Should science be limited? Some modern Islamic perspectives. By: De Young,

Gregg, Monist, 00269662, Apr96, Vol. 79, Issue 2


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"Are those who know equal to those who do not know?" (Qur'an xxxix.9).[ 1]
In the Hadith (reports of the teachings of the Prophet Muhammed) similar
sentiments are expressed; "The seeking of knowledge is obligatory upon
every Muslim".[ 2] These demands to attain knowledge have been deeply
inscribed on the hearts of pious Muslims everywhere. Nevertheless, there
have been discussions historically over whether every statement claiming to
be valid knowledge should be accepted under such injunctions. Knowledge of
nature is one such area of concern. Should the results of natural philosophy
or science be accepted uncritically as valid knowledge? This question is
especially acute in cases where the sciences appear to contradict the overt
content of the divine Qur'anic revelation, whose veracity cannot be
questioned. Some have argued that all knowledge is valid, while others have
claimed that some knowledge is not acceptable and should either be
reformulated in an appropriate way or be excluded from the repertoire of the
sincere Muslim.

Although these debates have been renewed in recent years, the problem is
not new. From the time the Islamic religion first came into contact with the
results of classical Greek natural philosophy, there arose discussion about the
relative merit of these two alternative forms of knowledge, each of which
claimed to be true. The monotheism of Islam led many scholars to argue that,
just as Allah is one, so all knowledge must be fundamentally one, despite
seeming contradictions.[ 3] Even today there is a widespread belief in the
Islamic community that there can be no ultimate contradictions between the
knowledge revealed in the Qur'an and the knowledge of Allah derived from
nature around us. This ideology has spawned several attempts to realize such
a unity. On the one hand, those who favor some sort of synthesis between
revelation and reason have often claimed that Allah is knowable through two
'Books': the revealed Qur'an and the "realms of nature and history". The
Qur'an "provides knowledge of the basic values and the unseen truths such
as those of eschatology which are necessary and sufficient for human
welfare."[ 4] The other book provides knowledge of demonstrable facts that
can be known simply through human rationality and do not need a divine
revelation. "Each Book should lead to and confirm the truths of the other."[ 5]
Thus there are attempts to show that results of contemporary science (and

sometimes also engineering) are contained or at least hinted at in the Qur'an. Even if one reads Bucaille as an attempt at Islamic apologetic. Thus. The Bible. if not actually higher than. for its implicit assumptions. To many pious Muslims."[ 6] On the other hand. while this attempt to claim unity (or at least non-contradiction) between modern science and Islamic revelation does not require any sort of limitation on science or . if science continues to evolve. more advanced. On the one hand. Since it seems to argue that the results of modern science are saying the same thing as the teachings of the eternally true revelation of Allah contained in the Qur 'an. since the results of modern science are consistent with the revelation of the Qur'an. more than 900 . but not with the Bible. other modern writers have rejected the assumption of neutrality and have called for a wholesale reconstruction of the systematic study of the natural world so as to incorporate specifically Islamic values. These thinkers suggest the development of an Islamic natural science which will be more consistent with the values taught in Qur'anic revelation. Moore to show that statements in the Qur'an are consistent with the details of modern embryology and the claim by S. In a much sharper critique. however. there are those who go beyond the mere claim of non- contradiction between the results of modern science and the revelation recorded in the Qur'an to argue that knowledge must be placed within an Islamic interpretive framework before it can be truly acceptable to the community of the faithful. Modern Science Exists in the Qur'an Perhaps one of the most influential examples of the search for unity between the content of modern science and Islamic revelation is the widely-read treatise of M. Waqar Ahmad Husaini that "out of a total of about 6. Allah's revealed truth to which that revelation must be submitted for its validation. Such approaches typically ignore the values inherent in humanly generated knowledge or assume that such intellectual products are essentially value-neutral. there are problematic assumptions. it seems most probable that it will someday diverge again from its seeming congruity with the teachings of the Qurtan. this is an unacceptable position. What guarantee have we that this historical process has reached a culmination? Moreover. . pertain to water resources sciences and engineering. This conclusion has come under criticism among some Islamic scholars. Islam must be considered the better. such as the attempt by K. it seems to assert that the veracity and validity of Qur'anic revelation need to be defended. more perfect religion. the Qur'an and Science. Bucaille.226 verses [in the Qur'an]. modern science must itself be eternally true and valid. however.[ 7] Bucaille's main argument is that. But it is widely recognized that modern science is the product of a long and complex historical process. . An even sharper critique arises from the unexpressed assumption that there exists a standard of knowledge on a par with.

