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Jnanabha , Vol. 40, 2010

(Special Issue : Proceedings of 13th Annual Conference of Vijnana Parishad of India and

National Symposium on Recent Developments in Applicable Mathematics held at JIET

Raghogarh (Guna), M.P., India on December 04-06, 2009)

**EFFECTS OF MULTI-STENSOSIS AND POST-STENOSIS
**

DILATIONS IN SMALL ARTERY

By

Sanjeev Kumar and Subhash Chandra

Department of Mathematics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra

Institute of Basic Science, Khandari Campus, Agra-282002, India

Email: sanjeevibs@yahoo.co.in & schandra.ibs@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper emphasis given on the study for the effects of multi-stenosis

and post stenosis dilations in small artery. The resistance to flow ratio is to

examine for different values of yield stress, viscosity and flux. A consideration for

fully developed one dimensional non-Newtonian fluid known as Herschel Bulkley

fluid for through a single vessel is made. The vessel is assumed to be straight, rigid

and axisymmetric while radius of vessel is varying. The numerical value of the

resistance flow ratio is varied from the maximum radii of the two abnormal

segments to minimum radii. In this work we consider the radius of the artery as

0.45 mm, the length of the artery as 45 mm and the length of the artery at

abnormalities as 15 mm. The value of is vary from 0.525 to 3.06 and the

magnitude of resistance-to-flow ratio is greatest for yield stress and least for flux.

Increasing the yield stress 0 and decreasing the viscosity or flux Q the

resistance ratio become close to unity.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 92C10; Secondary 92C35,

76Z05

Keywords: Stenosis, dilatation, yield stress, viscosity, resistance flow, flux &

Herschel Bulkley fluid.

1. Introduction. Stenosis is common throughout the circulatory system

but they are of particular importance in the coronary arteries. The development

97

98

of stenosis in an artery can have serious consequence and it can be disturbed the

normal functioning of the circulatory system. In particular, it may lead to (i)

increase resistance to flow (ii) tissue damage leading to post stensois dilatation

(iii) increase danger of complete occlusion (iv) abnormal cellular growth in the

vicinity of the stenosis which increases the intensity of the stenosis.

In to the direction of blood flow research the previous works done for

theoretical prediction of reduction in flow (Ang and Mazumdar, [1]) is less

invasive and less expensive with compression of direct measurement of blood

velocities. Decreases in velocity and increases in hematocratics will affect the

diameter of the tube and increases its width for which shear- dependent viscosity

is significant (Haynes and Burton, [6]). Under previous condition, blood separates

into a peripheral zone of plasma and cell rich core (Bugliarello and Sevillo, [2])

and the velocity profile resembles and blunted parabola owing to the plug flow of

the core zone. Peak shear rate in the coronary arteries are 756s-1, with a standard

deviation of 250s-1 (Kajiya et. al [7]). The post-stenotic dilatation of the coronary

arteries can occur at high flow rate (Tandon et. al [9]). Although study of

Herschel Bulkley flow (Pincombe and Mazumdar, [8]) through vessels with post-

stenotic dilatation has been conducted. In 1996 Tu et. al also worked in the same

direction considering the flow of non-Newtonian fluid through arterial stenosis.

Here we emphasize our self to find out the resistance ratio for fully

developed Herschel Bulkley fluid flow through a multiple stenoses and post

dilatation in arterial radius.

2. Mathematical Modeling. Consider the case of a Herschel-Bulkley

fluid representing blood flowing through a straight, rigid and axisymmetric

artery, containing multiple abnormal segments. The constitutive equation for the

fluid is:

1 / n

dw 0

for 0

e f () ... (1)

dr

0 for 0

Where w is the axial velocity, is the shear stress, 0 is the yield stress and

is the viscosity of the blood.

98

99

**Figure (1) Schematic diagram of arterial segment under consideration
**

The equation describing the geometry of the wall, as seen in figure is:

i 2 i

R 1 1 cos ( Z i for i Z i

2 R0 i 2 ... (2)

R0

1 otherwise

Where i is the maximum distance at ith abnormal segment projects into the

lumen and negative for the aneurysms while positive is for stenosis. R0 is the

radius of normal artery while R is the radius of artery at dilatation. i is the

length of the ith abnormal segment and i is the radius from the origin to the start

of the ith abnormal segment and is given by:

i

i (d j j ) i ... (3)

j 1

**And i is the distance from the origin to the end of the ith abnormal segment.
**

i

i ( d j j ) ...(4)

j 1

**Where di is the distance separating the start of the the ith abnormal segment from
**

the end of the (i-1) th or from the start of the segment if i=1.

Mathematical formulation and solution: If we consider the velocity parallel to

the axis and it is the function of r only along with the expectation that the velocity is

maximum on the axis and zero on the surface so that only non zero component of the

strain rate is

dw

e … (5)

dr

99

100

While for the non-Newtonian fluid

dw

= f (e) f ...(6)

dr

And the expression for is

1

Pr When is finite at r= 0 …(7)

2

1 dw

From equation (6) and (7) we have Pr f … (8)

2 dr

R

Now the flux Q through the artery may be written as Q 2rw dr Using

0

**integration by parts and applying the no-slip boundary condition w=0 when r=R
**

R dw

to this equation, then the flux will be Q r 2 dr

0

dr

R

And from equation (1) we have Q r 2 f () dr …(9)

0

**Now from equation (8) the expressions for and R, the stress at the wall (i.e.
**

r dP R dP

when r=R) are: and R where P is pressure. ... (10)

2 dZ 2 dZ

Rearranging the equation (9) along with equation (10), yields the flux in

the form of a Robinowitsch equation.

