Indian Journal of Biomechanics: Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009

)

Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristic of Blood Flow in Multi-
Stenosis Artery with Effect of Magnetic Field.

Sanjeev Kumar, Subhash Chandra
DBRAU,Agra, India-282002.

Abstract

This paper deals with a mathematical model describing the heat transfer and fluid flow
characteristic of blood flow in multi-stenosis arteries in the presence of magnetic field. Here
introducing a mathematical model of the multi-stenosis inside the arteries through a finite
difference scheme in terms of vorticity- stream function along with their boundary conditions.
An observation is made about the degree of stenosis and the effect of magnetic field on
Nusselt number and wall shear stress, and observed that magnetic field modifies the flow
pattern’s and increase heat transfer rate. The hardness of the stenosis affects the wall shear
stress characteristic significantly and hence local Nusselt number is going to increases
because magnetic field torque will be increasing the thermal boundary layer thickness and
temperature gradient. It is here assumed that the surface roughness is exponentially and the
maximum height of the roughness is very small compared with the radius of the unconstricted
tube.
Key words: Stenosis, Magnetic field, Shear stress, Vorticity-stream function, Blood flow,
Joule effect and Electromagnetic force.

1. Introduction

Blood circulation is considered to play an important role in heat transfer between living
tissues. A study of blood flow through mild stenosis arterial segment has been investigated by
Sinha and Singh [1984]. Blood flow characteristics through an artery in the presence of multi-
stenosis, has been observed by Chakravarty and Sannigrah [1999]. The flow patterns like
shear rates, pressure drop for Newtonian flow was computed. The effect of catheterization and
its movement on various physiologically important flow characteristics like pressure drop,
impedance, and wall stress were studied by Sarkar and Jayarman [1998] for different ranges
of cather size and frequency parameter. They found that the mean pressure drop increases as
the geometrical factor of the cather increased for any frequency parameter when the cather is
at rest. Das and Batra [1995] worked on the steady, fully developed and laminar flow of blood
in an arteriocleotic blood vessel with rigid permeable wall. A computational model of blood
flow in curved arteries with varying angles and different degrees of occlusion has also been
designed by Yao and Ang (2000). The effect of elastic property of the wall on flow char-
acteristics through arterial stenosis was studied by Moayeri and Zendehbudi [2003]. The
properties of human blood as well as blood vessels and the magnetic field effect have been the
subjects of interest for several researchers.

2. Mathematical Model

Model is formulated under the following assumptions.
Consider the blood flow through an artery with multi-stenosis. The artery is of constant
radius. The density and viscosity of the fluid (blood) are assumed to be constant. The blood
flowing through artery is assumed to be homogeneous and Newtonian. It is assumed that the
arterial segment to be a rigid cylindrical tube with multi-stenosis and the Navier-Stokes
equations in cylindrical coordinates are introducing and solving using the vorticity stream

186
function approach.
The effect of Hartmann number on shear wall as well as Nusselt number is investigated, in
addition to that the effect of degree of stenosis on flow and heat characteristics are also
studied. Now we have to design a mathematical model under above defined assumption.
The solution field involves the solution of both Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid
flow and Maxwell' s relations for the magnetic field. Maxwell' s relations are presented as
follows:
The current density J is expressed by: J = σ (E + V × B ) (1)
Where E is the electrical field intensity, is the electrical conductivity and V is the velocity
vector. In the momentum equation, the electromagnetic force, Fm is included and it is defined
as
Fm = j × B |Fm|= − σ V B 2 (2)
In the energy equation, Wem the work done by the electromagnetic force (Joule effect) is
included and is expressed by :
J. J
Wem = Fm . V = ( J × B). V =− =σ B2 u2 (3)
σ
The geometry of the multi-stenosis in the
arterial lumen may be described
mathematically as

7.4
− x
R(x) = 1 + α ( e 5
− 1)

Figure (1) Geometry of arterial segment
with multi-stenosis
The Navier-Stokes and the energy equations may be written as
Equation of continuity
∂u v ∂v (4)
+ + =0
∂x r ∂r
Momentum equation in axial direction
∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂ 2 u 1 ∂u ∂ 2 u σB 2u (5)
u +v =− + ν + + −
∂x ∂r ρ ∂x ∂r 2 r ∂r ∂x 2 ρ
Momentum equation in radial direction
∂v ∂v 1 ∂P ∂ 2 v 1 ∂v v ∂2v (6)
u +v =− +ν + − 2 +
∂x ∂r ρ ∂r ∂r 2
r ∂r r ∂x 2
Energy equation
∂T ∂T ∂ 2 T 1 ∂T ∂ 2 T (7)
ρCP u +v =K + + + σB 2u 2
∂x ∂r ∂r 2 r ∂r ∂x 2
where u, v and T are the axial velocity, radial velocity and temperature, respectively.
Now introducing the following non-dimensional parameters
x r u v p T − Tw
X= , rˆ = U= V= , P= θ=
R0 R0 U0 U0 ρ U 02 T∞ − T w
Then the governing equations in non-dimensional form will be as follows:
∂U V ∂V (8)
+ + =0
∂X rˆ ∂ rˆ