in many ways. is a nexus of cause-and-effect relations that mirror the cause-and-effect relation between Allah and his creation. be judged by the tenets of modern science.[ 8] The first assumption. It is this principle that has historically been interpreted to mean that there can be no real contradiction between the results of reason and the truth of revelation. From the unity of creation follows the concept of the unity of knowledge. is increasingly threatened by secularized and individualistic Western values--a threat that is as much cultural as it is political. should be read in the context of his passionate desire to see the Islamic community return to its place of cultural leadership. The first and central dogma here is that Allah is One. this need not be the last word on the . which once led the Mediterranean world. Faruqi's plea for an Islamization of knowledge. must be scrutinized and reformulated so as to become conformable to the clear teachings of Islamic revelation.[ 12] This corollary could be interpreted to mean that Western science as a whole need not be rejected for if some of its conclusions are incompatible with Islamic teaching. that science has reached its peak of development. His proposed solution is two-fold: to teach Muslims the basic tenets of religious belief and to recast existing knowledge (including modern scientific knowledge) into a form compatible with Islamic dogma. The second assumption.[ 9] His argument grows out of a perception that Islamic culture. then. because of the implications of its assumptions. however. "metaphysically and axiologically ultimate. or even can. the opposite of Bucaille's position. This is. that religious dogma should. is rejected by many Muslim thinkers."[ 11] the First Cause and Creator of all that exists. since knowledge is derivable from the one creation whose cause- and-effect relations are ultimately knowable by the human intellect. reflecting this divine oneness.[ 10] The results must. Whereas Bucaille advocated subjecting Islamic revelation to the standards and demands of modern Western science. is unacceptable to science. such as Ismail al-Faruqi's call for an Islamization of all knowledge. including modern scientific knowledge. The creation.scientific research. Faruqi adds an important corollary here: No area of research can be declared completed or closed. Scientific Knowledge Needs an Islamic Interpretation In response to the unacceptable and often Positivistic analysis of Bucaille. it remains unacceptable to the majority of modern scientists. along with all other elements of the Western intellectual tradition. What will this new Islamized knowledge look like? Faruqi does not give many specifics. the Islamic intellectual community has adopted more radical alternatives. Faruqi suggests that modern science. for there is always more to learn in every branch or discipline of knowledge. comply with the central tenets of Islam. as well as to many Muslim thinkers.

[ 15] Thus his call for a continuation of historical Islamic science implies that he favours the use of a framework characterized by gnostic and esoteric principles for the reevaluation of modern science. Initially. Like Faruqi. but each concept will be placed in an interpretive framework consistent with Islamic revelation and interpretation of that topic. he goes on to explain that "the Islamic world must .. says Faruqi. create an Islamic science which ideally would integrate all that is positive in the modern sciences into the Islamic world- view. and develop a new chapter in the history of Islamic science based upon the earlier Islamic tradition whose history and philosophy must be thoroughly resuscitated. With continued work. Disappointingly. This might imply that he takes Western categories to be in some way better or more advantageous than traditional Islamic approaches. begins with study of modern disciplines. Seyyed Hossein Nasr is another proponent of the assimilation of Western science into the Islamic intellectual tradition."[ 14] To Nasr. This Islamized knowledge will apparently be conceptually similar to modern knowledge. then proceeds to the collection of extracts from traditional Islamic writings that parallel these topics in modern science. though.. criticize the premises and conclusions of this [modern] science in the light of the teachings of Islam. we will be in a position to develop a creative synthesis. and . His proposed work plan. . he calls for a thorough understanding of both Western science and Islamic intellectual history. Based on this analysis and the vision of how Islamic culture should progress.. the progressive abandonment of the gnostic and sapiential aspects of traditional science in Western culture is the chief cause for divergence between modern Western science and the more traditional "Islamic" natural philosophy.subject. criticize it in the light of Islamic teachings. followed by analyses of traditional Islamic thought (apparently by reformulating traditional conceptions through applying the categories of Western thought) so that these two traditions can be meaningfully juxtaposed to reveal their similarities and differences. Faruqi seems to imply. than the categories of traditional Islamic scholarship. . To carry out this Islamization of existing disciplines. This emphasis on . Faruqi proposes a work plan. create a paradigm drawn from Islamic sources. this will involve creation of anthologies of traditional Islamic discussions of each topic in the modern disciplines. . . even in the Islamic world."[ 13] Although this sounds like a rejection of modern science in favour of the science developed in the classical-Islamic civilization. Faruqi does not offer specific examples of how it might be effected or what it might look like. arguing that "the Islamic world. or perhaps it simply indicates that the modern categories are better known. all knowledge will eventually approach more closely the revealed truth of the Qur'an. in his discussion of this synthesis. must master modern science.

