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Jnanabha , Vol. 40, 2010

(Special Issue : Proceedings of 13th Annual Conference of Vijnana Parishad of India and
National Symposium on Recent Developments in Applicable Mathematics held at JIET
Raghogarh (Guna), M.P., India on December 04-06, 2009)

EFFECTS OF MULTI-STENSOSIS AND POST-STENOSIS
DILATIONS IN SMALL ARTERY
By
Sanjeev Kumar and Subhash Chandra
Department of Mathematics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra
Institute of Basic Science, Khandari Campus, Agra-282002, India
Email: sanjeevibs@yahoo.co.in & schandra.ibs@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In this paper emphasis given on the study for the effects of multi-stenosis
and post stenosis dilations in small artery. The resistance to flow ratio is to
examine for different values of yield stress, viscosity and flux. A consideration for
fully developed one dimensional non-Newtonian fluid known as Herschel Bulkley
fluid for through a single vessel is made. The vessel is assumed to be straight, rigid
and axisymmetric while radius of vessel is varying. The numerical value of the
resistance flow ratio is varied from the maximum radii of the two abnormal
segments to minimum radii. In this work we consider the radius of the artery as
0.45 mm, the length of the artery as 45 mm and the length of the artery at
abnormalities as 15 mm. The value of  is vary from 0.525 to 3.06 and the
magnitude of resistance-to-flow ratio is greatest for yield stress and least for flux.
Increasing the yield stress 0 and decreasing the viscosity  or flux Q the
resistance ratio become close to unity.
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 92C10; Secondary 92C35,
76Z05
Keywords: Stenosis, dilatation, yield stress, viscosity, resistance flow, flux &
Herschel Bulkley fluid.
1. Introduction. Stenosis is common throughout the circulatory system
but they are of particular importance in the coronary arteries. The development

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of stenosis in an artery can have serious consequence and it can be disturbed the
normal functioning of the circulatory system. In particular, it may lead to (i)
increase resistance to flow (ii) tissue damage leading to post stensois dilatation
(iii) increase danger of complete occlusion (iv) abnormal cellular growth in the
vicinity of the stenosis which increases the intensity of the stenosis.
In to the direction of blood flow research the previous works done for
theoretical prediction of reduction in flow (Ang and Mazumdar, [1]) is less
invasive and less expensive with compression of direct measurement of blood
velocities. Decreases in velocity and increases in hematocratics will affect the
diameter of the tube and increases its width for which shear- dependent viscosity
is significant (Haynes and Burton, [6]). Under previous condition, blood separates
into a peripheral zone of plasma and cell rich core (Bugliarello and Sevillo, [2])
and the velocity profile resembles and blunted parabola owing to the plug flow of
the core zone. Peak shear rate in the coronary arteries are 756s-1, with a standard
deviation of 250s-1 (Kajiya et. al [7]). The post-stenotic dilatation of the coronary
arteries can occur at high flow rate (Tandon et. al [9]). Although study of
Herschel Bulkley flow (Pincombe and Mazumdar, [8]) through vessels with post-
stenotic dilatation has been conducted. In 1996 Tu et. al also worked in the same
direction considering the flow of non-Newtonian fluid through arterial stenosis.
Here we emphasize our self to find out the resistance ratio for fully
developed Herschel Bulkley fluid flow through a multiple stenoses and post
2. Mathematical Modeling. Consider the case of a Herschel-Bulkley
fluid representing blood flowing through a straight, rigid and axisymmetric
artery, containing multiple abnormal segments. The constitutive equation for the
fluid is:
    1 / n 
dw  0
for   0 
e  f ()        ... (1)
dr  
0 for   0 
Where w is the axial velocity,  is the shear stress, 0 is the yield stress and
 is the viscosity of the blood.

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Figure (1) Schematic diagram of arterial segment under consideration
The equation describing the geometry of the wall, as seen in figure is:
 i  2 i  
R 1   1  cos ( Z   i   for  i  Z i 
  2 R0  i 2  ... (2)
R0  
1 otherwise 
Where i is the maximum distance at ith abnormal segment projects into the
lumen and negative for the aneurysms while positive is for stenosis. R0 is the
radius of normal artery while R is the radius of artery at dilatation.  i is the
length of the ith abnormal segment and i is the radius from the origin to the start
of the ith abnormal segment and is given by:
i
i   (d j   j )   i ... (3)
j 1

And i is the distance from the origin to the end of the ith abnormal segment.
i
i   ( d j   j ) ...(4)
j 1

Where di is the distance separating the start of the the ith abnormal segment from
the end of the (i-1) th or from the start of the segment if i=1.
Mathematical formulation and solution: If we consider the velocity parallel to
the axis and it is the function of r only along with the expectation that the velocity is
maximum on the axis and zero on the surface so that only non zero component of the
strain rate is
 dw 
e    … (5)
 dr 

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While for the non-Newtonian fluid
 dw 
 = f (e)  f    ...(6)
 dr 
And the expression for  is
1
  Pr When  is finite at r= 0 …(7)
2
1  dw 
From equation (6) and (7) we have Pr  f    … (8)
2  dr 
R
Now the flux Q through the artery may be written as Q   2rw dr Using
0

integration by parts and applying the no-slip boundary condition w=0 when r=R
R  dw 
to this equation, then the flux will be Q    r 2    dr
0
 dr 
R
And from equation (1) we have Q    r 2 f () dr …(9)
0

