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)

**Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristic of Blood Flow in Multi-
**

Stenosis Artery with Effect of Magnetic Field.

**Sanjeev Kumar, Subhash Chandra
**

DBRAU,Agra, India-282002.

Abstract

**This paper deals with a mathematical model describing the heat transfer and fluid flow
**

characteristic of blood flow in multi-stenosis arteries in the presence of magnetic field. Here

introducing a mathematical model of the multi-stenosis inside the arteries through a finite

difference scheme in terms of vorticity- stream function along with their boundary conditions.

An observation is made about the degree of stenosis and the effect of magnetic field on

Nusselt number and wall shear stress, and observed that magnetic field modifies the flow

pattern’s and increase heat transfer rate. The hardness of the stenosis affects the wall shear

stress characteristic significantly and hence local Nusselt number is going to increases

because magnetic field torque will be increasing the thermal boundary layer thickness and

temperature gradient. It is here assumed that the surface roughness is exponentially and the

maximum height of the roughness is very small compared with the radius of the unconstricted

tube.

Key words: Stenosis, Magnetic field, Shear stress, Vorticity-stream function, Blood flow,

Joule effect and Electromagnetic force.

1. Introduction

**Blood circulation is considered to play an important role in heat transfer between living
**

tissues. A study of blood flow through mild stenosis arterial segment has been investigated by

Sinha and Singh [1984]. Blood flow characteristics through an artery in the presence of multi-

stenosis, has been observed by Chakravarty and Sannigrah [1999]. The flow patterns like

shear rates, pressure drop for Newtonian flow was computed. The effect of catheterization and

its movement on various physiologically important flow characteristics like pressure drop,

impedance, and wall stress were studied by Sarkar and Jayarman [1998] for different ranges

of cather size and frequency parameter. They found that the mean pressure drop increases as

the geometrical factor of the cather increased for any frequency parameter when the cather is

at rest. Das and Batra [1995] worked on the steady, fully developed and laminar flow of blood

in an arteriocleotic blood vessel with rigid permeable wall. A computational model of blood

flow in curved arteries with varying angles and different degrees of occlusion has also been

designed by Yao and Ang (2000). The effect of elastic property of the wall on flow char-

acteristics through arterial stenosis was studied by Moayeri and Zendehbudi [2003]. The

properties of human blood as well as blood vessels and the magnetic field effect have been the

subjects of interest for several researchers.

2. Mathematical Model

**Model is formulated under the following assumptions.
**

Consider the blood flow through an artery with multi-stenosis. The artery is of constant

radius. The density and viscosity of the fluid (blood) are assumed to be constant. The blood

flowing through artery is assumed to be homogeneous and Newtonian. It is assumed that the

arterial segment to be a rigid cylindrical tube with multi-stenosis and the Navier-Stokes

equations in cylindrical coordinates are introducing and solving using the vorticity stream

186

function approach.

The effect of Hartmann number on shear wall as well as Nusselt number is investigated, in

addition to that the effect of degree of stenosis on flow and heat characteristics are also

studied. Now we have to design a mathematical model under above defined assumption.

The solution field involves the solution of both Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid

flow and Maxwell' s relations for the magnetic field. Maxwell' s relations are presented as

follows:

The current density J is expressed by: J = σ (E + V × B ) (1)

Where E is the electrical field intensity, is the electrical conductivity and V is the velocity

vector. In the momentum equation, the electromagnetic force, Fm is included and it is defined

as

Fm = j × B |Fm|= − σ V B 2 (2)

In the energy equation, Wem the work done by the electromagnetic force (Joule effect) is

included and is expressed by :

J. J

Wem = Fm . V = ( J × B). V =− =σ B2 u2 (3)

σ

The geometry of the multi-stenosis in the

arterial lumen may be described

mathematically as

7.4

− x

R(x) = 1 + α ( e 5

− 1)

**Figure (1) Geometry of arterial segment
**

with multi-stenosis

The Navier-Stokes and the energy equations may be written as

Equation of continuity

∂u v ∂v (4)

+ + =0

∂x r ∂r

Momentum equation in axial direction

∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂ 2 u 1 ∂u ∂ 2 u σB 2u (5)

u +v =− + ν + + −

∂x ∂r ρ ∂x ∂r 2 r ∂r ∂x 2 ρ

Momentum equation in radial direction

∂v ∂v 1 ∂P ∂ 2 v 1 ∂v v ∂2v (6)

u +v =− +ν + − 2 +

∂x ∂r ρ ∂r ∂r 2

r ∂r r ∂x 2

Energy equation

∂T ∂T ∂ 2 T 1 ∂T ∂ 2 T (7)

ρCP u +v =K + + + σB 2u 2

∂x ∂r ∂r 2 r ∂r ∂x 2

where u, v and T are the axial velocity, radial velocity and temperature, respectively.

