Aklan State University

School of Arts and Sciences
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Banga, Aklan

In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Subject
Nursing Research 1
Research Title Topic: The Effect of Discrimination in the Self-worth of an LGBT

Submitted by:
Bontia, Lourenz S.

Submitted to:
Mrs. Carol Joy Palma-Remaneses, RN, MHSS

December 6, 2016


The variation of this effect between countries closely corresponded to the ranking of attitudes toward homosexuality assessed in survey studies. Although there is some literature that describes the experiences of gay men in the Philippines. Findings indicate that religion. the results indicated that homosexuals are less likely to receive help than are heterosexuals.x/full 2 Nadal. Five domains emerged: (1) Religious influence on sexual and gender identity. from APA PsycNet: http://psycnet. The current exploratory study utilized focus groups (N = 24) with lesbian and gay Filipino Americans on both the East and West coasts of the United States. gay. I argue. and (5) Variant experiences between Filipino subgroups.. Helping Behavior as a Subtle Measure of Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men: German Data and a Comparison Across Countries1 Abstract To unobtrusively assess attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. when actual helping behavior was used as an attitude index. The results are compared to studies using the same paradigm in Switzerland. I develop the concept “purple-collar labor” to describe how transgender workers—specifically trans women—are clustered. there is a dearth of psychological research that examines experiences of lesbian. and family expectations influenced one’s ability to accept one’s sexuality and that lesbian and gay Filipino Americans experience several psychological stressors as a result of balancing their multiple identities. from Wiley Online Library: http://onlinelibrary. however.2006. J. September). 2016. In this way. E. & Corpus. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 41 transgender call center employees in the Philippines. bisexual. Retrieved December 4. (4) Process of negotiating multiple identities. (2015). M. and are often used synonymously to label transgender people.sagepub. dispersed. women showed only marginally less negative attitudes toward gay persons than men. Across studies. K. 2016. Great Britain. the terms “tomboy” and “bakla” describe lesbian women and gay men. 2. These patterned inclusions. from Sage Journals: http://gas. the wrong-number technique was used in a field experiment in Germany.com/content/29/2/169. Implications for Asian American psychology and clinical practice are discussed. “Tomboys” and “baklas”: Experiences of lesbian and gay Filipino Americans. 3. & Banse. (2013. “Tomboys” and “baklas”: Experiences of lesbian and gay Filipino Americans2 Abstract In the Philippines. This approach gives a realistic picture of intercultural differences in social behavior against lesbians and gay men. and segregated in the workplace and how their patterned locations in social organizational structures serve a particular value-producing function.00025.1111/j.apa.. Data show how the affective labor of transgender 1 Gabriel. 2016.com/doi/10. as well as the heterosexism they face in their families and in their ethnic communities. culture. Transgender Workers and Queer Value at Global Call Centers in the Philippines.1. Participants described the types of racism they experience in the LGBT community. Retrieved December 4. L. and transgender (LGBT) Filipino Americans in the U.short 1 . Helping Behavior as a Subtle Measure of Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men: German Data and a Comparison Across Countries. the study examines the production and extraction of queer value and the folding of trans women’s gendered performances into commercial exchange. Purple-Collar Labor: Transgender Workers and Queer Value at Global Call Centers in the Philippines3 Abstract This article examines new patterns of workplace inequality that emerge as transgender people are incorporated into the global labor market. Contrary to survey studies. (2006). and the United States. (3) Experiences with race.0021- 9029. U.org/journals/aap/4/3/166/ 3 David.S. Retrieved December 4. (2) Family influence on gender and sexual identity. come with explicit and implicit interactional expectations about how “trans” should be put to work in the expansion and accumulation of global capital.wiley. R.