aspects of traditional natural philosophy. On the one hand. since it implies that the results of science are fundamentally neutral. Islamic. as developed in classical Arabic/Islamic culture.[ 17] From the literature on the Islamization of knowledge. Rather. as a whole.[ 19] His argument begins from the observation that each historical civilization has created a science of nature that is uniquely its own. however. as a human activity. That is.[ 18] It appears from Faruqi's discussion that only what is common to both modern science and Islamic dogma should be accepted and supported. On the other hand. this critique rejects the idea that science. But if the content of science itself is basically neutral. However one chooses to read these calls for synthesis. it argues that modern Western science.gnosis has led some Islamic scholars to criticize Nasr's views. The Ijmali Critique: Science Must Be Led by Islamic Values Proponents of this view suggest that it is not sufficient to remove particular ideas or blocks of information that conflict with specific propositions of Islamic revelation in the Qur'an or even to re-interpret modern science in a manner that does not contradict the teachings of Islam. Although Faruqi does not explicitly discuss the question of whether specific areas of science should be limited or excluded from consideration.[ 16] Others have been unhappy with his implicit assertion that it is the framework of interpretation. it seems clear that they do not call for a wide- ranging rejection of modern Western science but only a creative re- interpretation to bring its intellectual content into conformity with Islamic ideology. we may imagine two situations in which the failure of modern scientific results and traditional Islamic thought to coincide might make such a call desirable. It is only the non-gnostic and secularized interpretations of modern science that need to be reformulated. there seems little reason why any part should be off-limits to the investigator. The sciences themselves must become. rather than the individual bits of knowledge. the former seems to be more often the situation that actually obtains. that must be reformulated. a leading apologist for the Ijmali approach. those specific propositions of modern science that cannot be reconciled with the explicit teachings of Islamic revelation and tradition might be excluded or regarded as ultimately untrue. Ziauddin Sardar. presents one of its fullest intellectual justifications. that do not meet the rigorous intellectual demands of modern science might be set aside or treated as mere historical curiosities. must be abandoned and replaced (at least within the Islamic community) by an Islamic natural science. This is also true of the study of nature during the first . is fundamentally neutral and so can become acceptable when interpreted in conformity with Islamic dogma or when generated within an Islamic polity. at their very core.

with its dogma of neutrality. wish to reject the entire exercise that is often called Western or modern science as inappropriate to the inner values of the Islamic community. The individualism of Western science. "is a social obligation. permeate the science being developed in each culture and give direction to the scientific enterprise. since they underlie all human activity. This earlier Islamic science was founded on an epistemology that "emphasizes the totality of experience and reality and promotes not one but a number of diverse ways of studying nature"." Sardar claims. and to replace it with a human activity whose norms or values are consistent with those found in the Qur'an. The opposite approach will be true of Islamic science. Management of science for the honor and glory of Allah and the development of human society is essential. in which the scientist "keeps his distance from social. is inherently destructive and a threat to the future of mankind.[ 20] This is in contrast to the monolithic character of modern Western science. The Goal of 'Islamic ' Science Since differing world-views will produce differing sets of norms or values for society. And just what are those values? This was the key question investigated at a seminar held in Stockholm under the auspices of the International Federation of Institutes of Advanced Study (a think-tank of modern Islamic thought). Thus there will be a continual limitation on the practice of science itself. ."[ 24] The Ijmali Critique: The Ethical Base of Science and Technology Both the scientist and the community must continually make moral judgements concerning the possible applications of new knowledge. and has traditionally sought to limit.[ 21] Among these. Sardar concludes that Western science. The key factor here is the 'world-view' that is different for classical Islamic and modern Western cultures. These values. he argues. if not throw off altogether.flowering of Arabic/Islamic culture. "The pursuit of science. any attempt to restrain or control scientific researches. Sardar and his cohorts in the Ijmali movement. This will demand that "ethical and moral constraints" be placed on the practice of science. He sees the only hope for the future to lie in a return to the pluralism of early Islamic science with its foundation in Islamic morality."[ 23] The community must support the scientist in his search for knowledge. Science should be "a form of worship which has a spiritual and social function. and the scientist must not ignore the good of the community in his work. Sardar contrasts fifteen "values" that he sees to be inherent in the "world-views" of Islamic culture and modern Western culture. therefore. Sardar points out that the Western scientific community has always called for the absolute freedom of science."[ 22] is in contrast to the community orientation of the scientist under Islamic science. Growing out of these two 'world-views' are different sets of norms or values. political and ideological concerns.