Now introducing the following non-dimensional parameters

x r u v p T − Tw

X= , rˆ = U= V= , P= θ=

R0 R0 U0 U0 ρ U 02 T∞ − T w

Then the governing equations in non-dimensional form will be as follows:

∂U V ∂V (8)

+ + =0

∂X rˆ ∂ rˆ

187

∂U ∂U ∂P 2 ∂ 2U 1 ∂U ∂ 2U 1 (9)

U + V =− + + + − H 2U

∂X ∂ rˆ ∂X Re ∂ rˆ 2

rˆ ∂ rˆ ∂X 2 2

∂V ∂V ∂P 2 ∂ 2 V 1 ∂V V ∂2V (10)

U +V =− + + − +

∂X ∂ rˆ ∂ rˆ R e ∂ rˆ 2 rˆ ∂ rˆ rˆ 2 ∂ X 2

∂θ ∂θ 2 ∂ 2θ 1 ∂θ ∂ 2θ 1 (11)

V +U = + + + [ E H 2 ]U 2

ˆ

∂r ∂X Pr R e ∂rˆ 2

rˆ ∂ rˆ ∂X 2 2

where H is the Hartman number, Re is the Reynolds number E is the Eckert number and Pr is

the Prandtl number.

The two dimensional problem is now formulated in terms of vorticity- stream function model

as follows. Vorticity function (12)

Stream function equation

ω =

∂V

−

∂U (Vorticity function) (13)

∂X ∂ rˆ

∂ 2 ϕ ∂ 2 ϕ 1 ∂ϕ

and elliptic Poisson equation is, −ωrˆ = + 2− = ∇2 ϕ (14)

∂X 2

∂rˆ rˆ ∂rˆ

rˆ using this transformation, the Poisson and momentum equations can be

ˆ =

η(X , r)

R(X)

expressed in terms of the new coordinate (X, ) as follows

Stream function equation:

2 2

∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ ∂η ∂η ∂η ∂ 2 ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ 2 η 1 ∂η (15)

−ω rˆ = + + +2 + −

∂ X 2 ∂η 2 ∂X ∂ rˆ ∂ X ∂η ∂ X ∂η ∂ X 2 rˆ ∂ rˆ

Vorticity transport equation:

1 ∂ϕ ∂ω 1 ∂ϕ ∂ω ∂ω −η ∂R ω ∂ϕ

− + 2 + + 2 2

Rη ∂X ∂rˆ R η ∂η ∂X ∂η R ∂X R η ∂X

2 2

2 ∂2ω ∂2ω ∂η ∂η ∂η ∂2ω ∂ω ∂2η 1∂η ω 1 ∂ 1 ∂ϕ (16)

= + 2 + +2 + − − 2 2 + H2

Re ∂X ∂η ∂X

2

∂rˆ ∂X∂X∂η ∂η ∂X rˆ ∂rˆ R η

2

2 ∂rˆ R2η ∂η

Energy equation:

2 2

1 ∂ϕ ∂θ 1 ∂ϕ ∂θ ∂θ −η ∂R 2 ∂2θ ∂2θ ∂η ∂η

− + 2 + = + × +

R η ∂X ∂rˆ R η ∂η ∂X ∂η R ∂X P r R e ∂X 2 ∂η2 ∂X ∂rˆ

2

∂η ∂ 2 θ ∂θ ∂ 2 η 1 ∂η 1 1 ∂ϕ (17)