com/doi/abs/10. R. Strong to Stronger: Mainstreaming Sexual and Gender Minorities into Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines4 Abstract Disaster risk reduction (DRR). 2016.1080/19452829. for further development of these groups are discussed. This study of transgender employment experiences opens new lines of inquiry for understanding gender inequalities at work.610783 6 Tan. while eliciting different responses from the two organizations.1080/08039410. who are predominantly salaried professionals. Capably Queer: Exploring the Intersections of Queerness and Poverty in the Urban Philippines. from Taylor & Francis Online: http://www. and boost employee morale. I suggest that a better understanding of the capabilities that low-income queer individuals are allowed or encouraged to exercise—and the roles that are denied to them—can be used to beneficially integrate those populations into development praxis. Capably Queer: Exploring the Intersections of Queerness and Poverty in the Urban Philippines5 Abstract Despite growing attention to identity and intersectionality in the field of development. the Philippines Abstract This article describes and analyzes the development of two gay men's organizations in Metro Manila. 2016. has traditionally been reluctant to acknowledge and accept the issue of gendered and sexual diversity in its mainstream policy design and practice. From Deviant to Bakla. (2008). and by drawing upon a recent DRR project in a rural area of the Philippines that is at high risk of natural hazards.employees is used to help foster productivity. Tita Aida and Emerging Communities of Gay Men: Two Case Studies from Metro Manila. ease workplace tensions. the Philippines.1300/J041v03n03_03 2 . Retrieved December 4. there is still a dearth of empirical scholarship exploring the ways that being sexually non- normative—or queer—shapes the experience of living in poverty in the Global South.tandfonline. Retrieved December 4. 4 Manalastas. and argue that being queer profoundly affects the ways that low- income Filipinos experience poverty. from Taylor & Francis Online: http://www. 6. (2011).com/doi/abs/10.tandfonline. from Taylor & Francis Online: http://www.952330 5 Thoreson. the Philippines. Recent forays into mainstreaming gender and sexual minorities into DRR have. 5. (2014). The members. This debate article explores the notion of ‘queering development’ in DRR. however.2011. M. represent an emerging subculture among "men who have sex with men. E. 2016. I use the ‘missing dimensions of poverty’ framework developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative to explore the ways that queerness and poverty inflect each other in the urban Philippines.tandfonline. behavioral change. J. highlighted the crucial role that these minorities play in bigger development aspirations of participation and empowerment. is described as pivotal in challenging the groups' ethos about sexual identity. In this paper.com/doi/abs/10. Tita Aida and Emerging Communities of Gay Men: 6Two Case Studies from Metro Manila. and it builds on scholarship that combines political economy approaches with transgender studies.2014." self-identifying as gay. Strong to Stronger: Mainstreaming Sexual and Gender Minorities into Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines. and indeed development at large. The HIV/AIDS epidemic. 4. we suggest a new framework for conceptualizing and ‘doing’ DRR. From Deviant to Bakla. I examine the pivotal role that queer people play in household and neighborhood economies. and community organizing. The potentials. Retrieved December 4. as well as limitations.