though. for example. man's position as trustee of this natural world that has been created by Allah. it even serves as the foundation for an Islamic natural science. and the unity that binds mankind together with the natural world. In other words. he must. Any other goal is illegitimate. This contemplation centers on the revelation of Allah in the Qur'an. his essential unity is reflected in the underlying unity of the natural world. respect nature and use his talents to develop its potentialities. and science arising from such misdirected efforts must be halted or at least redirected. unity. the natural world is not something completely external to human life and activity. mankind. Ultimately. not just for theology. Man should not set out to dominate nature in that old Baconian sense which has long characterized Western science. the natural outcome of worship (ibadah) is knowledge. It has. categorized knowledge ('ilm) into two basic . Al- Ghazali (d. From the richness of this concept of divine unity comes naturally that of khilafah. then. as well as the resulting consciousness of man's trusteeship (khilafah).[ 25] The most basic of these is tawheed. Many classical Islamic authors have proposed classifications of the sciences--a topic that gains importance from the belief that all knowledge is fundamentally one. Khilafah (trusteeship). The development of the creation is a form of ibadah. not for his selfish self-gratification but as an agent responsible and accountable to Allah for his actions. much like logos in Greek or ratio in Latin. Instead. Following on the postulated unity between mankind and Allah's creation. has direct implications for the development of science and technology. therefore. Man was created to use and develop the creation. the doctrine of the unity of Allah serves as the foundation. The concept resonates far beyond theology. The term traditionally has been used to indicate the absolute oneness of Allah. therefore. Thus. been one of the most frequent topics of discussion among Islamic thinkers. and the creation (tawheed). the worship and contemplation of Allah and his works for which mankind was created. ten fundamental ethical principles were identified as central in dealing with the natural sciences. the unity of mankind. for the sake of his unity with the world. but also for interpersonal ethics and for any consideration of man's relation to his natural environment. 1111). of course. Since Allah created the universe and mankind. or 'ilm. The term 'ilm has been notoriously difficult to define precisely. And the consciousness of this unity (tawheed) seen in nature leads back again to knowledge of the unity of Allah.There. an essential element in Islamic religious thought. Allah destined both man and nature as part of a united creation. but includes also the recognition of unity (tawheed) both in nature and between man and nature. another reflection of the unity of Allah.

In summary. they also decrease human and spiritual resources and generate waste. while those that lead to alienation and loss of social cohesion are to be rejected. Thus. Science and technology that promote the broader public interest (istislah) are acceptable and worthy of development. But how does one evaluate benefit? It is easy to imagine situations where some individuals receive desirable results while society at large or the environment or both suffer degradation as a result of these actions. This destructiveness is not merely that which is physically detrimental. Non-revealed knowledge consists of that which is necessary for the protection and survival of the individual within society (fard-ayan). which is developed through the practice of worship (ibadah). and that which is needed for the preservation and continuation of the Islamic community as a whole (fard-kifayah). tyranny or the breakdown of the unity (tawheed) that should exist between man and nature. Halal actions. between man and his fellowman. or hinders the realization of his trusteeship (khilafah) and worship (ibadah). which serves as the basis for human ethics and morality.types: ( 1) revealed. These latter activities destroy not only environmental resources. says al-Ghazali (and Sardar seems to agree).[ 27] The first juxtaposes haram and halal. and ( 2) non-revealed. Whatever breaks down man's consciousness of unity (tawheed). since not all knowledge is useful to the individual Muslim or to Islamic society. but includes that which undercuts the social and spiritual dimensions of reality as well. any development in science or technology that promotes social justice (adl) is desirable and acceptable. lead to zulm. halal refers to all that is beneficial to man. therefore. society. must be undertaken in the context of and for the promotion of adl. or social justice. Only knowledge which is consistent with the unity between man and nature will be acceptable. on the other hand. the paradigm of Islamic science (and here we use the term in the sense of world-view or guiding principle) developed within the Ijmali critique centers on the religious and moral concepts of unity (tawheed). On the other hand. Haram means literally that which is prohibited by Allah. .[ 26] How. and the natural environment. Haram actions. is haram or blameworthy. then. is illegitimate and should be firmly rejected. al-Ghazali emphasizes that the pursuit of knowledge must be for the benefit of both the individual and society. is knowledge ('ilm) to be evaluated? When is knowledge consistent with worship and when should it be rejected? It was in this context that the Stockholm seminar proposed three pairs of contrasting values to serve as a kind of yardstick for making such ethical judgements. Thus. Any other knowledge. Such science is termed wasteful (dhiya) and is to be firmly rejected. and between man and Allah. The term refers to that which is ultimately destructive of man and his environment. Not all 'ilm is automatically a manifestation of true worship (ibadah).

