63 Neoplatonism. Stanley. Francesco Maria della. Giovanni Gioviano. 100 Paul IV (Pope). Raphael. invention of. Christopher. Georgius Gemistus. 105 Paravisinus. Arnold. Francesco. 115 Prudentius. Michel Eyquem de. Giovanni Battista. 4 Neri. 103 Pannonius. 121 Pius IV (Pope).60. 114 Plethon. 16 edits Aristophanes. 102. Guidobaldo da. 89 Pico della Mirandola. 77 Nicolini da Sabbio. 95 Neapolitan Academy. 30-31 promises to publish history of Council of Trent. 72. 9 Maximilian I (Holy Roman emperor). 13. 103 Palladius.66-67. Alvise. 67 Reuchlin. ix. Gianfrancesco.

85 gothic. ix. 121 Sannazaro. 89 Torresani. 77 Varro. Pietro. 113 Vulgate Bible. 96-98 Summonte. 93 Torresani Press. Julius Caesar. 27 Sforza. 1 16 Sidney. 115 Strabo. Marco Girolamo. Girolamo. 74 Voltaire. 66 Wechel. 2 Schoffer. 98 Vespucci. 104 Spinoza. Chrestien. 101 Soncini Press. 122 hebrew. 12 Sforza. Gualtero. Gianludovico. Alcssandro. 12 Virgil. Greek. 1 Saluzzo. 50 Tertullian. Baruch. 56 Ziletti. 2. Isabella. 2 Silva. Francesco. Geoffroy. Antonio. 78 Typography. 2. 87 Vida. 48 Wendelin of Speyer. 47. Francois Marie Arouct dc. Giordano. 85 italic. 81. 50 Tipographia del Popolo Romano. 69. 1 17 Slavs. Niccold. 55 Zoppino. 49 Tory. 118 Sannudo. Michel da. 65. 69 Tyard. Federico. Lorenzo. 69 Vercelli. 73 Socrates. origin of. 78-79 Valla. 121 Tibullus. 63 Zanetti. Jacopo. 11-12. 71 Sixtus V (Pope). 172 In Acdibus Aldi . 94 Typefaces Scaliger. Conrad. 74 Savonarola. Sigismund. 62 Sassone.Juan Luis. Marcus Terentius. 6 roman. 91 Thurz. Peter. 14W Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of Francesco Colonna. 12. 11. 85 Torresani. 27-34 Sforza. 100-01 Aldus Mauutius. Pontus du. 70 Sweynheym. 51.25. 50 Tacuinus. Alexander de. 102 Seneca.75 Sophocles. 25-34 Scotto. 104 Sixtus IV (Pope). 39 Vives. Bernardino da. 71-73 Torresani. Bartholomco. Francesco. 42 Sarti. 58 Sixtine-Clementine Bible. Marino. 114 Villedieu. 6 Sforza. Giovanni. 96-98 Venetian Academy. Ippolita. 3 greek. Adriana. 118 Thermae. Amerigo. Christophel. 17. Gian Galeazzo. Leaf Br. Philip. Andrea. 68 Trivulzio. 72 Van Dyck.30 Sforza. 78 Typography. 96.49. Johannes. 80.

Scanning of the photographs was by Borge B. Inc. Book DESIGN. . Bembo was designed by Stanley Morison for the Monotype Corporation and was based on Francesco Griffo's typeface used in Pietro Bembo's De Aetna published by Aldus in 1495. Evergreen Cover Natural. 'ignorance is bliss. one identifes readily with the saying. Bitstream's version of Centaur. Evergreen Book Natural and the cover is 80 lb. We wish to invoke the words of Gutenberg in the now famous colophon to the Catholicon oj 1460. . technical coordination. Laus tibi domine. Andersen & Associates. GREEK text was set in Bosporos designed by Allotype Typographies. Bons. "With the help of Omnipotent God. Printing AND binding was by Print Services at Brigham Young University. Bons. . Roman text was set in Aldine 401 which is the Bitstream. Display type was set in Venetian 301. Photography of the illustrations was by Stephen J. based on his own hand. COLOPHON Charged with the responsiblity for the design of a catalog on the Aldine Press. and who often reveals to the humble what He withholds from the wise. which bears a general resemblance to the fourth Greek type of Aldus. Paper is 70 lb. Espinosa. Computer preparation of the illustrations was by Stephen J. Salt Lake City. Computer typeset was by Stephen J." and pray to be so blessed as to be counted among the young and the humble. Bons. version of Bembo. Cover design was by Dave Quarez and Robert J. Espinosa. also of Venetian origin. at Whose very nod the tongue of infants are made eloquent.' To be familiar with the accomplishments of Aldus in the design of books is to be filled with a sense of inadequacy before the task of the design of a book in his memory. and production supervision by Robert J. designed by Bruce Rogers and based on Nicolas Jenson's roman typeface.