and anxiety. but systematic explanations for this type of occupational segregation remain elusive.61 9 Winter. or transwomen. Retrieved December 4. from Taylor & Francis Online: http://www. norms for family orientedness and for respectful deference to spouse.com/article/10. Concealable Stigma and Occupational Segregation Toward a Theory of Gay and Lesbian Occupations.com/content/early/2015/03/10/0001839215576401.springer. 9.sagepub. as well as implications for clinical practice and public policy. and controlling for potential confounds.6 years) completed a questionnaire covering. Transgendered Women of the Philippines9 Abstract A convenience sample of 147 transgendered females (i. Using several distinct measures of sexual orientation. (2009). This study offers a theory of occupational segregation on the basis of minority sexual orientation and holds implications for the literatures on stigma. Retrieved December 4. but even after accounting for this tendency. urban location. 2016. The authors used the Filipino Adherence and Conflict with Expectations of Masculinity Questionnaire to assess 7 male role dimensions. C. Filipino masculinity and psychological distress: A preliminary comparison between gay and heterosexual men.2009.. from Sage Journals: http://asq.1080/15532730802182185 3 . Gay men are more likely to be in female-majority occupations than are heterosexual men. 7 Knight. R. Retrieved December 4. and regional and demographic differences. Filipino masculinity and psychological distress: A preliminary comparison between gay and heterosexual men8 Abstract This article reports on a study that compared Filipino gay (N = 43) and heterosexual (N = 767) men on measures of male role attitudes and behavior.tandfonline.1525/srsp. sexual preferences. Analyses indicated that Filipino gay men conformed less to. or both. common to both gay men and lesbians is a propensity to concentrate in occupations that provide task independence or require social perceptiveness. we find support for these predictions across two nationally representative surveys in the United States for the period 2008–2010. (2015). transition histories. Transgendered Women of the Philippines. male-to-female (MtF) transgenders.com/doi/abs/10. and lesbians are more represented in male-majority occupations than are heterosexual women. sexual and gender identities. Concealable Stigma and Occupational Segregation Toward a Theory of Gay and Lesbian Occupations7 Abstract Numerous scholars have noted the disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian workers in certain occupations. inter alia. 8.abstract 8 Rubio. and elders. 2016. and labor markets. S. Gay men’s anxiety was associated with less conformity to the male role prescription to be strong. depression. Drawing on the literatures on concealable stigma and stigma management. as well as the Mehrabian Trait Anxiety and Depression Scales and the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale.7. experience of social attitudes towards transgenderism. The discussion explores the divergent attitudes of gay and heterosexual men regarding family life.e. we develop a theoretical framework predicting that gay men and lesbians will concentrate in occupations that provide a high degree of task independence or require a high level of social perceptiveness. Participants (mean 23. occupations.3.6. such as education. or both. 2016. as well as beliefs about the origins of their own transgenderism. (2010). transgendered members of a community often called bakla in the Philippines) was studied. from SpringerLink: http://link. Heterosexual men’s depression was associated with less conformity to the role prescription to be family oriented. and experienced greater conflict with. women. demographics.

(2014). This article critically analyses the work of the Human Rights Committee over a ten-year period to determine what it has done to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Participants most commonly cited inborn biology or God's Will as a factor underlying their own transgenderism. 10 Gerber. The UN Human Rights Committee and LGBT Rights: What is it Doing? What Could it be Doing? Retrieved December 4. reveals that while progress is being made by this body of experts. An examination of the Committee’s concluding observations.ngu019. An overwhelming majority reported a sexual attraction to men. from Oxford Journals: http://hrlr. Participants' family backgrounds revealed a significantly higher frequency of older sisters than younger ones. many anticipated that they would nevertheless be presenting as male later in their lives. Though most were at the time of the study using hormones. the level of unemployment in our sample was comparatively high. gay. and (b) when they had earlier begun to transition. The UN Human Rights Committee and LGBT Rights: What is it Doing? What Could it be Doing?10 Abstract The United Nations Human Rights Committee has been praised as one of the most influential human rights bodies in the world. Individuals in many parts of the world face severe human rights violations because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Very few cited social influences.org/content/early/2014/07/21/hrlr. the vast majority of these exclusively so. While none of the participants aspired to a male identity. In many countries. surgery was relatively uncommon. and sex reassignment surgery rare. its track record for the protection of the rights of lesbian. though this was more common (a) by fathers. 10.Despite a level of education that was high in relation to the national average. and LGBT people are still subjected to widespread violence and legally sanctioned discrimination on a daily basis. men caught engaging in homosexual conduct can be imprisoned or even sentenced to death.oxfordjournals. but overwhelmingly reported early feelings of gender incongruity (i.e. P. Many reported rejection by their parents. and whether there is more it could do to enhance this protection of the LGBT rights. Participants differed in the ways in which they self-identified. Participants commonly reported that Filipino society was unfavourably disposed towards the transgendered.. in early or middle childhood) and initial transition in adolescence. General Comments and Views in individual communications. 2016. however.short 4 . bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons has not yet been comprehensively or systematically examined. there is still room for a greater emphasis on the distinct challenges facing LGBT communities for the complete fulfilment of the norms of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.