Subject : UEMK2411 Chemical Engineering Laboratory 1

Experiment No. :4

Experiment Title : Vapour Liquid Equilibrium (VLE)

Date of Experiment : 25th Jan 2017

Name of Lecturer : Dr.Yap Yeow Hong

Group No. : 20

Name of Group Members :

Year and Trimester
Name Student ID
Y2S3
Chang Kai Yan 1403527
Y3S2
Vinod A/L Muneesesparan 1301462
Y2S3
Ooi Swee Sean 1401662

1

the vapor will rise up and cooled down by the condenser on top of the evaporator whereas the liquid will flow back into the evaporator. After that. (Botía et al. 2010) This method can be applied to the vapor-liquid equilibrium experiment. INTRODUCTION The most important process in the chemical industry is the separation of azeotropic mixtures based on differences of boiling point as it cannot use conventional separation methods. 2011). The aim of this experiment is construct an equilibrium curve for an ethanol-water system in a static condition. Vapor-liquid equilibrium is in the condition where a liquid and its vapor are in equilibrium with each other. Equilibrium is a static condition in which no changes happens in the macroscopic properties of a system of time. When reaching the equilibrium state. In this experiment. the ethanol-water mixture is fed through a vessel into a evaporator and the heater is turned on. or on the other hand a condition where the rate of evaporation is same to the rate of condensation one a molecular level such that there is no overall vapor liquid inter-conversion. 2) To plot the equilibrium curve. TITLE Experiment 4.. All the data are recorded and the composition of mixture in the vapor phase is labelled as y where the composition of the mixture in the liquid phase is labelled as x in equilibrium state. The system is said to be in equilibrium state when the temperature is constant.Vapour Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) OBJECTIVE 1) To find VLE relationship for binary mixture. the samples of vapor and liquid are collected separately to determine their compositions or theirs refractive index (RI) by using a refractometer. 2 . (Sakshat Virtual Labs.

3 . MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT 1) Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Unit 2) 40 v/v % ethanol-water mixture 3) 0 v/v % ethanol-water stock solution 4) 20 v/v % ethanol-water stock solution 5) 40 v/v % ethanol-water stock solution 6) 60 v/v % ethanol-water stock solution 7) 80 v/v % ethanol-water stock solution 8) 100 v/v % ethanol-water stock solution 9) Refractometer 10) Dropper 11) Beaker (100 mL) Apparatus set up: Figure 1: Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Apparatus.

2 8.10 90 13.37 80 12.6 8. Percentage of Refractive Refractive Refractive Average value ethanol in the index index index of the ethanol-water (1st result) (2nd result) (3rd result) refractive stock solution index (v/v %) 0 0.63 60 12.13 80 13.6 8.7 13.7 13.7 Table 2: Average value of sample at different temperature.5 85 13.6 7.4 12.1 8.0 8.7 13.43 4 . RESULT Table 1: Refractive index of sample at different temperature (Obtained from experiment) Temperature(°C) Refractive index of condensate Refractive index of bottom feed 75 13.63 8.3 12.5 9.4 12. (Through calculation) Temperature (°C) Average value of Average value of refractive index of refractive index of bottom condensate feed 75 13.7 9.1 8.8 7.4 8.5 4.7 12.8 8.4 9.1 0.70 Table 3: Refractive index of samples with different ethanol-water percentage.5 13.8 7.2 13.6 9.43 40 9.6 13.4 13.5 8.3 4.2 80 13.7 9.10 20 4.1 0.5 4.50 8.1 90 13.57 7.3 9.73 8.1 0.7 13.8 12.47 85 13.6 12.70 100 9.

6 = 3 =13.74 0.7+13.water percentage Number of results obtained = 12.73 Example 2: Calculation to obtain average value of refractive index of sample at different ethanol-water percentage: Average value of refractive index of sample at 80% ethanol−water percentage Values of refractive index of sample obtained at 80% ethanol .8  12.749 0.415 90 0.391 CALCULATION Example 1: Calculation to obtain average value of refractive index of sample at different temperature: Values of refractive index of sample o Average value of refractive index of sample at 80 ° C (condensate)= Number of results obtain 13.6 3 = = 12.438 85 0.745 0.70 5 .70 ¿ 12.417 80 0. Table 4: Experimental value of percentage of ethanol in the sample in different temperature (Extrapolated result) Temperature (°C) composition of ethanol in composition of ethanol in condensate bottom feed 75 0.755 0.7+ 13.7  12.