187
∂U ∂U ∂P 2 ∂ 2U 1 ∂U ∂ 2U 1 (9)
U + V =− + + + − H 2U
∂X ∂ rˆ ∂X Re ∂ rˆ 2
rˆ ∂ rˆ ∂X 2 2
∂V ∂V ∂P 2 ∂ 2 V 1 ∂V V ∂2V (10)
U +V =− + + − +
∂X ∂ rˆ ∂ rˆ R e ∂ rˆ 2 rˆ ∂ rˆ rˆ 2 ∂ X 2
∂θ ∂θ 2 ∂ 2θ 1 ∂θ ∂ 2θ 1 (11)
V +U = + + + [ E H 2 ]U 2
ˆ
∂r ∂X Pr R e ∂rˆ 2
rˆ ∂ rˆ ∂X 2 2
where H is the Hartman number, Re is the Reynolds number E is the Eckert number and Pr is
the Prandtl number.
The two dimensional problem is now formulated in terms of vorticity- stream function model
as follows. Vorticity function (12)
Stream function equation
ω =
∂V

∂U (Vorticity function) (13)
∂X ∂ rˆ
∂ 2 ϕ ∂ 2 ϕ 1 ∂ϕ
and elliptic Poisson equation is, −ωrˆ = + 2− = ∇2 ϕ (14)
∂X 2
∂rˆ rˆ ∂rˆ
rˆ using this transformation, the Poisson and momentum equations can be
ˆ =
η(X , r)
R(X)
expressed in terms of the new coordinate (X, ) as follows
Stream function equation:
2 2
∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ ∂η ∂η ∂η ∂ 2 ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ 2 η 1 ∂η (15)
−ω rˆ = + + +2 + −
∂ X 2 ∂η 2 ∂X ∂ rˆ ∂ X ∂η ∂ X ∂η ∂ X 2 rˆ ∂ rˆ
Vorticity transport equation:
1 ∂ϕ ∂ω 1 ∂ϕ ∂ω ∂ω −η ∂R ω ∂ϕ
− + 2 + + 2 2
Rη ∂X ∂rˆ R η ∂η ∂X ∂η R ∂X R η ∂X
2 2
2 ∂2ω ∂2ω ∂η ∂η ∂η ∂2ω ∂ω ∂2η 1∂η ω 1 ∂ 1 ∂ϕ (16)
= + 2 + +2 + − − 2 2 + H2
Re ∂X ∂η ∂X
2
∂rˆ ∂X∂X∂η ∂η ∂X rˆ ∂rˆ R η
2
2 ∂rˆ R2η ∂η
Energy equation:
2 2
1 ∂ϕ ∂θ 1 ∂ϕ ∂θ ∂θ −η ∂R 2 ∂2θ ∂2θ ∂η ∂η
− + 2 + = + × +
R η ∂X ∂rˆ R η ∂η ∂X ∂η R ∂X P r R e ∂X 2 ∂η2 ∂X ∂rˆ
2
∂η ∂ 2 θ ∂θ ∂ 2 η 1 ∂η 1 1 ∂ϕ (17)
+2 + − + EH2
∂ X ∂ X ∂η ∂η ∂ X 2 rˆ ∂ rˆ 2 R η
4 2
∂η
The boundary conditions associated with this physical problem are
2
rˆ rˆ 4 ∂U 1 ∂R ∂2ϕ
ϕ = rˆ U d rˆ → ϕ|x = 0 = rˆ 2 − ω|x= 0 = − = 4 rˆ ϕ|η= 1 = − 3 1 +
0 2 ˆ
∂r R ∂X ∂η2
T − Tw ∂θ
θ|x= 0 = = 1, θ|η= 1 = 0, |η= 0 = 0 (ω=ϕ= 0)|η= 0 (18)
T∞ − Tw ∂η

3. Result and discussion

The numerical accuracy of the solution is validated by obtaining the numerical results for the
case of laminar fully developed flow inside tube and compared to those reported by Panton
[1984], as shown through the Table 1. In addition, the local shear stress skin coefficient, Cf
with different grid number is shown. The results agree well with grid number of (110 x 110).

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Table1 Comparison of numerically obtained data for the different values of Re and grids with
published works

Reynolds Grid
number 90 x 90 100 x 100 110 x 110 Panton [1984]
200 0.0762 0.0777 0.0791 0.0800
400 0.0429 0.0418 0.0410 0.0400
600 0.0279 0.027 1 0.0268 0.0266
800 0.0211 0.0207 0.0204 0.02
1,000 0.0167 0.0166 0.0164 0.016

H = 1 .0 = 0 .4
H = 2 .0 = 0 .3
H = 3 .0 = 0 .2
H = 5 .0 = 0 .1

4 .0 4 .0

3 .5 3 .5

3 .0 3 .0

2 .5 2 .5

U U 2 .0
2 .0

1 .5 1 .5

1 .0 1 .0

0 .5 0 .5

0 0
0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7
0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7

r r

Figure (2) Dimensionless axial velocity Figure (4) Severity of the multi-stenosis on
profile at X = 10, Re = 250 and = 0.4 for dimensionless axial velocity profile at X = 10,
different values of H. H = 1 and Re = 250
H = 1 .0 H = 1 .0
H = 2 .0 H = 2 .0
H = 3 .0 H = 3 .0
H = 5 .0 H = 5 .0

0 .0 1 5 0 .8

0 .7

0 .6

0 .0 1 0 .5

V Cf 0 .4

0 .3
0 .0 0 5
0 .2

0 .1

0
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7
X
r

Figure (3) Dimensionless radial velocity Figure (5) Shear stress coefficient versus X for
profile at X = 10, Re = 250 and = 0.4 for different values of H when Re = 500 and =
different values of H. 0.4

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4. Conclusion

The irregularity of artery geometry is a frequent effect of vascular disease. Such constrictions
disturb normal blood flow through the vessel. The results show the effect of magnetic field
applied, in some typical regimes, modify the flow pattern, even beyond the constriction
region, increase the wall shear stress at the stenosis, and increase the rate of heat transfer
across the wall. Present model is able to predict the main characteristics of the physiological
flow of blood

References

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