+2 + − + EH2

∂ X ∂ X ∂η ∂η ∂ X 2 rˆ ∂ rˆ 2 R η

4 2

∂η

The boundary conditions associated with this physical problem are

2

rˆ rˆ 4 ∂U 1 ∂R ∂2ϕ

ϕ = rˆ U d rˆ → ϕ|x = 0 = rˆ 2 − ω|x= 0 = − = 4 rˆ ϕ|η= 1 = − 3 1 +

0 2 ˆ

∂r R ∂X ∂η2

T − Tw ∂θ

θ|x= 0 = = 1, θ|η= 1 = 0, |η= 0 = 0 (ω=ϕ= 0)|η= 0 (18)

T∞ − Tw ∂η

3. Result and discussion

**The numerical accuracy of the solution is validated by obtaining the numerical results for the
**

case of laminar fully developed flow inside tube and compared to those reported by Panton

[1984], as shown through the Table 1. In addition, the local shear stress skin coefficient, Cf

with different grid number is shown. The results agree well with grid number of (110 x 110).

188

Table1 Comparison of numerically obtained data for the different values of Re and grids with

published works

Reynolds Grid

number 90 x 90 100 x 100 110 x 110 Panton [1984]

200 0.0762 0.0777 0.0791 0.0800

400 0.0429 0.0418 0.0410 0.0400

600 0.0279 0.027 1 0.0268 0.0266

800 0.0211 0.0207 0.0204 0.02

1,000 0.0167 0.0166 0.0164 0.016

H = 1 .0 = 0 .4

H = 2 .0 = 0 .3

H = 3 .0 = 0 .2

H = 5 .0 = 0 .1

4 .0 4 .0

3 .5 3 .5

3 .0 3 .0

2 .5 2 .5

U U 2 .0

2 .0

1 .5 1 .5

1 .0 1 .0

0 .5 0 .5

0 0

0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7

0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7

r r

**Figure (2) Dimensionless axial velocity Figure (4) Severity of the multi-stenosis on
**

profile at X = 10, Re = 250 and = 0.4 for dimensionless axial velocity profile at X = 10,

different values of H. H = 1 and Re = 250

H = 1 .0 H = 1 .0

H = 2 .0 H = 2 .0

H = 3 .0 H = 3 .0

H = 5 .0 H = 5 .0

0 .0 1 5 0 .8

0 .7

0 .6

0 .0 1 0 .5

V Cf 0 .4

0 .3

0 .0 0 5

0 .2

0 .1

0

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7

X

r

**Figure (3) Dimensionless radial velocity Figure (5) Shear stress coefficient versus X for
**

profile at X = 10, Re = 250 and = 0.4 for different values of H when Re = 500 and =

different values of H. 0.4

189

4. Conclusion

**The irregularity of artery geometry is a frequent effect of vascular disease. Such constrictions
**

disturb normal blood flow through the vessel. The results show the effect of magnetic field

applied, in some typical regimes, modify the flow pattern, even beyond the constriction

region, increase the wall shear stress at the stenosis, and increase the rate of heat transfer

across the wall. Present model is able to predict the main characteristics of the physiological

flow of blood

References

**1. Biyue L. (2007) “Effect of the Reynolds number on the flow pattern in a stenotic right
**

coronary artery.” ICCES, 1, 35-44.

2. Chakravarty S. and Sannigrah A. (1999) “A non-linear mathematical model of blood flow

in a constricted artety experiencing back acceleration.” Math. Camp. Lit. Model, 2, 9, 9-

25.

3. Das B. and Batra R. L. (1995) “Non-Newtonian flow of blood in atherosclerotic blood

vessel with rigid permeable walls.” J. Theor. Biol., l75, l-ll.

4. Maoyeri M. S. and Zendhebhuhi G. R. (2003) “Effect of elastic property of the wall on

flow characterstics through arterial stenosis.” J. Biomech., 36, 525-535.

5. Sarkar A. and Jayaraman G. (1998) “Correction to flow rate pressure drop in coronary

angioplasty, streaming effect.” J Biomech 31(9), 781-791.

6. Sinha P. and Sinha C. (1984) “Effects of couple stress on the blood flow through an artery

with mild stenosis.” Biorheology 21, 303-315.

7. Yao H., Ang K. C., Yea J. H. and Sim E. K. (2000) “Modling of blood flow through

curved stenosed arteries.” J Med. Eng. T. 24, 163-168.

190

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