The heater then switched on and the water supply have been 6 . please refer to Graph 3) From the graph. the linear equation: Y=0.218 From table 2.1657x + 1. Before starting the experiment. refractive index of condensate =13.218 X= 75. The temperature was first set at 75°c and connected to the drain by cooling water. The evaporator in this experiment have been poured with ethanol-water mixture.73=0.Example 3: Calculation to obtain experimental value of composition of ethanol in the sample (either in condensate or bottom feed) First. The experiment was conducted under a condition where the vapour phase and liquid are in equilibrium with each other. we have to obtain the linear equation of the calibration curve (plotted with the data from Table 3) from the trend line. (For the trend line of the calibration curve. temperature from table 2 into x: 13. All the valve of the evaporator have been closed before starting the experiment.1657x + 1. thus x = 0. the first action to consider is to close the liquid sampling and drain valve.73 Substitute the refractive index from table 2 into Y. when temperature = 80.755 DISCUSSION The vapour -liquid equilibrium (VLE) experiment was conducted to find the VLE relationship for binary mixture and to plot the equilibrium curve.5 Convert into composition by dividing x by 100.

A small portion of samples from the liquid and vapour valve were taken to measure the refractive index number. we plotted a calibration curve in order to calculate the composition of the ethanol in both condensate and bottom feed of the sample based on the sample. The calibration curve is shown in Graph 2. All the data have been recorded and tabulated in the result. The valves are then closed after collecting the samples to conduct the experiment for 80. and after some simple calculation. we compiled the values obtained into Table 1. refractometer have been used again to get the index numbers values of the ethanol water itself from 0 % to 100% by increasing the percentage by 20%. we plotted a graph to show the relationship between the refractive index of the sample and the temperature of the sample. From the data we obtained from the experiment.7 8 7 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 Temperature (°C) Besides. 5 minutes of stopwatch time had set to record down the temperature and pressure after the system have reached equilibrium.1 7.57 14 13 12 Index 11 RefractiveTemperature(Condensate) Temperature(Bottom feed) 10 9 8. Based on Table 2. Graph 1: Relationship between the temperature and refractive index of sample Relationship between the temperature and refractive index of sample 15 13. As the second part of the experiment.13 8. From 7 . with the data recorded in the Table 3.47 8.63 13.connected to the condenser. All the data have been measured 3 times using refractometer to get the average reading of the index numbers. 85 and 90°c.73 13. we rearranged the new value for the refractive index of the sample and the temperature into Table 2.5 13. After the temperature was raised. as shown in Graph 1.

the curve.81.63 9.43 10 8 Refractive index 6 4.37 f(x) = 0.43 4 2 0. we are not able to get a valid result by using the equation provided by the trend line of this curve. we will obtain that is greater than 1.1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percentage of ethanol (%) In order to amend this problem. we failed to obtain a curve which supposed to show a linear increasing relationship instead of a second degree polynomial curve that shows decreasing trend.7 12. our group had decided to extrapolate the calibration curve by removing the refractive index of the sample at 100% percentage 8 .11x + 2.81 12 9. If we insist to using this equation to evaluate the composition of ethanol in sample. Graph 2: A graph of refractive index against percentage of ethanol-water solution A graph of refractive index against percentage of ethanol-water solution 14 12. which is not applicable for the composition. The most important thing is.106x + 2. which is y = 0.

please refer to the Example 3 under Calculation session.7 f(x) = 0. A graph of refractive index against percentage of ethanol-water solution 15 12.43 5 0.63 10 Refractive index 4.17x + 1. x) is plotted and shown in Graph 4. With this equation. we group up the calculated value into Table 4.218. A graph of vapour composition (condensate. The linear equation obtained from the graph is y = 0. Graph 4: A graph of composition of ethanol in condensate against composition of ethanol in bottom feed 9 .1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage of ethanol (%) In Graph 3.of ethanol in sample.1657x + 1. we managed to find out the composition of the ethanol in the sample at different temperature through calculation. the curve shown an increasing trend and provided a linear equation that is suitable for the evaluation of the composition of the ethanol in the sample.22 9. For the method of calculation. The extrapolated curve is shown in Graph 3. Once the calculation done. y) against liquid composition (bottom feed.37 12. to ensure that the curve is showing the increasing trend. Graph 3: A graph of refractive index against percentage of ethanol-water solution (Extrapolated).