Now from equation (8) the expressions for  and R, the stress at the wall (i.e.
r dP R dP
when r=R) are:    and  R   where P is pressure. ... (10)
2 dZ 2 dZ
Rearranging the equation (9) along with equation (10), yields the flux in
the form of a Robinowitsch equation.
R 2 R2 R3 R
Q   f () d ; Q  2 f () d ... (11)
0 R 3R 0

Now substitute the value of f() from equation (1) in the equation (11), we get,
1
 1
1
R3 R    0  n R3  R   0  n 1
1  2R (4 n  1)02
Q 3
R 0
2 
  
 d 
1 / n  
n1   R
R 
n
 
 3 n  1 (2 n  1) (3 n  1)

1
3 
2 n  R 0 0  1
2 2 n 2 0 n 1
    ( 1) n
 …(12)
( n  1)(2 n  1) (3 n  1) ( n  1)  ( n  1)(2 n  1) (3 n  1) 3R 


0
When   1 , it is possible to approximate equation (12) (after ignoring the first
R
term) as

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1
3
R3  R 1
2 2 n2  0 n
1
Q ( 1) n
 3 …(13)
1/ n
( n  1)(2 n  1) (3 n  1)  R
Solving equation (13) for R and substitution of equation into this solution
and rearrangement of the result, yields
 1 1
3 
1/ 2

dP 
2  (1) 2 n 0
n 2 n
 R3 
     ….. (14)
dZ R   ( n  1)(2 n  1) (3 n  1)  Q1 / n 
  
It should be mentioned that, we had not made the earlier approximation. There
would have appeared an extra small order term under the second radical in
equation (14). Integrating equation (14) with respect to Z with the condition that
P=pi at Z=0 and P=p0 at Z=L yields.
1/ 2
 1 2 n 1
3  1
pi  p0  (1) n 23 n2 0 n  R0 L  R 2
     dZ … (15)
Q  ( n  1)(2 n  1) (3 n  1)  Q31 / n  R0 
0

 
Let
1/ 2
 1 2 n 1
3 
pi  p0  (1) n 2 n 0 n
3 2
 R0
 , f  …(16)
Q  ( n  1)(2 n  1) (3 n  1)  Q3 1 / n
 
Then equation (15) becomes
1/ 2
L  R
 f 
0
 
 R0 
dZ …(17)

It is important to define that where each of these abnormal segments start and end.
The start of each portion is given by i and end is given by i. In the normal portion
of the artery we have R=R0, taking this into account and using the positions of the
start and end of the typical section, allow equations (17) to be re-written as.
 i m i  R 
1/ 2
m 1 i 
   f   dZ     
L

 0 i
 dZ 
 R0 
i
dZ  i 
dZ … (18)
i 1 i 1

Now let
1/ 2
m
 R i
I    dZ …(19)
i
i 1  R0 

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Then equation (19) gives
 m 1 
   f   di  I  …(20)
 i 1 
Now if there is no abnormal segment  N   f L , then equation (20) gives

 m 1  m 1
 f   di  I  d i
  i 1  i 1 I
   … (21)
N f L L L
From equation (2) for R / R0 , it is possible to solve analytically for the
integrals given by equation (19). The solution process we will have a simple form
if we can defining the following variables.
  2    a
a 1  , b ,    Z  i  i  , c  … (22)
2 R0 2 R0 i  2 b
Using equation (22), equation (2) becomes
R / R0  1  b  b cos   a  b cos  ( a  1  b)
and
 0 2
2 0
I (a  b cos )1 / 2 d …(23)

Thus the value of  is obtained by equation (21).
Results and discussion:

Figure (2) Variation in resistance flow ratio with yield stress

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Figure (3) Variation in resistance flow ratio with viscosity

Figure (4) Variation in resistance flow ratio with flux
Conclusion.
 If the value of yield stress increases then the value of resistance to flow ratios
decreased and goes close to unity. Alternation from Newtonian (0=0) to

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physically accurate levels (0=5×10 ) produces a significant change in  .
-3

Only small alternation is produced by the variation of viscosity within realistic
bonds. Large changes in flux do little to  .
 There are no significant variation in  for and =3.45×10-3, 4×10-3 and
4.55×10-3 pa s.
 If the value of flux (Q) increased then the value of resistance to flow ratios (  )
also increased.
 Present model is able to predict the main characteristics of the physiological
flow of blood.
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Phys. Eng. Sci. Med., 18 (1995), 89-94.
2. G. Bugliarello and J. Sevillo, Velocity distribution and other characteristics of study
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3. L. Biyue, Effect of the Reynolds number on the flow pattern in a stenotic right
coronary artery. ICCES, 1 (2007), 35-44.
4. T. Bourhan and M. Ahmad, Magnetic field effect on heat transfer and fluid flow
characteristics of blood flow in multi-stenosis arteries. Heat Mass Transfer, 44 (2008)
297-304.
5. Craig I. Hamilton and J. Mazumdar, Effects of multiple stenoses and post stenotic
dilatation on non-Newtonian blood flow in small arteries, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 37
(1999), 595-599.
6. R. Haynes and A. Burton, Role of non-Newtonian behaviour of blood in homodynamic,
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non-stenotic human left anterior descending coronary artery during cardiac surgery,
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8. B. Pincomb and J.N. Mazumdar, The effect of post-stenotic dilatation on the flow of a
blob analogue through stenosed arteries, Math. Comput. Model, 25 (1997), 57-70.
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tube, Int. J. Biomed. Compt., 32 (1993) 62-78.
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