Work Breakdown Structure

(WBS)

Materi Kuliah Manajemen Konstruksi
Dosen: Emma Akmalah, Ph.D.

Pendahuluan
Dalam perencanaan proyek, manajer proyek harus
membagi-bagi pekerjaan menjadi elemen-elemen yang
lebih kecil yang bersifat:
•  Manageable, sehingga otoritas dan tanggung jawab
dapat dialokasikan dengan baik
•  Independent, atau dengan ketergantungan/interface yang
minimum terhadap elemen yang lain
•  Integratable, sehingga total paket kegiatan dapat dilihat
•  Measurable, sehingga kemajuan kegiatan dapat diukur.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
•  Langkah pertama dalam perencanaan proyek
setelah mendefinisikan kebutuhan proyek adalah
pembuatan WBS.
•  WBS merupakan suatu cara untuk membagi-bagi
pekerjaan secara hirarkis dan logis menjadi divisi-
divisi dan subdivisi-subdivisi, sampai ke bagian
terkecil yang disebut dengan paket pekerjaan
(work package)
•  WBS dibuat untuk berbagai keperluan,
khususnya pengendalian biaya maupun jadwal
pekerjaan

Rumah dua
lantai

Persiapa Pekerjaan Struktur Mekanikal Arsitektu Landscappin
n Tanah &Elektrikal r g

Struktur Struktur Struktur atap
bawah atas

Pekerjaan Pekerjaa Pekerjaa Pekerjaan
Rangka Atap n n Listplank
Kuda- Genteng
kuda Beton

Contoh WBS .

WBS dapat digunakan sebagai dasar untuk: Ø  Pembagian tugas dan tanggung jawab Ø  Penjadwalan Ø  Perencanaan biaya Ø  Risk analysis Ø  Struktur Organisasi Ø  Koordinasi Ø Pengendalian .

The WBS is one device that helps us ensure that nothing significant has been forgotten. “What must be done?”. . hierarchical tree of all the tasks needed to complete a project (Lock. 2011). 2011). or subproject tree diagram. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work (Cooke. 2007) •  The work breakdown structure. The tool of choice for doing this is the work breakdown structure (WBS).(Lewis. •  The first step in implementation planning is to answer the question. is a deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total work scope of the project. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Concept •  A work breakdown structure is a logical.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Concept The WBS is the single most important element because it provides a common framework from which: (Kerzner. and performance can be tracked. ● Planning can be performed. ● Network construction and control planning can be initiated. . ● Objectives can be linked to company resources in a logical manner. cost. ● Schedules and status-reporting procedures can be established. ● Costs and budgets can be established. ● Time. ● The responsibility assignments for each element can be established. 2009) ● The total program can be described as a summation of subdivided elements.

WBS for objective control and evaluation (Kerzner. 2009) .

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WBS Guidelines •  A work breakdown structure does not show the sequence in which work is performed! Such sequencing is determined when a schedule is developed. •  Break down a project only to a level that is sufficient to produce an estimate of the required accuracy. •  All paths on a WBS do not have to go down to the same level. •  A WBS should be developed before scheduling and resource allocation. . •  The WBS should be developed by individuals who are knowledgeable about the work.

Create WBS •  Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller. and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement. •  The planned work is contained within the lowest level WBS components. A work package can be scheduled. and controlled. (PMBOK. cost estimated. monitored. more manageable components. 2008) . which are called work packages. •  The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project.

(PMBOK. 2008) .

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WBS Coding System •  A code is a shorthand and precise method for conveying essential data about an item. . a set of numerical digits. •  A code may be a sequence of alphabetic characters. or some mix of these two (an alpha-numeric code). but such names must always be augmented by a specific code. Coding systems should be designed so that the maximum amount of information about each item is conveyed by the minimum possible number of characters. •  Every project task will need to be given a name or descriptive title.

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WBS Examples .

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•  The individual assigned responsibility for accomplishing work at the control account level is often designated a control account manager. •  Control accounts are divided into smaller. discrete scopes of work called work packages. Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS) •  Through the WBS. and a work package manager is assigned to each work package. This may occur at any one of several levels within the project and functional organization. work is defined to a level where unique organizational and personal responsibilities can be established. .

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•  Providing that the coding systems are logically designed. so that enormous sheet of paper will never be needed. and that each element of work is assigned to the level of responsibility necessary for planning. tracking progress. accumulating costs. the relational database in the computer will take care of the complexity. WBS-OBS Integration •  Integrating the WBS with the project and functional organizations assures that all contract work is accounted for. •  In practice project managers need only produce the WBS and OBS separately. . and reporting. and never have to draw the complex relationship diagram.

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USA. and Karen Tate (2011). Project Planning. John Wiley & Sons Inc. (2010). . •  Lewis. New York. USA •  Jackson. •  Kerzner. Gower Publishing Co. New York. 4th edition. USA. VT. Project Management. •  Meredith. Project Management. McGraw-Hill. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. McGraw-Hill. (2011). Scheduling & Control. Project Management Body of Knowledge. Indiana. Burlington. USA. Mantel (2009). New York. 5th edition. Barbara J. References •  Cooke. Construction Management Jump Start. 9th edition. Pennsylvania.. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Samuel J. Harold (2009). USA. 2nd edition. USA. USA. PMI Inc. Helen S.. James P. 2nd edition. Jack R. 7th edition. Project Management. 10th edition. •  Lock.. Dennis (2007).. Wiley Publishing Inc.. •  Project Management Institute.