The rejection of faith in rationality should not be read as a rejection of the value of rationality. This is probably not a mere accidental correlation. Such attacks do really appear to be part and parcel of the new militant Islam that has arisen to challenge the West in the last two decades. since Islamic revelation is . At least these writers present their views with a passion and fervor that is quite foreign to the cool and rationalistic style of modern Western scientific discourse. to many Westerners. In a very real sense they want to reclaim science for the people. It is for this reason that the Ijmali critique claims that modern science is dangerous to the future of civilization and so must be rejected and replaced by a more truly Islamic science of man and nature. is "neutral" science. although increasingly lost in the individualism of the post-Christian nations of Europe and North America.trusteeship (khilafah). Science developed within this paradigm will take the form of knowledge ('ilm) that is approved by Allah (halal). if not beyond.[ 29] This contrast clearly indicates that Sardar sees it necessary to limit the development of what. focuses his critique on the Western "faith in rationality" (a value he identifies with Western science) in contrast to "faith in revelation" (which typifies Islamic science). Sardar. to the extent that these authors claim that science should be limited. promoting both social justice (adl) and public welfare (istislah). These moral principles are not unique to Islam.[ 28] Thus. these Ijmali writers call for a return to an ethics and emphasis on community which is still present in Islam. but only of an over- riding faith in human rationality as the constructor and final arbiter of all truth. The condemnation of a faith in rationality does not mean that the Muslim scientist is either irrational or non-rational. limiting science to the studies that will advance and improve the human community. however. but are found in all monotheistic religions. despite its historic association with Christianity. In response to the moral fragmentation and decay so evident in modern Western society. for example. it is scientific practice that is to be restricted on the basis of moral principles. Rarely do these writers reject scientific activity merely because some scientific results are seen to be in contradiction to the content of revealed propositional truths. These critiques differ from the more typically religious attacks found in non- scientific circles both in the Islamic and Christian traditions. not contribute to its ultimate destruction. Conclusion These discussions of modern Western science display an increasing amount of Islamic fervor as the critiques become progressively sharper. This is not what Sardar and other contemporary critics see happening in modern science as developed in Western culture over the past three centuries. and worship (ibadah).

to be eminently rational. but depending on the paradigm from which the scientist starts. these critiques should be recognized as fairly limited in terms of real influence both within the scientific community and within the Islamic intellectual arena. These are not. There is one reality of which scientists attempt to give an account. in other words. For the Muslim. when one looks at science from different world-view positions. they are fewer than those in English and heavily outnumbered by the more stridently fundamentalistic and anti-intellectual rejection of all knowledge not explicitly derived from divine revelation. the validity of human rationality depends upon the ultimate rationality of Allah. anti-intellectual reactionaries. among Muslim scholars. the Ijmali critique seems to be placing illegitimate restrictions on the practice of science. in that it does not contradict or transcend human rationality. their views should not be dismissed as merely the standard Western criticism of the neutrality viewpoint superficially cloaked in the terminology of Islamic revivalism. R. Thus the pious Muslim judges the results of his reasoning against the absolute source of logical verities. Rather. Alvin Toeffler.considered. Their long association with the Western intellectual tradition has also left its mark on them. at the same time. The primary difference. In an analogous way. then. what appeared to be restrictions now seem to be the essential parameters of correct human actions. On the other hand. have received advanced training (either intellectual or scientific or both) in Western institutions. But. If one begins with the presupposition that science should be autonomous. between the two approaches seems to be that the modern Western scientist emphasizes the autonomy of human reason while the pious Muslim finds that concept repugnant. and the attempts by an independent Western science to go beyond these moral bounds produce a distortion of the created order . Although similar ideas can be found in the vernacular languages of the Islamic community. Sardar develops his version of the Ijmali critique using the concept of "paradigm" drawn from the early work of Thomas Kuhn. have come out of the Islamic intellectual tradition. There are numerous instances when (if the explicit Islamic viewpoint is ignored). in many cases. Fritjof Capra or J. This literature of criticism is primarily presented in English. these authors. just as the human creature depends upon Allah for its existence. On the other hand. if one begins with the assumption that all human activity is a sort of worship of Allah and thus should promote the welfare of the creation of Allah. the accounts may differ dramatically. apparently intended for a Western or Westernized audience (since English seems to be one of the major languages of scientific communication). and many still hold senior academic appointments in these Western universities. the Ijmali critique sounds very much like Theodore Roszak. Ravetz. namely the Qur'an. one sees something quite different.

