In this case, we would like to suggest that qualitative analysis is one of the most

suitable type of analysis to determine whether the batch of the palm oil is adulterated.
This is because the batch of palm oil might be contaminated by adulterants or
admixing of low quality or low value oil and fats and through qualitative analysis we
could what is this batch of palm oil comprised of.

From our research, dye, for example Sudan IV dye, is one of the most commonly used
adulterant for the palm oil. (Maxwell, 2015) .There are two tests could be carry out to
identify whether the sample is adulterated with dye, by adding concentrated
hydrochloric acid (Food Safety And Standards Authority Of India, 2012) or using
thin layer chromatography (Rebane, Leito, Yurchenko, & Herodes, 2010). By adding
in concentrated hydrochloric acid, the sample should be shake gently and allow it to
stand for 5 minutes. If the sample is adulterated with dye, a layer of colour will
separated on the upper layer of the sample. (Food Safety And Standards Authority Of
India, 2012). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is used to identify the presence of dye
in the palm oil sample. The palm oil is extracted by ester following by the
saponification of the oil sample. The sample is then separated by using thin layer
chromatography technique and colour spots can be observed on the TLC plate.
Qualitative analysis can be carry out by analysing the chromatograms of sample and
standard. The terms Rf (retardation Factor) and Relative Rf is used to express the
result .Mean of the Rf values were obtained from three triplicate spots of the
experimental samples or standards. If the Relative Rf values of the sample analysed
were less than 1,the absence of the suspected dyes in the sample could be confirmed
(M Masarat Dar, 2012) (Rebane, Leito, Yurchenko, & Herodes, 2010). There are
several advantages to the use of thin layer chromatography for the analysis of dyes
compared with other chromatographic techniques. Firstly, dyes can be easily
visualized on a chromatographic layer by their colour. Often slight differences in
shade are more clearly seen on the layer than in solution and hence are easily
distinguishable. Employment of detection reagents is rarely necessary unless the area
of interest is intermediates of dye which the conjugation needed in their molecular
structure to be coloured in visible light may absent. In the commercial environment,
quality of dye can be different from batch to batch and colour can be coordinated by
using different dyes. Thin chromatographic technique enable the analysis of several
samples against references or certiRed standards on the same layer under the same

The tube is shook gently for some time.conditions in one development run. 25 ml of the alcoholic KOH solution and 1 ml of the sample palm oil are added in conical flask. 5 ml of the oil sample is shook vigorously with 5ml of 0. odourless. Zhu. Quatitative analysis of Kries test could be carry out to determine the stage of rancidity of the palm oil. Chai. light mixtures of higher alkanes from a non-vegetable source. 2000) In order to maximise their profit. The conical flask is then both on a water bath until the solution become clear and no greasy droplet formed on the sides of the flask. (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. & Yang. 2012) Admixing of rancid palm oil with fresh palm oil is an uprising issue as rancid oil will damage the quality of the palm oil and might harm the consumers. A mineral oil is colourless. (Dou. 2012) . Firstly. In order to detect the presence of mineral oil within the palm oil sample. 25 ml of boiling distilled water is added along the sides of the test tube. Holde’s test could be carry out. Presence of mineral oil can be indicated by the turbidity of the solution. (Wall. the depth of turbidity depends on the percentage of mineral oil present. 5ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added using the shaking process.1% phloroglucinol solution in diethyl ether. Thus the analysis time and the cost per sample are considerably lower compared to liquid chromatography. It is hazardous to human body as it contains high level of carcinogen which can cause cancer. The rancidity of the palm oil could be identify qualitatively by using Kries Test. some merchants might adulterate the palm oil with mineral oil which is cheaper. Presence of pink colour indicated incipient rancidity. The flask is then taken out form the water bath and its contents are transferred to a wide mouthed warm test tube.

R.. Manual of Methods Of Analysis Of Food-Oils and Fats. P. Yurchenko. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. P. Dorset: Academic Press. . Maxwell. Summarization of Identifying Methods for Adulterate Edible Vegetable Oil. S. (2012). Z. L. K. Wall. (2015. Quick Test for Some Adulterants in Food-Instruction Manual-Part 1. A review of analytical techniques for determination of Sudan I–IV.com/food/seeing-red-detecting-illegal- sudan-dyes-in-foodstuffs/ Rebane. I. Thin-Layer (Planar) Chromatography. (2012). Food Safety And Standards Authority Of India. L. Zhu. E.References Dou. Detection of Sudan Dyes in Red Chilli Powder by Thin Layer Chromatography. (2012). J. Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi.. I. M Masarat Dar. Leito. Journal of Chromatography A. W. A. University of Kashmir. Kashmir: Department of Food Science and Technology. (2012). May 14)... Chai. New Delhi: MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILTY WELFARE OF INDIA. (2010). M. & Herodes.. New Delhi: Food Safety And Standards Authority Of India.. (2000). Retrieved from ThermoFisher Scientific: http://acceleratingscience. & Yang. Seeing Red: Detecting Illegal Sudan Dyes in Foodstuffs. l.