45 Composition of ethanol in bottom feed As the values of the composition of ethanol are fluctuating without a constant pattern. A graph of composition of ethanol in condensate against composition of ethanol in bottom feed 0. they are some inaccuracy in the result due to few reasons which will be mentioned later on. therefore the graph should show an increasing trend when either value of x or y is increased.75 0. A T-x-y diagram is plotted based on the result obtained and calculated. T-x-y diagram represents a binary mixture in temperature x against y. The T-x-y diagram is shown in Graph 5.39 0.76 0.42 0.43 0.38 0.73 0.4 0. Therefore.74 0. Theoretically. As all the compositions are labelled as mole fractions of the more volatile component (lower boiling point). x in the liquid phase or y in the vapour phase.41 0.75 Composition of ethanol in condensate 0. we are not able to find out the direct relationship between composition of ethanol in condensate and composition of ethanol in bottom feed.76 0.44 0.74 0. The composition of each phase of the ethanol-water mixture can be known by the T-x-y diagram in the given temperature. Graph 5: T-x-y diagram of the sample 10 . ethanol and water should be in an equilibrium state at certain temperature or time.

6 0.65 0.5 0.7 0. the T-x-y diagram in not showing the corresponding equilibrium composition of vapour and liquid phase.45 0. as mentioned in the theory. there will be a corresponding equilibrium composition for both condensate and bottom feed at a specific temperature.75 0. T-x-y diagram of sample 95 90 85 Temperature (°C) 80 75 70 65 0. However in the T-x-y diagram in Graph 5. In other words. 11 .35 0.8 compositon of ethanol Condensate (Vapour) Bottom feed (Liquid) Based on the theory. the vapour and liquid composition failed to show the “curry puff” shaped curve.4 0.55 0. The T-x-y diagram plotted based on the experimental values should have a similar “Curry puff” shaped curve with the T-x-y diagram depicted in Figure 1.

It will facing an electricity break down if we change the temperature and switch on the temperature switch. This break down made the VLE apparatus not able to carry on the experiment under a steady-state condition. we are facing an issue that the temperature control is not working as well as expected. During this experiment. Some of the portion of ethanol might vaporized when we filling in the condensate or 12 . Temperature T vapour liquid x1 y1 Figure 2: Theoretical shape of T-x-y diagram From the results we obtained from the experiment. we had found that our result is far apart from what is expected based on the vapour liquid equilibrium theory. According to the theory. as the thermal supply is considered inconsistent. equilibrium of vapour and liquid can be accomplished within a closed system and under steady-state. the experiment environment is unable to fulfil this criteria. ethanol is a highly volatile chemical substance. These inaccuracy are mainly due to the incapability of fulfilling the criteria to ensure that the experiment in run under an ideal condition. Besides. However.

This might be one of the reason of the fluctuating refractive index obtained through experiment. always measure the index number of the ethanol more than 3 times to get the average reading. Botía. I. To make it worse.70. we are able to construct and plot a graph of composition of ethanol in condensate versus composition of ethanol in bottom feed to study VLE relationship between binary mixture. [online] Available at: http://Binary vapor liquid equilibrium [Accessed 2 Feb. Secondly. our result is far apart from the VLE theory.. pp. (2010). Theoretically. As a precaution for this experiment. 13 . always clean the refractometer after measuring each of the samples to avoid errors in the reading. Vapor−Liquid Equilibrium in Extractive Distillation of the Acetone/Methanol System Using Water as Entrainer and Pressure Reduction. we found the average value of refractive index of sample art different temperature is 13. O. and Sánchez. Sakshat Virtual Labs. By doing this experiment. 2017]. P. (2011). D. REFERENCES 1. Gil..6176-6183. 49(13). the experiment was carried out successfully. 2.73 where the average value of refractive index of sample at different ethanol-water percentage is 12. Binary vapor liquid equilibrium. we are forced to let the beaker that containing ethanol-water mixture remain exposed to the environment directly due to the breakdown of the refractometer as we need time to get a new refractometer to carry on the experiment.. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.bottom feed into the beaker. CONCLUSION In conclusion. Riveros. Due to some error in the experiment. From the calculation. Ortiz. D. ethanol and water should be in equilibrium at certain temperature.