65. 39.] Quotations from the Qur'an are taken from Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthal. This work has been reprinted in Ziauddin Sardar. See also S. Verses from the Glorious Koran and the Facts of Modern Science (Ankara. The Touch of Midas: Science. 1985). NOTES [1. see M. Arguments for Islamic Science (Aligarh. Turkey: Turkish Foundation for Religion. [6. Another oft-quoted hadith enjoins Muslims to "Seek knowledge." in Sardar. For a critique of Husaini's approach. [2. A similar approach is found in the five small volumes of Halak Nurbaki. [3. pp. 18. Ali Kettani. England: Manchester University Press. Zaki Kirmani.] S. pp. see M. 1984). "Science and Technology in Islam: The Underlying Value System. Moore. IX (1980). 1-9.] Maulana Mohammed Ali. [no date]). Pakistan: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishart Islam. pp. 42-45. Waqar Husaini. pp. p. p. 1989). Waqar Husaini. I (1983). for example. Islamic Science. rather than between the actual knowledge or content of modern science and the revealed truth of the Qur'an. Husain Sadar." The Muslim Scientist. 1982). pp. M. 1986). A Manual of Hadith (Lahore." Proceedings of the Seventh Saudi Medical Meeting (Riyadh.). 17 and S. "Imitative-innovative .] If there does exist a contradiction. p. Islamic Science and Public Policies: Lessons from History of Science (Aligarh. [4. An attempt to elaborate the contrast between the values inherent in modern Western science and Islam is found in Ziauddin Sardar. "Science and Islam: Is there a Conflict?" in Ziauddin Sardar (ed. 15-25 and Mahmood Abu Saud. even in China. [no date]).] Keith L. The Ijmali critique. Waqar Husaini. p." Seyyed Hossein Nasr. India: Centre for Studies on Science. Touch of Midas. Values and Environment in Islam and the West (Manchester. Haq. The Meaning of the Glorious Koran (New York: New American Library.and yield a form of knowledge that is deviant and destructive. 1985). 1968). Islamic Science. India: Centre for Studies on Science. Explorations in Islamic Science (London: Mansell. Science and Civilization in Islam (New York: New American Library. "Science and Islamic Resurgence. 51-58. "The Quran and Modern Cosmologies. p." Science and Technology in the Islamic World. "Highlights of Human Embryology in the Quran and Hadith. 47-52. See. is not an attack on Western science merely because it is Western. pp. but because it is an expression of an outlook and approach to the world that is not acceptable to the pious Muslim. therefore.] S. 17. For a concise statement of Islamic values relevant to science. [5. it is often claimed that it lies between the values of modern science and the values of Islam. 66-67.

