• This lecture focuses on the surveying
works in hydrographic survey. After this
lecture the student should be able to:-
• Understand definition of hydrographic
• Identify the equipment to conduct survey.

lakes. • The types and purpose of the various branches of hydrographic surveying may be summarized as follows:- . or rivers. harbors. • although nowadays it can well involve the construction of offshore production platforms and associated pipe lines. INTRODUCTION • Hydrographic surveying so far as the civil engineer is concerned conventionally covers the survey work for projects in or adjoining bays.

navigation lights and buoys • for the location of underwater works. by soundings: • for navigation. such as the construction of sea defense works. i. jetties and harbors. for 'tow' out routes for production platforms.e. volumes of underwater excavation etc • in connection with irrigation and land-drainage schemes . (2) Determination of bed depths. INTRODUCTION (2) (1) Measurement of tides for sea coast work. sand bars. and for reducing sounding. for the establishment of a leveling datum. but also including the location of rocks.

• for navigational purposes (4)Measurement of quantity of water. INTRODUCTION (3) (3)Determination of direction of current in connection with: • the location of sewer outfalls and similar works • determination of areas subject to scour and silt. power schemes. and flow of water — in connection with water schemes. . flood control etc.

• The remaining aspects of hydrographic surveying are however of vital concern to the engineer. . with the International Hydrographic Bureau acting as a co-ordinating body. INTRODUCTION (4) • The civil engineer is not concerned with navigation. US Coast and Geodetic Survey. • Work in connection with this being carried out by such bodies as the Admiralty.

rocks etc by normal surveying method.. . • Location of all irregularities • In shoreline. islands. FUNDAMENTAL TASK • Fundamental task is the preparation of a plan or chart showing physical features above and below water and it involves: • Vertical control • A chain of bench marks must be established near the shore line. and these serve for setting and checking tide gauges etc. to which the soundings are referred.

FUNDAMENTAL TASK (2) • Horizontal control • When making soundings of the depth of a river bed or a sea bed the location of the sounding vessel is made by reference to fixed control points on shore. divers working from suitably established control stations. and the accurate establishment of this shore framework is of the utmost importance. . • At this stage. • Determination of bed profile • By sounding and use of the fine wire sweep.

bubble gauges.SURVEY METHODS & INSTRUMENTS • The most commonly used methods and instruments used in hydrographic surveying are listed as follows:- • Water levels:- • Staff gauges. pressure transducers. ultrasonic sensors. float operated gauges. various recorders and shaft encoders. peak level indicators. .

sextant • Discharges:- • Velocity area method with: • Current meters • Floats • Electromagnetic sensors • Acoustic methods. rangefinder. flow measuring structures.SURVEY METHODS & INSTRUMENTS (2) • Positioning:- • GPS. pumping stations .

SURVEY METHODS & INSTRUMENTS (3) • Bed levels:- • Sounding rod and cable. suspended particle sampler etc.) . echo sunder • Sediment transport:- • Various sampler (bedloads sampler.


or tidal gradient. • This involves • the location of tide gauges at intervals over the area to be surveyed • the number employed depends on the accuracy required. . • The difference in tide level. TIDE GAUGES • main attention will be given to vertical control using the land-levelling datum. may be determined by initially setting up gauges at each end of the survey area and comparing simultaneous readings over a complete tidal cycle.

. with painted graduations covering sufficient length to deal with the highest and lowest known tides.• The gauges themselves must allow the following measurements to be made simultaneously • the level of the undisturbed sea • the time at which this level occurs  they may be either visually recording or self- recording.  The simplest of the former type is the staffgauge which is merely a vertical staff about 150 mm broad.


HORIZONTAL CONTROL • This is one of the main operations in hydrographic surveying. . and corresponds to leveling in land surveying. • With each method it is necessary to record not only position but also the time of the particular observation so that the water level above datum. 3 methods of depth measurement are described later. given by the nearest tide gauge.

• Sounding or depth measurement may be carried out by the following methods:- • direct • sounding rods • sounding leads on graduated lines • Indirect • echo sounders .

• This method is limited to depths of about 5 m. In strong currents it is difficult to maintain verticality of long sounding rods. graduated wooden poles may be used to measure the bed depth. . DIRECT METHODS • Sounding rods • Where the currents are not strong.

• Such a line may be incorporated in a sounding machine. . the amount paid out being measured by a friction-driven roller and shown on dials. in which a flexible wire is used. DIRECT METHODS (2) • Sounding lines • For depths from 5 m to some 30 m a lead line • a leaden weight attached to either a stretched and graduated hemp/rope line or a metal chain can be used.

. • typical accuracy of location is of the order of ±1. thereby causing over- measurement. DIRECT METHODS (3) • Care must be taken in swift-flowing water or while the boat is in motion. analogous to the use of a plumb bob at ground level.8 m in depths of 30 m. • Suspended weights may be used to transfer a surface point to a control point at bed level. because the sounding line will not hang vertically.

. INDIRECT METHODS • Echo sounding • depth being measured by timing the interval between the transmission of a pulse of sound energy from the boat and its reception after reflection at the seabed • Transducers which transmit and receive the acoustic signals can be hung over the side • but for permanent installation on larger craft the transmitting and receiving transducers are mounted on opposite sides of the keel.

• Sights taken on detail points that are too far away. • Poor selection of points for contour map. checked and adjusted before beginning to collect details.e. SOURCES OF ERROR • Instrumental errors i. • Control points too far apart and poorly selected for proper coverage of an area. peripheral equipment • Error in reading instruments. • Control not established. .

• Failure to collect mapping details. MISTAKES IN HYDRO SURVEY • Unsatisfactory equipment. • Mistakes in instrument reading. • Too few or too many data taken. .