R 2 R2 R3 R

Q f () d ; Q 2 f () d ... (11)

0 R 3R 0

**Now substitute the value of f() from equation (1) in the equation (11), we get,
**

1

1

1

R3 R 0 n R3 R 0 n 1

1 2R (4 n 1)02

Q 3

R 0

2

d

1 / n

n1 R

R

n

3 n 1 (2 n 1) (3 n 1)

1

3

2 n R 0 0 1

2 2 n 2 0 n 1

( 1) n

…(12)

( n 1)(2 n 1) (3 n 1) ( n 1) ( n 1)(2 n 1) (3 n 1) 3R

0

When 1 , it is possible to approximate equation (12) (after ignoring the first

R

term) as

100

101

1

3

R3 R 1

2 2 n2 0 n

1

Q ( 1) n

3 …(13)

1/ n

( n 1)(2 n 1) (3 n 1) R

Solving equation (13) for R and substitution of equation into this solution

and rearrangement of the result, yields

1 1

3

1/ 2

dP

2 (1) 2 n 0

n 2 n

R3

….. (14)

dZ R ( n 1)(2 n 1) (3 n 1) Q1 / n

It should be mentioned that, we had not made the earlier approximation. There

would have appeared an extra small order term under the second radical in

equation (14). Integrating equation (14) with respect to Z with the condition that

P=pi at Z=0 and P=p0 at Z=L yields.

1/ 2

1 2 n 1

3 1

pi p0 (1) n 23 n2 0 n R0 L R 2

dZ … (15)

Q ( n 1)(2 n 1) (3 n 1) Q31 / n R0

0

Let

1/ 2

1 2 n 1

3

pi p0 (1) n 2 n 0 n

3 2

R0

, f …(16)

Q ( n 1)(2 n 1) (3 n 1) Q3 1 / n

Then equation (15) becomes

1/ 2

L R

f

0

R0

dZ …(17)

**It is important to define that where each of these abnormal segments start and end.
**

The start of each portion is given by i and end is given by i. In the normal portion

of the artery we have R=R0, taking this into account and using the positions of the

start and end of the typical section, allow equations (17) to be re-written as.

i m i R

1/ 2

m 1 i

f dZ

L

0 i

dZ

R0

i

dZ i

dZ … (18)

i 1 i 1

Now let

1/ 2

m

R i

I dZ …(19)

i

i 1 R0

101

102

Then equation (19) gives

m 1

f di I …(20)

i 1

Now if there is no abnormal segment N f L , then equation (20) gives

m 1 m 1

f di I d i

i 1 i 1 I

… (21)

N f L L L

From equation (2) for R / R0 , it is possible to solve analytically for the

integrals given by equation (19). The solution process we will have a simple form

if we can defining the following variables.

2 a

a 1 , b , Z i i , c … (22)

2 R0 2 R0 i 2 b

Using equation (22), equation (2) becomes

R / R0 1 b b cos a b cos ( a 1 b)

and

0 2

2 0

I (a b cos )1 / 2 d …(23)

**Thus the value of is obtained by equation (21).
**

Results and discussion:

Figure (2) Variation in resistance flow ratio with yield stress

102

103

Figure (3) Variation in resistance flow ratio with viscosity

**Figure (4) Variation in resistance flow ratio with flux
**

Conclusion.

If the value of yield stress increases then the value of resistance to flow ratios

decreased and goes close to unity. Alternation from Newtonian (0=0) to

103

104

physically accurate levels (0=5×10 ) produces a significant change in .

-3

**Only small alternation is produced by the variation of viscosity within realistic
**

bonds. Large changes in flux do little to .

There are no significant variation in for and =3.45×10-3, 4×10-3 and

4.55×10-3 pa s.

If the value of flux (Q) increased then the value of resistance to flow ratios ( )

also increased.

Present model is able to predict the main characteristics of the physiological

flow of blood.

REFERENCES

1. K.C. Ang and J.N. Mazumdar, Mathematical modeling of triple arterial stenosis. Aust.

Phys. Eng. Sci. Med., 18 (1995), 89-94.

2. G. Bugliarello and J. Sevillo, Velocity distribution and other characteristics of study

and pulsatile blood flow in finite glass tube. Biorhelogy, 7 (1970), 85-107.

3. L. Biyue, Effect of the Reynolds number on the flow pattern in a stenotic right

coronary artery. ICCES, 1 (2007), 35-44.

4. T. Bourhan and M. Ahmad, Magnetic field effect on heat transfer and fluid flow

characteristics of blood flow in multi-stenosis arteries. Heat Mass Transfer, 44 (2008)

297-304.

5. Craig I. Hamilton and J. Mazumdar, Effects of multiple stenoses and post stenotic

dilatation on non-Newtonian blood flow in small arteries, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 37

(1999), 595-599.

6. R. Haynes and A. Burton, Role of non-Newtonian behaviour of blood in homodynamic,

Am. J. Physiol., 197 (1959), 943-950.

7. F. Kajiya, T. Fujiwara and M. Zamir, Velocity profiles and phase flow patterns in the

non-stenotic human left anterior descending coronary artery during cardiac surgery,

Cardiovasc. Res., 27 (1993), 845-85.

8. B. Pincomb and J.N. Mazumdar, The effect of post-stenotic dilatation on the flow of a

blob analogue through stenosed arteries, Math. Comput. Model, 25 (1997), 57-70.

9. P.N. Tondon, U.V. Rana and V.K. Katiyar, A model for blood flow through stenotic

tube, Int. J. Biomed. Compt., 32 (1993) 62-78.

10. C.Y. Wang and J.B. Bassingthwaighte; Blood flow in small curved tubes, Journal of

Biomechanical Engg., 125 (2003), 910-913.

104

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