see his Islamic Science: An Illustrated History (London: World of Islam Festival Trust. 131-37.) was published in 1995. for example. In addition to his Science and Civilization in Islam. IN: American Trust Publications. 1981). An Early Crescent: The Future of Knowledge and the Environment (London: Mansell. See also the suggestions by the contributors to A. A supplement to vol. Pakistan: Institute of Policy Studies. 30-37. "Science and Traditional Values in Islamic Society. III (1987). Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz University. "The Role of Faith and Islamic Ethics in the Teaching of Natural and Applied Sciences. H. p. and M. Islamization of Knowledge. The Social and Natural Sciences (Jeddah. 1983). vol. [14. [11. pp. Ismail R. vol. 2 (1979).) An Annotated Bibliography of Islamic Science (Teheran." p. 1976). and S. 1984). India: Centre for Studies on Science. S. p. al-Faruqi (eds. [13. Ahmad (eds. Vol. p. 3.] The most extensive critique of Bucaille's approach has been made by Ziauddin Sardar. O. Waqar Husaini. 3 (1991). Quest for New Science (Aligarh. . Nasr has devoted great efforts to the history of science in Islamic culture. The Bible. 11 (1967).] Faruqi. the Quran and Science (Indianapolis. C. Iran: Cultural Studies and Research Institute). N. [8. pp.). Explorations. R.Assimilation: A Critique of Waqar A. Islamization of Knowledge.] Nasr. See also Hamid Ahmad Khan. 133.] See. W. Abdus Sami and Muslim Sajjad. pp. I (1975). Teaching Islamic Sciences and Engineering (Kuala Lumpur. pp.] Maurice Bucaille. Nasseef and 1. Husaini's Scheme of Contemporary Islamic S & T Rebirth. E. al-Faruqi." Zygon. Malaysia: [no publisher indicated]. 238-39.] Faruqi.] Some specific suggestions have been offered by other scholars. as is also the case with Abdullah Omar Nesseef." MAAS Journal of Islamic Science." Islamic Quarterly. "How to Identify 'Islamic Science'.). 28. 41-70. Nasr. 1985) describes his attempts to create "Islamic" courses in hydrological science and engineering. Faruqi's emphasis is educational. [12.] Seyyed Hossein Nasr.). 1978). 22." in Ziauddin Sardar (ed. [10. Kheirandish (ed. Islamization of Knowledge: General Principles and Workplan (Aligarth. pp. Encounter of Man and Nature (London: Allen & Unwin. See also the comments of Ismail R. 1978). XXVII (1982). Planning Curricula for Natural Sciences: The Islamic Perspective (Islamabad. India: Centre for Studies on Science. "Islam and the Problem of Modern Science. 191-201. 1989). 132. [9." in R. [7. "Islam and the Problem of Modern Science. Ahmad and S. Zirrnics (eds. al-Faruqi. and P. 1985). Chittick.

] Sardar. This approach. [18. [16. above). 163: "The first and most important task is to begin the integration of Islamic ideology with the humanities and social sciences. [27.] Sardar. S. Munawar Ahmad Anees. 43-45. pp.] Sardar. See also Ziauddin Sarder. by Zaghloul R. pp. See also Munawar Ahmad Anees. p. [28. [21. pp.] Sardar. 111 (1986). tends to see science as an intellectual discipline. A second task is the integration of Islamic humanities-social sciences with science and technology. p. Explorations. p. Explorations. 42-45. Arguments. Arguments. Arguments. like that of Faruqi. for example. pp. "Why Islam Needs Islamic Science.] Sardar. Divergent Destinies. 59-76.] Sardar.[15.] Ziauddin Sardar. [22. XCIV (1982). Explorations. "Humanistic-Social Sciences Studies in Higher Education. 65-66.3. Touch of Midas. Arguments.). 42." in Sardar. Explorations in Islamic Science (London: Mansell.] Sardar." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. Arguments. 19.] Such an approach was suggested. p. Touch of Midas (cited in n. Islamic and International Perspectives.] Seyyed Hossein Nasr.] Sardar. 40. 7-8. "Islamic Values and Western Science: A Case Study of Reproductive Biology. 42. El-Najjar. India: Centre for Studies on Science. 65. "The Limitations of Science and the Technology of Science from the Islamic Perspective. Arguments. Waqar Ahmad Husaini. 1989).. 43-45. The Revenge of Athena: Science. 91-120. Arguments for Islamic Science (Aligarh. [24. 25-28. [25.] Sardar. [17.] Sardar. [26. p. pp. This work has been reprinted in Ziauddin Sardar.] Sardar.] Cf." Inquiry (Nov. . p. "Islamic Science. pp. 39ff. Exploitation and the Third World (London: Mansell. 1988)." in Ziauddin Sardar (ed. [23." in Nasseef and al- Faruqi (eds. 39-40. 1985). pp.. p." [19. Arguments.. "Laying the Foundation of Islamic Science. p. [20. [29." New Scientist. 242.) Social and Natural Sciences. 1985). 40. Western Science: Common Heritage. not a complex social activity in which ideas are interacting with culture on multiple levels of activity.

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